Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Challenges to Quantify Total Vitamin Activity: How to Combine the Contribution of Diverse Vitamers?
Jakobsen, Jette ; Melse-Boonstra, Alida ; Rychlik, Michael - \ 2019
Current Developments in Nutrition 3 (2019)10. - ISSN 2475-2991
folate - foods - total vitamin activity - vitamer - Vitamin A - Vitamin D

This state-of-the-art review aims to highlight the challenges in quantifying vitamin activity in foods that contain several vitamers of a group, using as examples the fat-soluble vitamins A and D as well as the water-soluble folate. The absorption, metabolism, and physiology of these examples are described along with the current analytical methodology, with an emphasis on approaches to standardization. Moreover, the major food sources for the vitamins are numerated. The article focuses particularly on outlining the so-called SLAMENGHI factors influencing a vitamer's' ability to act as a vitamin, that is, molecular species, linkage, amount, matrix, effectors of absorption, nutrition status, genetics, host-related factors, and the interaction of these. After summarizing the current approaches to estimating the total content of each vitamin group, the review concludes by outlining the research gaps and future perspectives in vitamin analysis. There are no standardized methods for the quantification of the vitamers of vitamin A, vitamin D, and folate in foods. For folate and β-carotene, a difference in vitamer activity between foods and supplements has been confirmed, whereas no difference has been observed for vitamin D. For differences in vitamer activity between provitamin A carotenoids and retinol, and between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin D, international consensus is lacking. The challenges facing each of the specific vitamin communities are the gaps in knowledge about bioaccessibility and bioavailability for each of the various vitamers. The differences between the vitamins make it difficult to formulate a common strategy for assessing the quantitative differences between the vitamers. In the future, optimized stationary digestive models and the more advanced dynamic digestive models combined with in vitro models for bioavailability could more closely resemble in vivo results. New knowledge will enable us to transfer nutrient recommendations into improved dietary advice to increase public health throughout the human life cycle.

Understanding healthful eating from a salutogenic perspective
Swan, E.C. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Maria Koelen; Gerrit Jan Hiddink, co-promotor(en): Laura Bouwman; Noelle Aarts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576957 - 111
extension - foods - health - health education - health foods - health policy - pathogenesis - voorlichting - voedingsmiddelen - gezondheid - gezondheidseducatie - gezondheidsvoedsel - gezondheidsbeleid - pathogenese

The biomedical model of health orients towards pathogenesis, the study of disease origins and causes. The starting point is to understand determinants of ill-health, and health is defined in this model as the absence of disease. When applied to nutrition research, the underlying assumption is that eating is a physiological act, and that eating supports physical health. This risk-oriented, pathogenic view also underlies the search for determinants of unhealthful eating. However, there is such an emphasis on finding risk factors, that the biomedical model overlooks the fact that individuals also possess, or have access to, factors that support healthful eating. As a result, very little is known on factors that enable healthful eating and how these factors can be used to complement current health promotion strategies. The overall aim of this research was to contribute to a better understanding of healthful eating in the context of everyday life. We applied a complementary research framework, the salutogenic model of health, to 1) map factors underlying the development of sense of coherence (SOC); 2) study which of these factors are predictors for healthy eating; 3) unravel how people develop healthful eating practices in everyday life; and 4) integrate this understanding and provide building blocks for nutrition promotion. This research employed a mixed research design, using cross-sectional survey research and in-depth interviews.

Chapter 2 explored the possibilities of applying the salutogenic framework as a complementary approach to biomedical-oriented nutrition research and practice. Nutrition research takes a mostly biomedical-oriented approach to better understand risk factors that determine unhealthful eating. Though relevant for curative medicine, such an approach limits the evidence base for health promotion, which is guided by the principles that personal and social resources are preconditions for health and well-being. Moreover, biomedical-oriented nutrition promotion takes a reductionist approach and studies and enacts upon individual or the external environment separately. Disjointedly studying and enacting upon people and context may be easier, yet it does not do justice to reality and limits the relevance and applicability in everyday eating situations. The salutogenic model of health can provide complementary knowledge on what is already known through biomedical approaches. It guides the study of the dynamics between people and their environment and how health develops from this interaction. Since salutogenesis guides the study of health as an interplay between physical, mental, and social factors, it is more in line with how people experience eating in their everyday lives. In the study described in chapter 3, we examined individual, social, and physical-environmental factors that underlie SOC. Dutch adults (n=781) participated in a cross-sectional study examining the relationship between SOC and a set of individual, social- and physical-environmental factors. The main findings indicate that high SOC was significantly (p<.05) associated with a diverse set of factors including lower doctor oriented multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC); higher satisfaction with weight; higher situational self-efficacy for healthy eating; lower perceived social discouragement for healthy eating; higher perceived levels of neighborhood collective efficacy; and higher perceived neighborhood affordability, accessibility and availability of healthy foods. Non-significant factors (p≥.05) included gender; employment status; education level; cohabitation; BMI; nutrition knowledge; internally oriented MHLC; chance oriented MHLC; and perceived social support for healthy eating. These findings are relevant since they can inform the design of nutrition interventions that target factors that strengthen SOC and provide building blocks for a healthier life orientation. Next, the study in chapter 4 aimed to determine a set of individual, social and physical-environmental factors that predict healthy eating practices in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n=703) that completed the study’s survey and logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p<.05) to the predictive ability of the overall model: being female; cohabitation; a strong sense of coherence; flexible restraint of eating; and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Non-significant factors (p≥.05) in the multivariate logistic regression model included age; employment status; net monthly household income; education level; nutrition knowledge; internally oriented MHLC; perceived social support and discouragement for healthy eating; perceived neighborhood collective efficacy and perceived neighborhood affordability, availability and accessibility of healthy foods. Findings complement what is already known of the factors that relate to poor eating practices. This can provide nutrition promotion with a more comprehensive understanding of the factors that both support and hinder healthy eating practices.

