Records 1 - 20 / 299
Quantifying within-plant spatial heterogeneity in carbohydrate availability in cotton using a local-pool model
Gu, Shenghao ; Zhang, Lizhen ; Yan, Zhenzhen ; Werf, Wopke Van Der; Evers, Jochem B. - \ 2018
Annals of Botany 121 (2018)5. - ISSN 0305-7364 - p. 1005 - 1017.
allocation - Carbohydrate - fruit - Gossypium hirsutum L - local pool - phytomer
Background and Aims Within-plant spatial heterogeneity in the production of and demand for assimilates may have major implications for the formation of fruits. Spatial heterogeneity is related to organ age, but also to position on the plant. This study quantifies the variation in local carbohydrate availability for the phytomers in the same cohort using a cotton growth model that captures carbohydrate production in phytomers and carbohydrate movement between phytomers. Methods Based on field observations, we developed a functional-structural plant model of cotton that simulates production and storage of carbohydrates in individual phytomers and transport of surplus to other phytomers. Simulated total leaf area, total above-ground dry mass, dry mass distribution along the stem, and dry mass allocation fractions to each organ at the plant level were compared with field observations for plants grown at different densities. The distribution of local carbohydrate availability throughout the plant was characterized and a sensitivity analysis was conducted regarding the value of the carbohydrate transport coefficient. Key Results The model reproduced cotton leaf expansion and dry mass allocation across plant densities adequately. Individual leaf area was underestimated at very high plant densities. Best correspondence with measured plant traits was obtained for a value of the transport coefficient of 0.1 d -1. The simulated translocation of carbohydrates agreed well with results from C-labelling studies. Moreover, simulation results revealed the heterogeneous pattern of local carbohydrate availability over the plant as an emergent model property. Conclusions This modelling study shows how heterogeneity in local carbohydrate production within the plant structure in combination with limitations in transport result in heterogeneous satisfaction of demand over the plant. This model provides a tool to explore phenomena in cotton that are thought to be determined by local carbohydrate availability, such as branching pattern and fruit abortion in relation to climate and crop management.
Investigating the fruit texture genetic control in apple and its interplay with the production of volatile compounds using multi-family based analysis and genome wide association mapping
Guardo, Mario Di - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.G.F. Visser, co-promotor(en): W.E. van de Weg; F. Costa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432054 - 177
malus domestica - apples - fruit - fruit growing - genetics - plant breeding - genome analysis - malus domestica - appels - fruit - fruitteelt - genetica - plantenveredeling - genoomanalyse
Although varying with context, quality of fresh fruits includes several properties such as color, texture, flavor and health promoting compounds. This thesis focused on two important quality aspects, namely texture and aroma in apple, and defining the genomic regions involved in the control of these two features. The genetic control of texture and VOCs production have been investigated using two marker-trait association analysis approaches: Pedigree Based Analysis (PBA) and Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS). In chapter 2, ASSIsT (Automatic SNP ScorIng Tool), a software dedicated for the efficient calling and filtering of SNPs from Illumina InfiniumÒ arrays is presented. ASSIsT builds on GenomeStudio® derived data and identifies markers showing reliable genotype calls (bi-allelic segregation pattern). In addition, ASSIsT identifies and re-edits SNP calls of markers showing additional alleles (null alleles or additional SNPs in the probe annealing site). Chapter 3 aimed to dissect the genetic control of fruit firmness in apple during storage through PBA and employing 24 bi-parental families (1216 individuals) connected by a common pedigree structure. Ten QTLs were identified encompassing eight linkage groups, which unravelled a QTL dynamics over storage shedding light on the specific genetic control at each time-point. Chapter 4: aimed to comprehensively decipher the genetic control of fruit texture. Two complementing QTL mapping approaches were employed together with a novel and high sophisticated phenotyping device for fruit texture. The PBA was carried out on six full-sib pedigreed families (416 individuals), while the GWAS was performed on a collection of 233 apple accessions. The texture analyser employed (TAXT-AED texture analyser) allowed the measurement of both the mechanical properties (firmness) and the acoustic properties (crispness) of fruit texture. The QTL results indicated chromosome 10 being associated in changes of the mechanical properties of fruit texture, while chromosomes 2 and 14 were more associated to the acoustic response. In Chapter 5 the interplay between texture and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was investigated in 162 apple accessions. The array of volatile compounds phenotyped was implemented into a GWAS identifying seven chromosomes harbouring important candidate genes for aroma, such as MdAAT1 and MdIGS. Next, volatilome and fruit texture data were integrated revealing a negative correlation between these two features.
