Ghana's high forests : trends, scenarios and pathways for future developments
Oduro, K.A. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren; Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): B. Kyereh. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577824 - 171
forests - forest ecology - forest management - high forest system - forest resources - forestry - ghana - bossen - bosecologie - bosbedrijfsvoering - hoog opgaand bos - bosbestanden - bosbouw - ghana
Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35%), population and development pressures (10%), and mining and mineral exploitation (5%). Various measures are being pursued that are targeted at addressing the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and at increasing the forest resource base. Understanding the key driving forces behind current forest resource development trends will help to gain insights into the possible courses of action to take to improve the developments of the resources, especially where actions that are being taken today will have an impact on the forest resources for many years to come.
In this thesis, I used interdisciplinary research methods to provide insights into the current status of the forest resource base in Ghana and into its likely and possible future developments. I addressed 5 research questions: (1) What are the trends and changes associated with the growing stock in the timber production areas? (2) What driving forces account for current trends and future developments of timber resources in Ghana? (3) What different scenarios can be identified and how will these affect future developments of timber resources in the high forest zone? (4) What factors motivate farmers to engage in on-farm tree planting and management? (5) To what extent do the current trends of forest resources drive forest transition in Ghana?
National forest inventory data, timber harvesting data and forest plantation establishment data showed that the growing stock in both on- and off-reserve production areas have been declining since 1990. Ghana’s average forest growing stock of 40m3 per ha is much lower than the 195 m3 per ha for the Western and Central Africa sub-region. Timber harvesting records also indicate that, in recent decades, total timber harvests have mostly been substantially higher than the annual allowable cut, resulting in an increasing gap between national timber demand and supply, which drives illegal logging. Current plantation establishment efforts are not sufficient to bridge the gap between demand and supply of timber, partly due to low establishment rates and lack of appropriate management of newly established plantations. Forest governance system and resource demand are the two key driving forces that affect the current trends and future developments of forest resources in the high forest zone of Ghana. Four scenarios were developed: (1) legal forestry scenario with emphasis on improving the resource base to meet high demand; (2) forest degradation, which implies a business-as-usual scenario; (3) forest transition, with emphasis on expanding the resource base in response to environmental concerns; and (4) timber substitution scenario seeking to provide wood substitutes to conserve the resource base. Across two on-farm tree planting schemes, I found that financial benefits, educational campaigns by project teams, knowledge about current environmental issues, ownership of timber for family use and access to land, grants, farming inputs, seedlings, capacity building, and market for agricultural produce are the factors that motivated farmers to engage in on-farm tree planting and management. Currently, there is no strong force toward a forest transition through any of the five generic pathways (economic development; forest scarcity; globalization; state forest policy; and smallholder, tree-based land use intensification). This is because the existing trends of forest resources developments are either too small-scale or too ineffective. In order to accelerate a forest transition in Ghana, policy and management options should target measures that reduce current degradation of natural forests, increase the area and productivity of commercial forest plantations, promote sustainable forest management, and support and encourage forest conservation and integration of trees into farming systems.
Opstanden voor zaadoogst van de inheemse fladderiep uitgebreid
Vries, S.M.G. de; Kopinga, J. - \ 2016
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 13 (2016)121. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 18 - 19.
fladderiep - bosbestanden - ulmus - opstandsontwikkeling - natuurlijke opstanden - zaailingen - bosbeheer - forest resources - ulmus - stand development - natural stands - seedlings - forest administration
Voor de bosbouwers die wat willen gaan doen met inheemse iepenhout, is het assortiment met autochtone herkomst toegenomen. Van de fladderiep stond in de 7e Rassenlijst (2002) tot voor kort slechts één opstand vermeld, maar daar is nu een opstand in Twente bijgekomen: Denekamp-01, NL.SI.1.3.09.01. De opstand laat zien dat in Nederland niet alleen klonaal vermeerderde selecties, maar ook zaailingpopulaties van deze iep zich kunnen ontwikkelen tot redelijk recht groeiende bomen van imponerende afmeting. Zowel solitair als in bosverband. En bestand tegen iepziekte!