Lastly, the qualitative study described in chapter 5 examined a group of healthy eaters and explored life experiences and coping strategies that foster healthful eating through narrative inquiry. The study was undertaken with seventeen Dutch women (aged 36- 54 years) in the highest quartile of dietary quality index scores. The main findings showed that life experiences gave rise to coping strategies that enabled healthful eating. Childhood experiences included: accustomed to non-processed foods and positive child-parent interactions. Adulthood experiences included: regained stability and structure in stressful life events and forged positive experiences with food. Coping strategies included: organizing eating in an uncomplicated manner; creativity in the kitchen; valuing good food with good company; approaching eating with critical self-awareness; and applying craftiness and fortitude during difficult moments. The findings suggest that there is an interplay between life experiences and coping strategies, and this mechanism underpins healthful eating. Findings offer potential entry points for nutrition promotion to foster healthful eating.

When integrating the research findings in chapter 6, we found that healthful eating results from three composite factors: balance and stability, sense of agency, and sensitivity to the dynamics of everyday life. Firstly, healthful eating results from balance and stability in life, represented by a strong SOC, which characterizes a balanced mixture of giving meaning to eating as an integral part of life, comprehending its importance to oneself, and having competencies to manage its organization in the everyday social context. In the life course, healthful eating also results from the ability to regain stability and structure in stressful life events and craftiness and fortitude during difficult moments. Healthful eating is also rooted in a sense of agency (the feeling of being in control of one’s own actions), with regards to the ability to take action related to eating and life in general. This sense of agency is enabled through flexibility, lower doctor oriented MHLC, applying creativity in the kitchen, and approaching eating with critical self-awareness. Thirdly, healthful eating results from a sensitivity to the dynamics of everyday life, with regards to the how people deal with and navigate through everyday challenging situations by applying individual- and context-bound factors including situational self-efficacy, organizing eating in an uncomplicated manner, valuing good food with good company, and perceiving less social discouragement for healthy eating from family and friends.

Few of the factors associated with SOC and healthful eating converged with risk factors for unhealthful eating found in previous studies, including coping, self-efficacy, restraint of eating, and living situation. Our findings show that the set of factors related to the origins of health substantially diverged from the set of factors related to the origins of disease. From this, we conclude that the “origins of health” differ from the “origins of disease”. Hence, factors that foster and support healthful eating are not simply the reversed version of the factors known to increase the risk of unhealthful food choices. This implies that a different set of factors should inform health promoting strategies, in addition to the factors informing strategies targeting the prevention of diet-related illnesses.

The new insights brought forth in this research provide building blocks for salutogenic-oriented nutrition promotion. 1) Strategies should take a more holistic orientation to food and eating, emphasizing a balance between physical, social, and mental health. Similarly, dietary guidelines should emphasis more than what and how much to eat for physical health and also consider the social and mental dimensions.

2) Nutrition promotion should develop strategies to support a healthful orientation to life. Through strengthening SOC, people can become more capable of coping with any situation or challenge, independent of whatever is happening in life. Nutrition promotion should also strengthen more general health promotion factors including mindfulness, critical thinking, and stress management because these skills support adaptive behavior when life circumstances change. 3) Strategies should facilitate health-directed learning processes through positive interactions and experiences with food. For instance, strategies that support health-directed learning processes should improve food-related procedural knowledge such as food literacy and cooking skills. They should also include socially-embedded learning experiences involving the selection, purchase, and preparation of healthful food; encourage positive parent-child interactions at the dinner table; and recommend that people cook regularly with partners, family or friends.