Fruit & Veggie Challenge
Lambalgen, Jorien van; Willemsen-Regelink, M.H. ; Top, R. van den - \ 2016
nutrition - fruit - vegetables - children
6 leerzame challenges over fruit & groente met 10 quizvragen, 1 stelling en 1 uitdaging
Typering van consumenten geeft de groenteketen een houvast : betrokken consumenten proeven beter
Labrie, Caroline - \ 2016
consumer surveys - consumption - fruit - vegetables - consumer preferences - supply chain management
Kansen voor meer groenten en fruit in zorginstellingen
Meeusen-van Onna, Marieke ; Bouwman, Emily ; Immink, Victor ; Sijtsema, Siet - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2016-089) - ISBN 9789462577688 - 53
voedselconsumptie - fruit - groenten - gezondheidszorginstellingen - eetpatronen - streekgebonden producten - biologische voedingsmiddelen - voeding en gezondheid - food consumption - fruit - vegetables - health maintenance organizations - eating patterns - regional specialty products - organic foods - nutrition and health
Dit rapport verkent de mogelijkheden om de inname van groenten en fruit in zorginstellingen te
verhogen. Met aanvullend de vraag of (i) de biologische variant en/of (ii) de regionale herkomst
meerwaarde biedt. Er zijn mogelijkheden om de consumptie van groenten en fruit te vergroten, vooral
wanneer er meerdere eetmomenten ontwikkeld worden. Producten uit de streek bieden meerwaarde
vanwege de (verse) smaak en leiden ertoe dat de zorginstellingen goed ingebed raken in de regionale
Ontwikkelingen in Foodservice : online en beleving creëren nieuwe kansen voor toeleveranciers van agf
Splinter, G.M. ; Haaster-de Winter, M.A. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR - 30
commerciële catering - food service management - groenten - fruit - gemaksvoedsel - voedselconsumptie - elektronische handel - consumentenvoorkeuren - tendensen - commercial food service - food service management - vegetables - fruit - convenience foods - food consumption - electronic commerce - consumer preferences - trends
Het voedsellandschap is in beweging. Een ontwikkeling met grote gevolgen voor “vers” en haar toeleveranciers. Voedsel is op steeds meer (verschillende) plaatsen te koop en wordt aangeboden door verschillende aanbieders. GroentenFruit Huis wil de groenten- en fruitsector versterken en de positie van bedrijven verbeteren. LEI Wageningen UR heeft daarom twee ontwikkelingen in de Foodservicemarkt onderzocht: online en beleving. Twee aspecten die het niveau van een individueel bedrijf overstijgen en impact hebben op de bestaande structuur. De uitkomsten zijn aangevuld met informatie over nieuwe ontwikkelingen binnen het thema “gemak”. Hoe moeten de ontwikkelingen worden gezien en wat is het effect ervan op de toeleveranciers van groenten en fruit? En op hun product(en)?
How does the fruit and vegetable sector contribute to food and nutrition security?
Joosten, F.J. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. ; Sertse, Y. ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-076) - 57
voedselzekerheid - fruit - groenten - landbouwsector - tuinbouw - geslacht (gender) - voedselvoorziening - ontwikkelingslanden - food security - fruit - vegetables - agricultural sector - horticulture - gender - food supply - developing countries
The Dutch Food & Business Knowledge Platform (F&BKP) commissioned an explorative study regarding the existing knowledge base from development practice and research about the potential of the Fruit and Vegetables (F&V) sector to contribute to Food & Nutrition Security (FNS) in the context of (a) sustainable development (i.e. economic, social, ecological and gender equity) and (b) the Dutch international cooperation agenda (i.e. combining aid, trade and investments). The outcome of this explorative study is reflected in this document. The findings and recommendations in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Food & Business Knowledge Platform.