Approaches to the conservation of forest genetic resources in Europe in the context of climate change
Kelleher, Colin T. ; Vries, S.M.G. de; Baliuckas, Virgilijus - \ 2015
Rome : Biodiversity International - ISBN 9789292550325 - 46
forest trees - genetic diversity - genetic resources - plant genetic resources - forest resources - climatic change - forest policy - bosbomen - genetische diversiteit - genetische bronnen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - bosbestanden - klimaatverandering - bosbeleid
In Europe, forests have been expanding in terms of area and timber stock over the past 50 years and subsequently they have acted as a carbon sink while they have been recovering from previous eras of deforestation. National adaptation strategies to climate change and other policies have been formulated in many European countries to harness the potential of forests and the forestry sector for mitigating climate change. However, the impacts of climate change on forests, and especially on their genetic diversity have not been given a proper consideration in these policies. For these reasons, the EUFORGEN Steering Committee established a working group on climate change and the conservation of forest genetic resources that made several recommendations for action presented in this report
NTFP-EP end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Larastiti, C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-068) - 92
maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - bosbestanden - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - poverty - forest resources - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Non Timber Forest Product-Exchange Programme (NTFP-EP) that is a partner of IUCN and a part of the Ecosystem Alliance. It assesses NTFP-EP’s contributions towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which NTFP-EP contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain NTFP-EP’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
EUFORGEN - 20 years of pan-European collaboration
Vries, S.M.G. de; Hubert, J. - \ 2014
bossen - bosbestanden - bosbomen - genetische diversiteit - genetische bronnen - biodiversiteit - europa - forests - forest resources - forest trees - genetic diversity - genetic resources - biodiversity - europe
This video reflects some achievements of the pan-European collaboration on forest genetic resources since 1994. Two National Coordinators of EUFORGEN, Sven de Vries (Netherlands) and Jason Hubert (United Kingdom) share their experiences and explain why EUFORGEN is needed.
Wild plant resources and cultural practices in rural and urban households in South Africa : implications for bio-cultural diversity conservation
Cocks, M.L. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Schanz, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044710 - 196
wilde planten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - bosbestanden - biodiversiteit - relaties tussen stad en platteland - cultuur - mens - huishoudens - zuid-afrika - wild plants - plant genetic resources - forest resources - biodiversity - rural urban relations - culture - man - households - south africa
An 'inextricable link' between biological and cultural diversity has been identified and the term bio-cultural diversity has been introduced as a concept denoting the link. Studies on bio-cultural diversity are largely focused on remote and isolated communities with the modes and relations of indigenous production systems being typically subsistence and kin based and involving extraction of wild products from the natural environment. Rural conditions are however rapidly changing in many tropical countries, and the livelihood strategies of communities are becoming increasingly diversified. As a result the worldviews, cultural values and knowledge of large sectors of the population can no longer be classified as 'traditional'noras representative of western culture. Despite these changes, many of these communities are still reliant on wild resources both for utilitarian and cultural needs. Unfortunately, the theory on bio-cultural diversity as it currently stands only pays homage to one end of the continuum — the more 'exotic' and politically under-represented sectors of the population. This has resulted in very little systematic analysis of the interaction between culture and use of biological diversity, and of the question of whether cultural practices linked to the use of biodiversity are resilient, or rather the persistent, and whether they are maintained under processes of commercialisation and globalization The overall aim of this study is to assess the importance of biodiversity with respect to cultural and utilitarian value amongst different categories of non-traditional community households in both peri-urban and urban contexts of South Africa and to evaluate factors which contribute to the persistent use of biodiversity for cultural practices. It is shown that cultural practices of biodiversity are divers and often still poorly recorded. Even in urban areas and amongst richer people several forms of cultural use of biodiversity are maintainedThestudy gives credibility to the idea that the future of conservation movements depends on their ability to deal with the relation between history, culture and conservation in all its complexity.