Inauguratie Atze Jan van der Goot
Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen UR
sustainability - food process engineering - foods - food sciences - food technology - raw materials - meat alternates - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - levensmiddelenproceskunde - voedingsmiddelen - voedselwetenschappen - voedseltechnologie - ruwe grondstoffen - vleesvervangers
Verduurzaming van de productie van onze dagelijkse levensmiddelen vergt een omslag in de industrieel-technologische manier van grondstofgebruik. Granen, aardappels en soja worden nu gescheiden in zo zuiver mogelijke fracties als eiwitten en oliën. Gebruik van de minder zuivere fracties leidt zowel tot minder energie- en grondstoffenverlies als tot gezondere producten. Die gedachten deelt prof.dr. Atze Jan van der Goot donderdag 10 maart in zijn inaugurele rede als persoonlijk hoogleraarschap Duurzame eiwitstructurering aan Wageningen University.
Natural Flavors and Fragrances - Plants and Micro-organisms: Our factories of the future
Hall, Robert - \ 2015
Food Quality

The use of flavors and fragrances based on natural plant substances is a growing trend in the food industry. Food manufacturers will soon have access to a digital library detailing thousands of extracts. In a related development, businesses are using micro-organisms tot synthesize flavors and fragrances. The first flavors and aromas made through fermentation are now on the market.

Agrofood-trein naar China
Guiking, K. ; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)6. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 4 - 4.
china - voedingsmiddelen - bloemen - transport - railtransport - agro-industriële sector - nederland - foods - flowers - rail transport - agroindustrial sector - netherlands
Transport van voedingsmiddelen en bloemen van Nederland naar China kan goed via het spoor, zegt LEI-onderzoeker Xiaoyong Zhang. Ze presenteerde haar bevindingen op 28 oktober aan een handelsdelegatie in China, met toehoorders als de Rotterdamse burgemeester Ahmed Aboutaleb en koning Willem-Alexander.
Tafel van Louise Fresco : tentoonstelling Foodtopia, Boerhaave Museum
Fresco, L.O. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
voedingsmiddelen - algen - aardappelen - appels - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - insecten als voedsel - overgewicht - robots - brood - dierenwelzijn - vis - voedselproductie - foods - algae - potatoes - apples - nutrition labeling - insects as food - overweight - bread - animal welfare - fish - food production
Hoe ziet ons eten er in de toekomst uit? En waar halen we het vandaan? Louise O. Fresco, voorzitter van de Raad van Bestuur van Wageningen UR, is gastconservator van de tentoonstelling FOODTOPIA in museum Boerhaave. Deze filmpjes zijn onderdeel van de tentoonstelling en geeft een kijkje in de toekomst van ons voedsel. Onderwerpen zijn: algen, aardappel, de appel, etiketten, insecten, overgewicht, respect, robots, brood, dierenwelzijn en vis.
Mainstream zoekt maatschappij : maatschappelijke waardering voor toekomstbestendige agrifoodsector : lessen uit Denemarken en Engeland
Bakker, H.C.M. de; Lauwere, C.C. de; Dagevos, H. ; Beekman, V. ; Meeusen, M.J.G. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI 2015-071) - ISBN 9789086157112 - 40
landbouwindustrie - landbouwsector - voedsel - voedingsmiddelen - samenleving - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - denemarken - verenigd koninkrijk - agribusiness - agricultural sector - food - foods - society - corporate social responsibility - denmark - uk
Societal appreciation is important for a future-proof agri-food sector. Connecting, communication, offering insights and activation are key to the Implementation Plan ‘Market and Society’. In this way, the top sector Agri&Food wants to arrive at a stronger public support for the food sector. This report looks beyond our borders at how societal appreciation and connection are shaped.
Geen extra chips na zoutarm eten
Janssen, A.M. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 6 - 6.
voedingsmiddelen - zoutgehalte - smaak - voedingsonderzoek bij de mens - reductie - gezondheidsgevaren - gezondheidsbevordering - behoeftenbevrediging - foods - salinity - taste - human nutrition research - reduction - health hazards - health promotion - need gratification
Minder zout in etenswaren zorgt ervoor dat mensen daadwerkelijk minder zout eten; ze zoeken geen zoutcompensatie op andere momenten van de dag.
Community gardens in urban areas: a critical reflection on the extent to which they strenghten social cohesion and provide alternative food
Veen, E.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Andries Visser; Bettina Bock. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573383 - 265
publieke tuinen - tuinieren - stedelijke gebieden - bewonersparticipatie - buurtactie - stadslandbouw - alternatieve landbouw - volkstuinen - voedingsmiddelen - biologische voedingsmiddelen - sociologie - public gardens - gardening - urban areas - community participation - community action - urban agriculture - alternative farming - allotment gardens - foods - organic foods - sociology
Summary

Introduction

The aims of this thesis are twofold; firstly, it aims to increase the understanding of the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion for those involved; secondly, it aims to gain insight into the importance community gardeners attach to food growing per se, and the extent to which participants perceive community gardens as an alternative to the industrial food system.