Wat betekent de Russische boycot voor Nederland?
Berkum, Siemen van - \ 2015
agricultural economics - exports - agricultural prices - meat - milk products - vegetables - fruit - international trade - netherlands
Effecten van Russische boycot op invoer van Europees vlees, zuivel, groente en fruit ; stand van zaken in juni 2015
Berkum, S. van; Jukema, G.D. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 7
agrarische economie - export - landbouwprijzen - vlees - groenten - fruit - nederland - internationale handel - agricultural economics - exports - agricultural prices - meat - vegetables - fruit - netherlands - international trade
Op 7 augustus 2014 heeft Rusland een invoerverbod ingesteld op de invoer van vlees, zuivel en groente en fruit uit de EU. Door deze boycot moest de export een andere bestemming vinden. Niet alleen gold/geldt dat voor Nederlandse afzet, maar ook voor andere EU-landen. Hierdoor ontstond een fors prijseffect voor met name de verse groente en fruitproducten op de Europese markt, die na een korte periode overigens ook al weer afzwakte. Deze korte notitie gaat in op in hoeverre de Nederlandse export van de geboycotte producten zich met name na het afkondigen van de Russische importstop heeft ontwikkeld.
Aromameter onthult smaakverlies groente en fruit
Woltering, E.J. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 5 - 5.
groenten - fruit - smaak - bemonsteren - meting - apparatuur - innovaties - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - reductie - aroma - verandering - vegetables - fruit - taste - sampling - measurement - apparatus - innovations - keeping quality - reduction - aroma - change
Een tomaat in de koelkast verliest al snel onomkeerbaar zijn smaak. Dat blijkt uit metingen met een nieuw apparaat, ontwikkeld door Wageningen UR. Dat kan snel en nauwkeurig veranderingen in het aroma vaststellen.
Influence of choice on vegetable intake in children: an in-home study
Wild, V.W.T. de; Graaf, C. de; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Jager, G. - \ 2015
Appetite 91 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 1 - 6.
portion size - preschool-children - european countries - young-children - flavor-flavor - mere exposure - fruit - consumption - increases - acceptance
Children's vegetable consumption is still far below that recommended, and stimulating their intake is a challenge for caregivers. The objective of this study was to investigate whether choice-offering is an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake in an in-home situation. Seventy children (mean age 3.7; SD 1) randomly assigned to a choice or a no-choice condition, were exposed 12 times to six familiar target vegetables at home during dinner. In the choice group, two selected vegetables were offered each time, whereas the no-choice group only received one vegetable. Vegetable intake was measured by weighing children's plates before and after dinner. A mixed linear model with age, gender, and baseline vegetable liking as covariates was used to compare intake between the choice and the no-choice group. Mixed linear model analysis yielded estimated means for vegetable intake of 48.5¿g +/- 30 in the no-choice group and 57.7¿g¿+/- 31 for the choice group (P¿=¿0.09). In addition, baseline vegetable liking (P¿
Break time (werkplek). Markt creatie voor meer groente en fruit via de cateraars op de werkplek
Immink, Victor - \ 2015
nutrition and health - vegetables - fruit - work places - catering
Effects of seed traits for the potential of seed dispersal by fish with contrasting modes of feeding
Boedeltje, G. ; Spannings, T. ; Flik, G. ; Pollux, B.J.A. ; Sibbing, F.A. ; Verberk, W.C.E.P. - \ 2015
Freshwater Biology 60 (2015)5. - ISSN 0046-5070 - p. 944 - 959.