Outlook for the development of European forest resources; a study prepared for the European Forest Sector Outlook Study (EFSOS)
Schelhaas, M.J. ; Brusselen, J. van; Pussinen, A. ; Pesonen, E. ; Schuck, A. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Sasse, V. - \ 2006
Geneva (Switzerland) / New York (USA) : UNECE/FAO (Geneva timber and forest discussion papers 41) - 134
bosbestanden - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - bosbeleid - methodologie - europa - forest resources - forest management - forestry - forest policy - methodology - europe
This Outlook for the Development of European Forest Resources provides the methodologies, data, scenarios, and results of the outlook on the European forest resources from 2000 to 2040. The aim of this forest resource study was to analyse the impacts on the European forest resources under the level of fellings needed to fulfil the derived roundwood demand according to two scenarios as provided by the market modelling project within the EFSOS framework. Thus fellings and removals presented in this study cannot be identified with a wood supply forecast in economic terms. The study includes the forest available for wood supply (FAWS) in geographical Europe, i.e. from Ireland to the Ural mountains and from the northern tip of Lapland to the southern border of Turkey. The model outcomes are based on assumptions about the increase in FAWS as well as unchanged forest management regimes (e.g. rotation period, thinning intensity, afforestation), and growth of stands ratios between felling and removals over the analysed period. Although removals are assumed to rise significantly, the results as presented sketch large and increasing forest resources in Europe. The growing stock increases under the baseline scenario from 51 billion m3 o.b. to 63 billion m3 o.b. in 2040, whereas the net annual increment declines only slightly from the current 1.2 billion m3 o.b o.b to 1.15 billion m3 o.b. in 2040. The FAWS area is assumed to decrease from 335 million ha to 329 million ha by the year 2040, in the base scenario. In the alternative scenario the forest area is expected to increase to 343 million ha. The market model outcomes projected a fast increase in required fellings in the current outlook study. This demand for fellings on FAWS is foreseen to increase from 643 million m3 o.b. per year in 2000 to 847 million m3 o.b. per year in 2020 in the baseline scenario (1014 million m3 o.b. per year in the alternative). This, together with an approach that dynamically simulates age class development, shows that annual availability of roundwood may be hampered after 2020. In the baseline scenario the actual fellings in 2036-2040 were about 2% lower than the required fellings, whereas in the alternative scenario the difference was about 11% per year. In reality market mechanisms will take care of this difference, by adjusting prices, forestry management and especially trade, considering the legal restriction, which assure sustainable forestry management. These adjustments cannot be simulated with the current modelling system.
The complexities of managing forest resources in post-decentralization Indonesia: a case study from Sintang District, West Kalimantan
Yasmi, Y. ; Anshari, Gusti Z. ; Alqadrie, S. ; Budiarto, T. ; Ngusmanto, ; Abidin, E. ; Komarudin, H. ; McGrath, S. ; Zulkifli, ; Afifudin, - \ 2005
Bogor, Indonesia : CIFOR (Case studies on decentralization and forests in Indonesia 10) - ISBN 9789793361925 - 29
bosbestanden - bosbedrijfsvoering - hulpbronnenbeheer - bosbeleid - kalimantan - forest resources - forest management - resource management - forest policy - kalimantan
The study attempted to understand the dynamics and complexities of forest resources management following decentralization, the interactions among stakeholders in forest resources management, and the impacts of the new legislation on local community livelihoods in Sintang District, West Kalimantan. Forestry policies implemented in the district before and after the introduction of legislation granting regional autonomy and the emergence of small-scale timber concessions are described. Qualitative research methodologies, i.e. semi-structured interviews, fi eld observations and workshops, were used. The results show that the decentralization of forest management had not proceeded smoothly because of the lack of regulations governing implementation, and that the decentralized forest policies had had both positive and negative impacts. Focusing on 100-ha forest product harvest concessions (HPHH), the study examined opportunities for local communities and other stakeholders to participate in the management of forest resources, the contributions of the small-scale forest concessions to district development and local community livelihoods, and social conflicts arising from a complex combination of factors.
Transgressing Boundaries. Gendered Spaces, Species, and Indigenous Forest Management in Uganda
Nabanoga, G. - \ 2005
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Tropical resource management papers 60) - 227
bosbedrijfsvoering - inheemse kennis - bosbestanden - sociale economie - plaatselijke bevolking - soorten - etnobotanie - uganda - geslacht (gender) - forest management - indigenous knowledge - forest resources - socioeconomics - local population - species - ethnobotany - uganda - gender
All over the world, professional foresters and scientists concerned with resource conservation have supposed that forest management is dependent on the establishment of legal boundaries based upon a strong notion of property (especially State and private) that define ‘bundles of rights’ or prohibitions for forest resource use. Local forest users, on the other hand, may also recognise their own sets of social norms or ‘morals’ that regulate access to land and forest resources found in various landscape niches. These norms affect their action and behaviour in using and managing these resources. Under local norms land-based resources such as plants, trees or crops can often be accessed separate from any rights in land that may exist. The ‘moral’ and behavioural norms are everywhere defined at least partly according to gender. This study investigates the gendered nature of access to and use and management of forested landscapes and forest resources among the Buganda living in central Uganda. Many factors influence people’s rights and obligations to use and manage different species in different forested landscape spaces. Both kinship relations, intra-community and intra-household power relations, social obligations and cosmological beliefs play an important role in defining who has what types of rights. They create multiple access, use and management boundaries for different spaces, species, products, and product uses. Formally the State and male peasants own land and trees, which creates a set of legal boundaries. When using and managing locally-valued species these boundaries are continuously transgressed. Such informal access is associated with the local norms of access that associates certain species and certain uses more with one sex than the other. The act of transgressing legal boundaries therefore simultaneously means respecting boundaries as set by local beliefs and social rules and rights. The study concludes that for understanding such complex and context-specific local perspectives on access, use and management of plant resources in forested landscapes requires the transgression of conventional disciplinary boundaries.