I define community gardens as a plot of land in an urban area, cultivated either communally or individually by people from the direct neighbourhood or the wider city, or in which urbanites are involved in other ways than gardening, and to which there is a collective element. Over the last years, community gardens have sprung up in several Dutch cities. Although there are various reasons for an increasing interest in community gardens, there are two that I focus on in this thesis in particular. The first is the assumption made that community gardens stimulate social cohesion in inner-city neighbourhoods, to be seen in the light of the ‘participatory society’. The second is community gardens’ contribution to the availability of locally produced food, in the context of an increased interest in Alternative Food Networks (AFNs).

The Dutch government aims to transform the Dutch welfare state into a participatory society in which citizens take more responsibility for their social and physical environment. This way the government not only hopes to limit public spending, but also wishes to increase social bonding and the self-organisational capacity of society. Community gardens fit the rhetoric around the participatory society, as they are examples of organised residents taking responsibility for their living environment. Moreover, the literature suggests that gardens are physical interventions that may decrease isolation by acting as meeting places. However, both the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion and under what conditions they may do so are unclear, especially as gardens come in various designs, shapes and sizes.

The popularity of community gardens also seems to be related to an overall increasing societal interest in food, and can be discussed in relation to Alternative Food Networks. AFNs are food systems that are different in some way from the mainstream, and are seen as a reaction to consumer concerns about the conventional food system. They are often considered to be dictated by political motivations and injected with a ‘deeper morality’. The category ‘AFN’ is however a heterogeneous category, as is the conventional food system; neither can be easily defined. The degree to which community gardens can be seen as AFNs is therefore unclear. While they do improve the availability of local food and operate outside of the market economy, we do not know how much and how often people eat from their gardens, nor do we know to what extent they are involved in the gardens in order to provide an alternative to the industrial food system. Hence, there is a lack of knowledge about the sense in which community gardens are alternative alternatives.

Research questions

The overall research question of this thesis is:

What is the significance of community gardening in terms of its intention to promote social cohesion as well as its representation as an alternative food system?

This broad question is instructed by the following sub-questions:

Why do people get involved in community gardens? What are their motivations?How, to what extent, and under which conditions does community gardening promote the development of social relations between participants? How do participants value these social effects? To what extent do the diets of community garden participants originate from the gardens in which they are involved? What is the importance of food in community gardens?What is the importance of growing or getting access to alternative food for participants of community gardens? Methodology

An important theoretical lens in this research is the theory of practice. Practices are defined as concrete human activity and include things, bodily doings and sayings. By performing practices people not only draw upon but also feed into structure. Routinisation – of practices, but also of daily life – therefore plays a central role in practice theory. Practice theory allows for an emphasis on practical reality as well as a study of motivations. This focus on how people manage everyday life, and how gardening fits within that, makes it particularly useful for this thesis.

I define social cohesion as the way in which people in a society feel and are connected to each other (De Kam and Needham 2003) and operationalised it by focusing on ‘social contacts, social networks, and social capital’, one of the elements into which social cohesion is often broken up. This element was operationalised as 1) contacts (the width of social cohesion) and 2) mutual help (the depth of social cohesion).

This research has a case study design; I studied four Dutch community gardens over a two-year period of time, and later supplemented these with an additional three cases. As practices consist of both doings and sayings, analysis must be concerned with both practical activity and its representation. I used participant observations to study practical activities, and interviews, questionnaires and document study to examine the representation of these activities.

Findings

Chapters 3 to 7 form the main part of this thesis. They are papers/book chapters that have been submitted to or are published by scientific journals or books. All of them are based on the field work.

In chapter 3 we compare two of the case studies and determine to what extent they can be seen as ‘alternative’. We argue that although reflexive motivations are present, most participants are unwilling to frame their involvement as political, and mundane motivations play an important role in people’s involvement as well. By using the concept of ‘food provisioning practices’ we show that participants of community gardens are often required to be actively involved in the production of their food. This means that participants are both producers and consumers: the gardens show a ‘sliding scale of producership’. This chapter also shows that political statements are not a perfect predictor of actual involvement in community gardening. This finding was one of the main reasons for starting to use the theory of practice, which is the main topic of the next chapter.

In chapter 4 we compare one of my case studies with an urban food growing initiative in New York City. By comparing the internal dynamics of these two cases and their relations with other social practices, we investigate whether different urban food growing initiatives can be seen as variations of one single practice. We also study the question of whether the practice can be seen as emerging. In particular, we take the elements of meaning, competences and material (Shove et al. 2012) into account. We found both similarities and differences between the two cases, with the main difference relating to the meanings practitioners attach to the practice. We conclude, therefore, that it is not fully convincing to see these cases as examples of the same social practice. We also argue that urban food growing may be considered an emerging practice, because it combines various practices, both new and established, under one single heading.