carp cyprinus-carpio - life-history traits - common carp - digestive-tract - ruppia-maritima - wetland plants - size - fruit - germination - floodplain
For aquatic and riparian plants, the important role of fish in seed dispersal is increasingly recognised. While the propensity of seeds to disperse is known to be a function of morphological, physical and chemical traits of the seed, in the case of fish-mediated seed dispersal (ichthyochory), it is largely unknown how seed traits modulate the potential for seed ingestion and their subsequent survival through the gut. Furthermore, which seed traits are important may vary among fish species. To evaluate the role of both seed and fish traits in ichthyochory, we fed seeds of 19 aquatic and riparian plant species to fish with differing feeding mechanisms. Cyprinus carpio (common carp) has a pharyngeal ‘mill’, which it uses physically to crush hard food, while Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) has only tiny oral and pharyngeal teeth and instead relies more on chemical digestion. A number of seed traits, including hardness, size and shape, were important determinants of the potential of seeds for ichthyochory. Certain traits (e.g. seed dimensions) were more important during ingestion, whereas other traits were more important for seed survival and subsequent germination (e.g. seed hardness, mucilaginous coat). Compared to controls, germination of retrieved seeds in carp was lower in 10 and higher in two plant species, whereas for tilapia, it was lower in seven and higher in three species. Overlap between these plant species was low, indicating clear difference between the fish studied in their potential for seed dispersal. Carp increased in size during the experiment and concomitant decreases in seed survival and retrieval were found, suggesting that body size and the correlated bite force is an important fish trait in ichthyochory. Overall, seed hardness, size and shape appear crucial for the survival of seeds passing through the guts of carp and tilapia. Beyond this general pattern, a greater complexity of trait-performance relationships appeared: different seed traits are involved during each of the stages of ichthyochory. Moreover, the importance of seed traits differed between carp and tilapia, with some traits having interactive and contrasting effects in both fish species. Aquatic plants with floating seeds adapted to hydrochorous dispersal were less likely to be dispersed by tilapia than plants with non-floating seeds, suggesting a dispersal trade-off between ichthyochory and hydrochory. Thus, depending on their seed characteristics, fish may offer an additional dispersal route to aquatic and riparian plants.
Veggipedia-app scoort met objectiviteit en veelzijdigheid
Wijk-Jansen, E.E.C. van; Bondt, N. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR
groenten - fruit - consumenten - computer software - mobiele toepassingen - voedselconsumptie - voedingswaarde - vegetables - fruit - consumers - computer software - mobile applications - food consumption - nutritive value
“No story, no glory!”, aldus Harrij Schmeitz, directeur van Fresh Informationmanagement Center BV. Consumenten willen weten waar hun eten vandaan komt. Dit biedt de groente- en fruitsector grote commerciële kansen. Op voorwaarde dat we aansprekende verhalen over onze producten vertellen. Om dit te ondersteunen heeft de groente- en fruitsector de Veggipedia-app ontwikkeld. LEI Wageningen UR is gevraagd om te onderzoeken in hoeverre deze app aansluit bij behoeften van consumenten
Basic principles of analysing biological and technical variation in non-destructive data
Tijskens, L.M.M. ; Schouten, R.E. ; Konopacki, P. ; Jongbloed, G. - \ 2015
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 111 (2015). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 121 - 126.
keeping quality - postharvest - variance - behavior - impact - color - fruit - age
More and more, the omnipresent variation between individual items in a batch is taken into account by using special analysing techniques like mixed effects and indexed regression. In this paper the assumptions upon which these techniques are based, are explained, based on a simulated data set. The most important issue is the separation of biological variation and the technical variation (or measuring error). The techniques are further elucidated with some examples from practise (skin colour apples in storage, softening of melons in storage and water loss in plums, melons and mandarins), to show the increased reliability of the analyses. Since variation is always present in any measured data set, the techniques are applicable in all fields working with living material.