Transgressing boundaries : Gendered Spaces, Species and Indigenous Forest Management in Uganda
Nabanoga, G. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Patricia Howard, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum. - - 220
bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbeleid - bosbestanden - man-vrouwrelaties - landgebruik - bosproducten - uganda - grondrechten - forest management - forest policy - forest resources - gender relations - land use - forest products - uganda - land rights
Forest resource access is often conceptualized as a `bundle of rights` held by different social groups at different times. In Uganda, similar to other parts of the world, professional foresters and scientists concerned with resource conservation have conceived of forests mainly in terms of access rights that are formalized through legal boundaries based upon a strong notion of property (especially State and private) This study argues that local people's access to forest resources is not only based on such formal bundles of legal rights, but also entails local norms and `morals` that regulate access to land and other forest resources. Such `bundles of rights` or `powers` are embedded within specific cultural social, political and economic contexts and are related to intra-community and intra-household power relations, and particularly to gender relations. The most important `bundle of rights` to resources is usually considered to be that relating to land, where it is widely recognised that legal (de jure) and customary (often de facto) tenure may differ significantly
|Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia
Gerold, G. ; Fremery, M. ; Guhardja, E. ; Claassen, N. ; Priess, J. ; Rheenen, T. van; Waltert, M. ; Zeller, M. - \ 2004
Berlin : Springer Science + Business Media (Environmental science ) - ISBN 9783540006039 - 534
tropische regenbossen - landgebruik - natuurbescherming - ontbossing - bosbestanden - bosbedrijfsvoering - biodiversiteit - zuidoost-azië - tropical rain forests - land use - nature conservation - deforestation - forest resources - forest management - biodiversity - south east asia
This book contains a selection of contributions presented at an international symposium on "Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia," in Bogor, Indonesia, October 2002. It highlights the critical issue of rainforest preservation from an interdisciplinary perspective, comprising input from scientists in socio-economic, biological, geographical, agrarian and forestry disciplines.
|Development of European forests until 2050; a projection of forest resources and forest management in thirty countries
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Päivinen, R. ; Pussinen, A. ; Schelhaas, M.J. - \ 2003
Leiden [etc.] : Brill (European Forest Institute research report 15) - ISBN 9789004131484 - 242
bossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbestanden - europa - forests - forest management - forest resources - europe
Adaptive management of forest resources : principles and process
Boo, H.L. de; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Wageningen University - 50
bosbestanden - bosbedrijfsvoering - participatie - plattelandsontwikkeling - hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - biodiversiteit - plattelandsgemeenschappen - leren - forest resources - forest management - participation - rural development - resource management - natural resources - biodiversity - rural communities - learning
Internationale gevolgen van geïntegreerd bosbeheer in Nederland; verwaarloost Nederland de rol van bos als natuurlijke hulpbron?
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Goede, D. de - \ 2001
Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 73 (2001)5. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 29 - 32.