In chapter 5 we use the theory of practice to explore how urban food growing is interwoven with everyday life. We compare four community gardens - two allotments and two cases which we define as AFNs. We found that participants of the allotments are involved in the practice of gardening, while members of the AFNs are involved in the practice of shopping. The gardening practice requires structural engagement, turning it into a routine. The produce is a result of that routine and is easily integrated into daily meals. As AFNs are associated with the practice of shopping, they remain in competition with more convenient food acquisition venues. Eating from these gardens is therefore less easily integrated in daily life; every visit to the garden requires a conscious decision. Hence, whether members are primarily involved in shopping or in growing has an impact on the degree to which they eat urban-grown food. This shows that motivations are embedded in the context and routine of everyday life, and ‘only go so far’.

Chapter 6 concerns the organisational differences between the seven case studies in this thesis and the extent to which these influence the enhancement of social cohesion. We study people’s motivations for being involved in the gardens and compare these with the three main organisational differences. This comparison reveals that the gardens can be divided into place-based and interest-based gardens. Place-based gardens are those in which people participate for social reasons – aiming to create social bonds in the neighbourhood. Interest-based gardens are those in which people participate because they enjoy growing vegetables. Nevertheless, all of these gardens contribute to the development of social cohesion. Moreover, while participants who are motivated by the social aspects of gardening show a higher level of appreciation for them, these social aspects also bring added value for those participants who are motivated primarily by growing vegetables.

In chapter 7 we present a garden that exemplifies that gardens may encompass not only one, but indeed several communities, and that rapprochement and separation take place simultaneously. While this garden is an important meeting place, thereby contributing to social cohesion, it harbours two distinct communities. These communities assign others to categories (‘us’ and ‘them’) on the basis of place of residence, thereby strengthening their own social identities. Ownership over the garden is both an outcome and a tool in that struggle. We define the relationship between these two communities as instrumental-rational – referring to roles rather than individuals - which explains why they do not form a larger unity. Nevertheless, the two communities show the potential to develop into a larger imagined garden-community.

Conclusions

This thesis shows that the different organisational set-ups of community gardens reflect gardeners’ different motivations for being involved in these gardens. The gardens studied in this thesis can be defined as either place-based or interest-based; gardens in the first category are focused on the social benefits of gardening, whereas gardens in the second category are focused on gardening and vegetables. Nevertheless, social effects occur in both types of gardens; in all of the gardens studied, participants meet and get to know others and value these contacts. Based on this finding, I conclude that community gardens do indeed enhance social cohesion.

Place-based community gardens specifically have the potential to become important meeting places; they offer the opportunity to work communally towards a common goal, and once established, can develop into neighbourhood spaces to be used for various other shared activities. Most interest-based gardens lack opportunities to develop the social contacts that originated at the garden beyond the borders of the garden. These gardens are often maintained by people who do not live close to the garden or to each other, and those who garden are generally less motivated by social motivations per se. Important to note is that community gardens do not necessarily foster a more inclusive society; they often attract people with relatively similar socio-economic backgrounds and may support not one, but several communities.

Most participants from place-based gardens eat from their gardens only occasionally; others never do so. This type of community garden can therefore hardly be seen as a reaction to the industrialised food system, let alone an attempt to create an alternative food system. Nevertheless, certain aspects of these gardens are in line with the alternative rhetoric. By contrast, most gardeners at interest-based gardens eat a substantial amount of food from their gardens, and to some of them the choice to consume this locally-grown food relates to a lifestyle in which environmental considerations play a role. However, this reflexivity is not expressed in political terms and participants do not see themselves as part of a food movement. Participants who buy rather than grow produce showed the greatest tendency to explain their involvement in political terms, but many of them have difficulty including the produce in their diets on a regular basis. I therefore conclude that community gardens cannot be seen as conscious, ‘alternative’ alternatives to the industrial food system. Nonetheless, the role of food in these gardens is essential, as it is what brings participants together – either because they enjoy gardening or because the activities which are organised there centre around food.

Theoretical contributions

In this thesis I used and aimed to contribute to the theory of practice. Using participant observations to study what people do in reality was particularly useful. It turned research into an embodied activity, enabling me to truly ‘live the practice’, and therefore to understand it from the inside.

Deconstructing the practice of food provisioning into activities such as buying, growing and cooking was helpful in gaining an understanding of how people manage everyday life, and how food acquisitioning fits into their everyday rhythms. It sheds light on how and to what extent people experience the practice of community gardening as a food acquisitioning practice, and to what degree they relate it to other elements of food provisioning such as cooking and eating. The focus on the separate elements of food provisioning practices helped me realise that acquiring food from community gardens represents a different practice to different people; some are engaged in the practice of growing food, others in the practice of shopping for food.

This thesis showed that motivations delineate how the practice ‘works out in practice’; the way in which a practice such as community gardening is given shape attracts people with certain motivations, who, by reproducing that practice, increase the attractiveness of the practice for others with similar motivations. This implies that while community gardening appears to be one practice, it should in fact be interpreted as several distinct practices, such as the practice of food growing or the practice of social gathering. Motivations therefore influence a garden’s benefits and outcomes. This thesis thus highlights that motivations should not be overlooked when studying practices.