Continuous-light tolerance in tomato is graft-transferable
Vélez Ramírez, A.I. ; Ieperen, W. van; Vreugdenhil, D. ; Millenaar, F.F. - \ 2015
Planta 241 (2015)1. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 285 - 290.
lycopersicon-esculentum - plants - temperature - photosynthesis - rootstock - increase - growth - injury - xylem - fruit
Continuous light induces a potentially lethal injury in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Recently, continuous-light tolerance was reported in several wild tomato species, yet the molecular mechanisms underpinning tolerance/sensitivity are still elusive. Here, we investigated from which part of the plant continuous-light tolerance originates and whether this trait acts systemically within the plant. By exposing grafted plants bearing both tolerant and sensitive shoots, the trait was functionally located in the shoot rather than the roots. Additionally, an increase in continuous-light tolerance was observed in sensitive plants when a continuous-light-tolerant shoot was grafted on it. Cultivation of greenhouse tomatoes under continuous light promises high yield increases. Our results show that to pursuit this, the trait should be bred into scion rather than rootstock lines. In addition, identifying the nature of the signal/molecule(s) and/or the mechanism of graft-induced, continuous-light tolerance can potentially result in a better understanding of important physiological processes like long-distance signaling.
Comprehensive metabolomics to evaluate the impact of industrial processing on the phytochemical composition of vegetable purees
Lopez-Sanchez, P. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Jonker, H.H. ; Mumm, R. ; Hall, R.D. ; Bialek, L. ; Leenman, R. ; Strassburg, K. ; Vreeken, R. ; Hankemeier, T. ; Schumm, S. ; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 168 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 348 - 355.
mass-spectrometry - plant metabolomics - thermal treatments - vitamin-c - broccoli - tomato - fruit - antioxidant - cancer - l.
The effects of conventional industrial processing steps on global phytochemical composition of broccoli, tomato and carrot purees were investigated by using a range of complementary targeted and untargeted metabolomics approaches including LC–PDA for vitamins, 1H NMR for polar metabolites, accurate mass LC–QTOF MS for semi-polar metabolites, LC–MRM for oxylipins, and headspace GC–MS for volatile compounds. An initial exploratory experiment indicated that the order of blending and thermal treatments had the highest impact on the phytochemicals in the purees. This blending-heating order effect was investigated in more depth by performing alternate blending-heating sequences in triplicate on the same batches of broccoli, tomato and carrot. For each vegetable and particularly in broccoli, a large proportion of the metabolites detected in the purees was significantly influenced by the blending-heating order, amongst which were potential health-related phytochemicals and flavour compounds like vitamins C and E, carotenoids, flavonoids, glucosinolates and oxylipins. Our metabolomics data indicates that during processing the activity of a series of endogenous plant enzymes, such as lipoxygenases, peroxidases and glycosidases, including myrosinase in broccoli, is key to the final metabolite composition and related quality of the purees.
Communicating eating-related rules. Suggestions are more effective than restrictions
Stok, F.M. ; Vet, E. de; Wit, J.B.F. ; Renner, B. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2015
Appetite 86 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 45 - 53.
psychological reactance - self-determination - ego depletion - food - consumption - behavior - obesity - fruit - temptation - overweight
Background: A common social influence technique for curbing unhealthy eating behavior is to communicate eating-related rules (e.g. ‘you should not eat unhealthy food’). Previous research has shown that such restrictive rules sometimes backfire and actually increase unhealthy consumption. In the current studies, we aimed to investigate if a milder form of social influence, a suggested rule, is more successful in curbing intake of unhealthy food. We also investigated how both types of rules affected psychological reactance. Method: Students (N¿=¿88 in Study 1, N¿=¿51 in Study 2) completed a creativity task while a bowl of M&M's was within reach. Consumption was either explicitly forbidden (restrictive rule) or mildly discouraged (suggested rule). In the control condition, consumption was either explicitly allowed (Study 1) or M&M's were not provided (Study 2). Measures of reactance were assessed after the creativity task. Subsequently, a taste test was administered where all participants were allowed to consume M&M's. Results: Across both studies, consumption during the creativity task did not differ between the restrictive- and suggested-rule-conditions, indicating that both are equally successful in preventing initial consumption. Restrictive-rule-condition participants reported higher reactance and consumed more in the free-eating taste-test phase than suggested-rule-condition participants and control-group participants, indicating a negative after-effect of restriction. Discussion: Results show that there are more and less effective ways to communicate eating-related rules. A restrictive rule, as compared to a suggested rule, induced psychological reactance and led to greater unhealthy consumption when participants were allowed to eat freely. It is important to pay attention to the way in which eating-related rules are communicated.