bosbeheer - bosbouw - bossen - bosbestanden - opstandsstructuur - leeftijd - leeftijdsstructuur - leeftijdssamenstelling - boomleeftijd - houthandel - import - export - internationale handel - vraag - aanbod - opstandskenmerken - opstandsontwikkeling - europa - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosopstanden - geïntegreerd bosbeheer - houtproductie - natuurlijke hulpbron - Nederland - forest administration - forestry - forests - forest resources - stand structure - age - age structure - age composition - age of trees - timber trade - imports - exports - international trade - demand - supply - stand characteristics - stand development - europe - natural resources - resource management - natural resource economics - forest stands - integrated forest management
De lange-termijneffecten van een meer natuurlijk bosbeheer in Europa wat betreft de leeftijdsklassenverdeling van het Europese bos en de verwachte veranderingen in de import- en exportstromen van naald- en loofhout binnen Europa (Scandinavië, Oost-Europa, Centraal-Europa, Middellandse-Zeegebied). Ondanks de noodkreten van de verwerkende industrie zal er op korte en middellange termijn geen houttekort ontstaan, maar vanaf 2050 zal de voorziene stijging van de houtconsumptie niet meer gedekt worden door het Europese bos
|The social dimension of rainforest management in Cameroon : Issues for co-management
Berg, J. van den; Biesbrouck, K. - \ 2000
Kribi : The Tropenbos-Cameroon Programme - ISBN 9789051130430 - 99
bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - tropische regenbossen - bedrijfsvoering - regenbossen - gemeenschappen - bosbestanden - bosproducten - wetgeving - participatie - plaatselijke bevolking - kameroen - forest management - forestry - tropical rain forests - management - rain forests - communities - forest resources - forest products - legislation - participation - local population - cameroon
TROPFOMS, a decision support model for sustainabele management of south Cameroon's rainforests
Eba'a Atyi, R. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. van Maaren; W.B.J. Jonkers. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081940 - 203
tropische regenbossen - oerbossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bosbestanden - houtkap - conservering - kameroen - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - tropical rain forests - virgin forests - forest management - sustainability - forest resources - logging - conservation - cameroon - decision support systems
Natural forests play an important role in the economy of Cameroon, at both the national and local levels. Unfortunately, there is still a general sense that in Cameroon, like in most tropical countries, forests are not managed in a sustainable way. The poor forest management practices, which still prevail in Cameroon, result from both an inadequate institutional context and insufficient scientific and technical knowledge. For the last few decades important research efforts have been made in tropical forestry. However, these efforts concentrate mostly on developing silvicultural systems and more and more on predicting growth and yield of forest stands. Research on supporting decision-making for forest has been negligible in tropical forestry. The research presented here confronts the problem of how to assist decision-making in tropical forest management using the best available scientific information gathered in different disciplines. The specific objectives of the research were:
A methodological tool was developed to support decision making with respect to tropical forest management. The system was given the acronym of TROPFOMS (TROPical Forest Management support System). The management items to which TROPFOMS provides support for decision making include:
The target steady state growing stock characteristics, mainly the structure in terms of number of trees per size class to be found both before and after harvest and the species composition of the stand
TROPFOMS consists of four modules including a mathematical programming module, a growth and yield module, and economic module and a constraint definition module. TROPFOMS was developed using mostly quantitative techniques and methods such as transition matrices, cluster analysis, logistic regression analysis, mathematical programming and stumpage prices derivation. The outcomes show that the optimal cutting cycle is about 30 years, for a harvest of 13.4 m 3/ha for the species currently commercialized in south Cameroon. In addition it would require about 120 year to convert the current forest of the Tropenbos Cameroon research site to a regulated forest. TROPFOMS has shown a great deal of sensitivity to hypotheses concerning growth and yield and timber value. Research needs for the improvement of the outcomes of TROPFOMS include: Costs and returns of silvicultural operations, relationships between growth and yield and density of forest stands, reproductive maturity of different tree species, logging efficiency, costs and damage, the utilization of the forest by local population, royalties.
Domestication paysanne des arbres fruitiers forestiers : cas de Coula edulis Bail, Olacaceae, et de Tieghemella heckelii Pierre ex A. Chev., Sapotaceae, autour du Parc National de Taï, Côte d'Ivoire
Bonnéhin, L. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; R.S.A.R. van Rompaey. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789051130409 - 140
tieghemella heckelii - olacaceae - bosbestanden - domesticatie - plantenvermeerdering - bosbomen - teelt - agroforestry - biodiversiteit - bosecologie - ivoorkust - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - tieghemella heckelii - olacaceae - forest resources - domestication - propagation - forest trees - cultivation - agroforestry - biodiversity - forest ecology - cote d'ivoire - new crops
In Côte d'Ivoire agriculture has confined the forest to national parks and state forests. Forest species are disappearing from the rural landscape and the products of these species get ever rarer. Thus, the rural population goes out collecting these products in national parks and state forests, the access to which is legally is forbidden. This situation leads to numerous conflicts that threaten the long term conservation of these last forest relics. How to ensure this long term conservation and sustainable management of national parks and state forests, or simply of biodiversity in Côte d'Ivoire?
Maintaining local forest species in the rural landscape may contribute to biodiversity conservation. The path to follow is, that farmers themselves domesticate the forest species they are interested in.
Domestication is a process in several steps one being to bring into cultivation the wild plants. For this study, the following questions were raised :
To answer these questions, a number of enquiries, direct and participative observations and experiments on farms in the Taï region were undertaken.