Apprehending the motivations of community gardeners is also an important contribution to the literature around AFNs, since it helps us to understand the extent to which urban food production is truly alternative. By studying motivations, this thesis reveals that AFNs do not necessarily represent a deeper morality, or that not all food growing initiatives in the city can be defined as alternative. However, participants of community gardens are often both producers and consumers (there is a ‘sliding scale of producership’); the gardens are thus largely independent from the conventional food system. Moreover, for participants who buy produce, the meaning of the gardens often goes beyond an economic logic (there is a ‘sliding scale of marketness’). Hence, while the gardens studied in this thesis are no alternative alternatives, most of them can be qualified as ‘actually existing alternatives’ (after Jehlicka and Smith 2011).

This thesis showed that even those gardens in which the commodification of food is being challenged do not necessarily represent a deeper morality, which is contrary to what is argued by Watts et al. (2005). This implies that understanding whether or not initiatives resist incorporation into the food system is insufficient to be able to determine whether or not they can be defined as alternative food networks. However, determining whether or not deeper moral reflection is present is not a satisfactory way of defining food networks as alternative either, as this neglects the fact that motivations do not always overlap with practical reality. This suggests that establishing whether a food network can be regarded as alternative requires studying both motivations and practical reality. The thesis also raises the question to what extent the label AFN is still useful. Since it is unclear what ‘alternative’ means exactly, it is also unclear whether a given initiative can be considered alternative. Moreover, the world of food seems too complex to be represented by a dichotomy between alternative and conventional food systems; the gardens presented in this thesis are diverse and carry characteristics of both systems. I therefore suggest considering replacing the term AFN with that of civic food networks, as Renting et al. (2012) advocate.