The home food environment of overweight gatekeepers in the Netherlands
Poelman, M.P. ; Vet, E. de; Velema, E. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Steenhuis, I.H.M. - \ 2015
Public Health Nutrition 18 (2015)10. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1815 - 1823.
randomized controlled-trial - eating behaviors - portion sizes - weight-loss - consumption volume - vegetable intake - plate-size - obesity - illusions - fruit
Objective: The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snackfood availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers’ characteristics and in-home observations were determined. Design: A cross-sectional observation of home food environments was conducted as part of a baseline measurement of a larger study. Setting: Home food environments of overweight and obese gatekeepers in the Netherlands. Subjects: Household gatekeepers (n 278). Mean household size of the gatekeepers was 3·0 (SD 1·3) persons. Mean age of the gatekeepers was 45·7 (SD 9·2) years, 34·9 % were overweight and 65·1 % were obese. Of the gatekeepers, 20·9 % had a low level of education and 42·7 % had a high level of education. Results: In 70 % of the households, eight or more packages of processed snack foods were present. In 54 % of the households, processed snack foods were stored close to non-processed food items and in 78 % of households close to non-food items. In 33 % of the households, processed snack foods were visible in the kitchen and in 15 % of the households processed snack foods were visible in the living room. Of the dinnerware items, 14 % (plates), 57 % (glasses), 78 % (dessert bowls), 67 % (soup bowls) and 58 % (mugs) were larger than the reference norms of the Netherlands Nutrition Centre Foundation. Older gatekeepers used significantly smaller dinnerware than younger gatekeepers. Conclusions: Environmental factors endorsing overconsumption are commonly present in the home environments of overweight people and could lead to unplanned eating or passive overconsumption.
Consumer behaviour towards vegetables: a study on domestic processing of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households
Bongoni, R. ; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. ; Steenbekkers, B. - \ 2015
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 28 (2015)3. - ISSN 0952-3871 - p. 219 - 225.
different cooking methods - food quality - health - fruit - consumption - interventions - determinants - attributes - choice - impact
Background: Preferences for sensory properties (e.g. taste and texture) are assumed to control cooking behaviour with respect to vegetables. Conditions such as the cooking method, amount of water used and the time-temperature profile determine the nutritional quality (e.g. vitamins and phytochemicals) of cooked vegetables. Information on domestic processing and any underlying motives can be used to inform consumers about cooking vegetables that are equally liked and are nutrient-rich. Methods: Two online self-reporting questionnaires were used to identify domestic processing conditions of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households. Questions on various aspects of domestic processing and consumer motives were included. Descriptive data analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed for both vegetables, separately, to group consumers with similar motives and behaviour towards vegetables. Results: Approximately 70% of consumers boiled vegetables, 8–9% steamed vegetables, 10–15% stir fried raw vegetables and 8–10% stir fried boiled vegetables. Mainly texture was used as a way to decide the ‘doneness’ of the vegetables. For both vegetables, three clusters of consumers were identified: texture-orientated, health-orientated, or taste-orientated. The texture-orientated consumers are identified as the most prevalent (56–59%) group in the present study. Statistically significant associations are found between domestic processing conditions and clusters, whereas no such association are found between demographic details and clusters. Conclusions: A wide variation in domestic processing of broccoli and carrots is found in the present study. Mainly sensory properties (i.e. texture and taste) determined the domestic processing conditions. The findings of the present study can be used to optimise cooking to yield vegetables that meet consumer’s specific sensory preference and are higher in nutrients, and as well as to communicate with target consumer groups.