After a participative analysis of local useful forest species in the rural environment, two fruit tree species have been selected, with the agreement of the farmers, to become the subject of this study. They are Makoré ( Tieghemella heckelii, Pierre ex A.Chev., Sapotaceae) and Attia ( Coula edulis Baill., Olacaceae). Farmers found problems in obtaining seeds or seedlings of those for biological, ecological or phenological reasons, and this justified our choice. Biology, ecology and socioeconomic aspects of both species have been described.
On-farm propagation of the species in both vegetative and generative way, using simple techniques available to farmers was experimentally done
Both types of propagation were successful with Makoré:
Domestication is a very complex process that involves biological, ecological and economic aspects of the species under study as well as the socio-economic situation of the participating farmer. After having treated biological and economical aspects of the species the socio-economic situation of farmers that showed interest in domestication during the study was analysed. Domestication over time from protoculture to the actual cultivation of Makoré in the Taï region was discussed. Protoculture consists of caring for trees issued from natural regeneration and was practised until 1969. At that time forest resources were still abundant and planting trees was a taboo for the farmers. Between 1969 and 1989 the first timid steps were set towards really cultivating forest fruit trees. Farmers secretly planted local forest fruit trees. From 1990 on there has been a certain dynamism to start cultivating these trees, especially Makoré. Makoré seed oil was the primary motivation for domesticating Makoré for 79% of the farmers (N=49), 21% planting them for their seeds and their timber. Three quarters of Makoré farmers were men. Makoré is mainly planted intimately mixed with tree cash crops to optimize the labour factor. Land tenure and land and tree property rights did not seem to hamper domestication. Due to the very long germination period of Attia, it has not been possible to obtain enough seedlings to study the farmers' response to domestication. But the farmers' attitude towards propagation of this species has changed: they have seen germinated C. edulis seeds and they know now that generative propagation is possible.
Growth and development of Makoré seedlings on the farm were analysed in relation to the cultural system in which Makoré was introduced, and to light and mycorrhizae levels. Growth of Makoré seedlings was found to be positively correlated with the quantity of available light. The species is thus clearly a non-pioneer, but tolerant to full sunlight. In the cultural system 'fallow with Chromolaena odorata after rice culture', Makoré seedlings and saplings found the best ecological conditions during the first stages of development. All soils on which Makoré grew in the Taï region, contained mycorrhizal spores, the closed forest soils most of them. However, no correlation was found between spore density and seedling growth rate.
All the results were taken together in order to formulate the perspective of domestication by farmers of local forest fruit tree species. In general the cultural blockage against planting indigenous tree species has been dissolved amongst the farmers of the Taï region. The process of domestication thus has started to the west of Taï National Park. Thanks to this process agroforestry systems allowing the conservation or restoration of forest biodiversity in the rural landscape are now being developed in the region. The extension of the agroforestry techniques used by the farmers in this study is advised.
|Non-timber forest products in the Bipindi-Akom II Region, Cameroon : A socio-economic and ecological assessment
Dijk, J.F.W. van - \ 1999
Kribi : The Tropenbos-Cameroon Programme - ISBN 9789051130386 - 197
bosbestanden - bosproducten - voedselplanten - dieren - ecologie - sociale economie - forest resources - forest products - food plants - animals - ecology - socioeconomics
A-locatie bossen in Gelderland; kenschets, beoordeling en adviezen met betrekking tot behoud en ontwikkeling van relicten van inheemse bosgemeenschappen in de provincie Gelderland
Ouden, J.B. den; Vocks, M. ; Broekmeyer, M.E.A. ; Koop, H.G.J.M. - \ 1996
Wageningen : DLO-Instituut voor Bos- en Natuuronderzoek (IBN-rapport 240) - 346
bosbouw - bossen - bosbestanden - rekeningen - geschiedenis - schermbossen - regelingen - houtteeltkundige systemen - opstandskenmerken - natuurreservaten - natuurbescherming - bescherming - samenleving - nederland - natuur - gelderland - forestry - forests - forest resources - accounts - history - protection forests - regulations - silvicultural systems - stand characteristics - nature reserves - nature conservation - protection - society - netherlands - nature - gelderland
Bodemgesteldheid, vegetatie en bodemgeschiktheid voor bosbouw van "Boswachterij Sallandse Heuvelrug" : de invloed van de bodemgesteldheid op de groeiverwachting voor 15 boomsoorten
Mekkink, P. - \ 1991
Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 96) - 96
bosbouw - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - bossen - bosbestanden - rekeningen - nederland - overijssel - salland - forestry - soil surveys - maps - forests - forest resources - accounts - netherlands - overijssel - salland