Biobased packaging catalogue
Molenveld, K. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Bos, H.L. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Groene grondstoffen ) - ISBN 9789462575172 - 129
verpakkingsmaterialen - verpakkingen - voedingsmiddelen - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - bioplastics - catalogi - voedselverpakking - packaging materials - wrappings - foods - biobased materials - biobased economy - bioplastics - catalogues - food packaging
The purpose of the catalogue is to showcase biobased packaging products and provide an overview of commercially available biobased packaging in 2014. This catalogue is a translation of the Dutch version of the biobased packaging catalogue that was launched September 2014. The raw materials, products and services related to biobased packaging products are categorised wherever possible according to their application and described in brief. Some types of packaging consist partly of biobased materials and partly of non-biobased materials due to specific functional requirements. In such cases, the percentage of biobased content is stated. Wherever possible, references to producers and suppliers are given.
Establishing Guidelines to Retain Viability of Probiotics during Spray Drying
Perdana, J.A. ; Fox, M.B. ; Boom, R.M. ; Schutyser, M.A.I. - \ 2015
Drying Technology 33 (2015)13. - ISSN 0737-3937 - p. 1560 - 1569.
lactobacillus-plantarum wcfs1 - inactivation - integration - isotherms - products - sorption - storage - trends - foods - model
We present the application of a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to systematically assess the influence of operational co-current spray drying conditions on residual viability. Moreover, two promising alternative drying strategies for probiotics were evaluated involving encapsulation in a hollow particle and using an ‘ideal-mixed’ dryer system. Finally, a graph was constructed with the model to provide visual guidelines to optimize spray dying for probiotics in terms of viability and drying efficiency.
The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial
Yuan, J.Y.F. ; Smeele, R.J.M. ; Harington, K.D. ; Loon, F.M. van; Wanders, A.J. ; Venn, B.J. - \ 2014
Nutrition Journal 13 (2014). - ISSN 1475-2891
type-2 diabetes-mellitus - desk-top guide - dietary fiber - digestive tolerance - insulin - foods - metaanalysis - glucose - index
Background: Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and sensory effects of adding fiber to bread. Methods: A double-blind pair of randomized crossover trials with a two-week washout in which two fiber-containing breads were compared with control bread. The functional fiber (fruit fiber and FibreMax (TM)) was added to yield 10 g fiber per serve (two slices). Eighty participants (n = 37 fruit fiber and n = 43 FibreMax (TM)) consumed one serve of bread (fiber or control) followed three hours later by a pasta meal consumed ad libitum. Outcome measures included glycemia, satiety, palatability, gastrointestinal wellbeing, visual appeal and subsequent energy intake of the pasta meal. Multivariate regression was undertaken to test for differences between treatment and control for blood glucose, satiety, and cumulative energy intake. Satiety responses were also compared by splitting the data into an immediate response after eating (0-30 min) and a return to hunger analysis (30-180 min). A Wilcoxon sign rank test was used for the first component (0-30 min) and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the second component (30-180 min). Between treatment differences for gastrointestinal wellbeing were tested using Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: Consumption of the fruit fiber bread reduced postprandial glycemia by 35% (95% CI 13 to 51; P = 0.004) and cumulative energy intake by 368 kJ (95% CI 163 to 531; P = 0.001). There was little influence on satiety and the bread was rated as having poor taste and smell whilst generating feelings of nausea in some participants. FibreMax (TM) enriched bread reduced glycemia by 43% (95% CI 17 to 61; P = 0.004) without influence on energy intake or satiety. Apart from a lower visual appeal, the FibreMax (TM) bread was palatable. Neither bread caused gastrointestinal discomfort related to flatulence or bloating. Conclusions: Enriching bread with 10 g of functional fiber per serve is feasible although reformulation is needed to create not only an acceptable bread, but a desirable product.
Sensorial analysis of polysaccharide-gelled protein particle dispersions in relation to lubrication and viscosity properties
Chojnicka-Paszun, A. ; Doussinault, S. ; Jongh, H.H.J. de - \ 2014
Food Research International 56 (2014). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 199 - 210.
oral perception - perceived texture - size - gels - hardness - systems - fluid - foods
In this work polysaccharide-protein gel particle dispersions were studied to identify relation between sensorial responses and their bulk rheological and tribological properties. Sensory analysis was performed by a trained panel using QDA to evaluate distinct mouth-feel perception. Attributes such as powdery, slipperiness, stickiness, and filmy were then correlated to tribological and rheological data of these dispersions. Since thickness perception masked scores of other attributes, all samples were tuned to obtain the same score in sensorial thickness to minimize its influence. The experimental survey presented in this work revealed an interesting set of correlations. The friction coefficient showed a negative correlation with slipperiness, while with other attributes the established relation was below a significant level. Attributes, such as stickiness, sliminess and filmy, correlated with viscosity data of the dispersions within a wide range of shear rates. In addition, a direct relation was found between the powdery attribute and the size of particles present in the dispersions. Moreover, the hardness of these particles seemed to have a strong influence on the steepness of this latter relation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A higher proportion of Iron-Rich leafy vegatables in a typical burkinabe maize meal does not increase the amount of iron absorbed in young women
Cercamondi, C.I. ; Icard-Verniere, C. ; Egli, I. ; Vernay, M. ; Hama, F. ; Brouwer, I.D. - \ 2014
The Journal of Nutrition 144 (2014)9. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1394 - 1400.
phenolic-compounds - stable-isotope - pearl-millet - fortification iron - ascorbic-acid - phytic acid - in-field - absorption - foods - sorghum
Food-to-food fortification can be a promising approach to improve the low dietary iron intake and bioavailability from monotonous diets based on a small number of staple plant foods. In Burkina Faso, the common diet consists of a thick, cereal-based paste consumed with sauces composed of mainly green leaves, such as amaranth and jute leaves. Increasing the quantity of leaves in the sauces substantially increases their iron concentration. To evaluate whether increasing the quantity of leaves in sauces would provide additional bioavailable iron, an iron absorption study in 18 young women was conducted in Zurich, Switzerland. Burkinabe composite test meals consisting of the maize paste tô accompanied by an iron-improved amaranth sauce, an iron-improved jute sauce, or a traditional amaranth sauce were provided as multiple meals twice a day for 2 consecutive days. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Mean fractional iron absorption from maize paste consumed with an iron-improved amaranth sauce (4.9%) did not differ from the same meal consumed with an iron-improved jute sauce (4.9%; P = 0.9), resulting in a similar quantity of total iron absorbed (679 vs. 578 µg; P = 0.3). Mean fractional iron absorption from maize paste accompanied by a traditional amaranth sauce (7.4%) was significantly higher than that from the other 2 meal types (P <0.05), but the quantity of total iron absorbed was similar (591 µg; P = 0.4 and 0.7, respectively). A food-to-food fortification approach based on an increase in leafy vegetables does not provide additional bioavailable iron, presumably due to the high phenolic compound concentration of the leaves tested. Alternative measures, such as adding iron absorption enhancers to the sauces, need to be investigated to improve iron nutrition from Burkinabe maize meals.
Voeding online: een kwestie van medium én mentaliteit
Dagevos, H. - \ 2014
Voeding Nu 16 (2014)9. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 14 - 15.
consumentengedrag - voedselinkoop - internet - supermarkten - voedingsmiddelen - vleeswaren - marketingkanalen - consumer behaviour - food purchasing - supermarkets - foods - meat products - marketing channels
In Nederland kopen we nog betrekkelijk weinig voeding online. De verwachting is dat dit gaat veranderen de komende tijd. De voorlopers bedienen zich niet alleen van moderne media als verkoopkanaal, maar houden er ook een andere mentaliteit op na over ‘het goede eten’. De vlucht die het aanbieden van vleespakketten momenteel neemt, illustreert dit goed.
Een kwestie van smaak - interview met Gerben Messelink en Wouter Verkerke
Messelink, G.J. ; Verkerke, W. - \ 2014
Buitenstebinnen : halfjaarlijkse uitgave van Naktuinbouw December (2014)3. - p. 18 - 19.
tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - groenten - fruit - consumentenpanels - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - spaanse pepers - testen - smaakpanels - smaak - smaakonderzoek - voedingsmiddelen - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - fruit - consumer panels - new crops - chillies - testing - taste panels - taste - taste research - foods
Naast dat consumenten voor groente en fruit kiezen op basis van het uiterlijk, bijvoorbeeld de vorm en de kleur, wordt de smaak van het product steeds belangrijker. Wageningen UR onderzoekt dan ook steeds meer producten (vooral nieuwe rassen) op smaak.
EU Food Law Handbook
Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food Law series no. 9) - ISBN 9789086862467 - 692
voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - internationaal recht - voedselbesmetting - etiketteren - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - voedsel - voer - voedingsmiddelen - europese unie - food legislation - international law - food contamination - labelling - nutrition labeling - food - feeds - foods - european union
The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and practitioners. Their analysis is based on a shared vision of the structure and content of EU food law. The book takes the perspective of food law embedded within general EU law. It highlights the consequences of this combination and provides insights into both substantive and procedural food law. Taking the General Food Law as a focal point, this handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food to consumers through labelling. These rules define requirements on subjects like market authorisation for food additives, novel foods and genetically modified foods, food hygiene, tracking & tracing, withdrawal & recall. The powers of public authorities to enforce food law and to deal with incidents are outlined. Attention is given to the international context (WTO, Codex Alimentarius) as well as to private standards. In addition to the systematic analysis, the book includes selected topics such as nutrition and health policy, special foods, food import requirements, food contact materials, intellectual property and animal feed.
Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation
Sarkar, P.K. ; Nout, M.J.R. - \ 2014
Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press (Fermented Foods and Beverages Series ) - ISBN 9781466565302 - 629
fermentation - fermented foods - foods - food microbiology - food preservation - food products - food quality - beverages - fermentatie - gefermenteerde voedingsmiddelen - voedingsmiddelen - voedselmicrobiologie - voedselbewaring - voedselproducten - voedselkwaliteit - dranken
This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant microorganisms occurring in AFFs. Presented in nine chapters, the book explains how microorganisms or enzymes transform raw ingredients into AFFs. It discusses the safety aspects of AFFs, and considers the challenges associated with the technological aspects in modernizing AFFs. It stresses the significance of the microbiological and biochemical processes in the fermentations, as well as the factors that influence the development of the characteristic microbiota, and the biochemical and organoleptic changes induced by them. It also proposes solutions, discusses the value of AFFs and related dominant microorganisms, and assesses the future of AFFs. The authors highlight commonly known foods and beverages of plant and animal origin. They provide insight into the manufacture, chemical and microbiological composition, processing, and compositional and functional modifications taking place as a result of microbial and enzyme effects. The text examines safety, legislation, traditional and industrialized processes, as well as new product development, and opportunities for developing commodities from Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. In addition, it also assesses the value of food processing by-products, biotechnology, and engineering of solid-state processes, modern chemical and biological analytical approaches to safety, and health and consumer perception.
Prijsvorming van voedsel; Ontwikkelingen van prijzen in acht Nederlandse ketens van versproducten
Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Kornelis, M. ; Galen, M.A. van; Logatcheva, K. ; Horne, P.L.M. van; Smit, A.B. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Smet, A. de; Zelst, N.F. ; Immink, V.M. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Gerbrandy, A. ; Bockel, W.B. van; Pham, T.M.L. - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 14-112) - 132
prijsvorming - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelen - verse producten - prijszetting - price formation - food prices - foods - fresh products - price fixing
Dit rapport beschrijft de prijsvorming van acht Nederlandse ketens van de versproducten aardappel, appel, brood, ei, komkommer, paprika, pluimveevlees en uien. Dit is een actualisatie van het onderzoek uitgevoerd in 2009. De hoofdvraag is of een prijsverandering in een product bij de boer doorgegeven worden aan consumenten. Speciale aandacht is er voor openbare noteringen van prijzen van agrarische producten.
Catalogus biobased verpakkingen
Molenveld, K. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Groene grondstoffen ) - ISBN 9789461737045 - 136
verpakkingsmaterialen - verpakkingen - voedingsmiddelen - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - bioplastics - catalogi - voedselverpakking - packaging materials - wrappings - foods - biobased materials - catalogues - food packaging
In het kader van het overheidsbeleid met betrekking tot “duurzaam inkopen” heeft het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) WUR-FBR opdracht gegeven om biobased materialen die geschikt zijn en/of al worden toegepast in verpakkingen in kaart te brengen. De catalogus is geschreven voor inkopers, gebruikers en producenten van verpakkingsmateralen en beleidsmedewerkers van overheden. De catalogus is opgezet om biobased verpakkingen te etaleren en geeft een overzicht van commercieel beschikbare biobased verpakkingen in 2014.
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