Bioavailability of Micronutrients From Nutrient-Dense Whole Foods: Zooming in on Dairy, Vegetables, and Fruits
Melse-Boonstra, Alida - \ 2020
Frontiers in Nutrition 7 (2020). - ISSN 2296-861X
bioavailability - dairy - fruits - minerals - vegetables - vitamins
In order to fully exploit the nutrient density concept, thorough understanding of the biological activity of single nutrients in their interaction with other nutrients and food components from whole foods is important. This review provides a narrative overview of recent insights into nutrient bioavailability from complex foods in humans, highlighting synergistic and antagonistic processes among food components for two different food groups, i.e., dairy, and vegetables and fruits. For dairy, bioavailability of vitamins A, B2, B12 and K, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, zinc and iodine are discussed, whereas bioavailability of pro-vitamin A, folate, vitamin C and K, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron are discussed for vegetables and fruits. Although the bioavailability of some nutrients is fairly well-understood, for other nutrients the scientific understanding of uptake, absorption, and bioavailability in humans is still at a nascent stage. Understanding the absorption and bioavailability of nutrients from whole foods in interaction with food components that influence these processes will help to come to individual diet scores that better reflect absorbable nutrient intake in epidemiologic studies that relate dietary intake to health outcomes. Moreover, such knowledge may help in the design of foods, meals, and diets that aid in the supply of bioavailable nutrients to specific target groups.
A Review on the Effect of Drying on Antioxidant Potential of Fruits and Vegetables
Kamiloglu, Senem ; Toydemir, Gamze ; Boyacioglu, Dilek ; Beekwilder, Jules ; Hall, Robert D. ; Capanoglu, Esra - \ 2016
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56 (2016). - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. S110 - S129.
antioxidants - ascorbic acid - carotenoids - Drying - fruits - polyphenols - vegetables
The role of antioxidants in human nutrition has gained increased interest, especially due to their associated health beneficial effects for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Fruits and vegetables are perishable and difficult to preserve as fresh products. Dried fruits and vegetables can be easily stored, transported at relatively low cost, have reduced packing costs, and their low water content delays microbial spoilage. Air-, freeze-, microwave- and sun-drying are among the most thoroughly studied drying methods. This review provides an overview of recent findings on the effects of different drying techniques on major antioxidants of fruits and vegetables. In particular, changes in ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity are discussed in detail.
Fruit 4.0: de vruchten van meer technologie : technologie-roadmap
Ossevoort, R.S. ; Verdouw, C.N. ; Jong, P.F. de; Hennen, W.H.G.J. ; Robbemond, R.M. - \ 2016
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2016-004) - ISBN 9789462578456 - 63
horticulture - fruits - innovations - technology - internet - tuinbouw - vruchten - innovaties - technologie - internet
Modern fruit production is not possible without reliable and up-to-date information. In addition, developments of technologies in the field of the internet, sensors, drones and robotics are gaining momentum. Consequently, production is changing radically towards flexible, autonomous and demand-driven business processes, which integrate smoothly in the supply chain. We also refer to this transition as the fourth industrial revolution, or Industry 4.0. This report introduces a roadmap for automation and digitalisation in the fruit industry, which will allow this sector to profit from its own Fruit 4.0.
Assessing the Status of Food Safety Management Systems for Fresh Produce Production in East Africa: Evidence from Certified Green Bean Farms in Kenya and Noncertified Hot Pepper Farms in Uganda
Nanyunja, J. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Kirezieva, K.K. ; Kaaya, S. ; Uyttendaele, M. ; Luning, P.A. - \ 2015
Journal of Food Protection 78 (2015)6. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 1081 - 1089.
processing companies - private standards - value chains - performance - quality - vegetables - countries - industry - fruits
The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a “basic level of control and assurance” activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an “average level of control and assurance,” providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.
Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: The Rotterdam study
Pantavos, A. ; Ruiter, R. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Keyser, C.E. de; Hofman, A. ; Stricker, B.H.C. ; Franco, O.H. ; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C. - \ 2015
International Journal of Cancer 136 (2015)9. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 2178 - 2186.
prospective cohort - swedish women - vitamin-c - receptor status - pooled analysis - carotenoids - coffee - fruits - iron - tea
Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N¿=¿3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly.
Chemical analysis of estragole in fennel based teas and associated safety assessment using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach
Berg, S.J.P.L. van den; Alhusainy, W. ; Restani, P. ; Rietjens, I. - \ 2014
Food and Chemical Toxicology 65 (2014). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 147 - 154.
foeniculum-vulgare - essential oils - methyl eugenol - supplements - fruits - risk
This study describes the analysis of estragole in dry fennel preparations and in infusions prepared from them and an associated safety assessment. A wide range of estragole levels of 0.15–13.3 mg/g dry fennel preparation was found. The estragole content in infusions was considerably lower ranging between 0.4 and 133.4 µg/25 mL infusion prepared from 1 g dry material. Infusions prepared from whole fennel fruits contained about 3-fold less estragole compared to infusions prepared from fine cut fennel material. Safety assessment was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach comparing available tumour data to the estimated daily estragole intakes from the consumption of 1–3 cups fennel tea. MOEs obtained for adults generally point at a low priority for risk management, especially when one cup of fennel tea is used daily during lifetime. MOEs for use of fennel teas by children were generally
Does phenology distinguish bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae)?
Vihotogbe, R. ; Berg, R.G. van den; Bongers, F. ; Sinsin, B. ; Sosef, M.S.M. - \ 2014
Trees-Structure and Function 28 (2014)6. - ISSN 0931-1890 - p. 1777 - 1791.
genetic diversity - dahomey gap - west-africa - phenotypic variation - conservation status - gabonensis - domestication - forest - cameroon - fruits
Key message This phenological analysis of bitter and sweet bush mango trees is part of their biosystematics. It supports the species distinction hypothesis postulated by Harris (Bull J Bot Nat Belg 65(1-2):143-196, 1996 ) and Lowe et al. (Mol Ecol 9:831-841, 2000 ). African Bush Mango trees are priority food trees in Sub-Saharan Africa. The unclear distinction between bitter and sweet fruited trees is still subject to taxonomic debate. This hinders their effective use and conservation programmes. This study investigates differences in phenological behaviour between bitter and sweet fruited populations and their taxonomic implications. Monthly phenological description data on seven populations of bitter or sweet bush mangos across Benin and Togo were used to assess within and between mango type phenological diversity, to discriminate bitter and sweet trees and to evaluate their responses to environmental factors. The phenological states differentiating bitter and sweet trees were identified and individual trees were classified based on the discriminating phenological characters. Finally, phenological variation was analyzed with time of the year, soil type, type of bush mango tree, and climatic zone. Phenological diversity varies significantly among populations. Bitter and sweet trees have consistently different phenological states. Bitter trees have a lower phenological diversity for all phenological phases throughout the year compared to sweet trees, possibly due to their limited distribution range in the study area. The tree types also differ in their reproductive responses to environmental factors, but did not respond differently to soils. These results support the hypothesis that bitter and sweet trees represent different taxa and we suggest for efficient conservation purpose to consider them as different species.
Botrytis species: relentless necrotrophic thugs or endophytes gone rogue?
Kan, J.A.L. van; Shaw, M.W. ; Grant-Downton, R.T. - \ 2014
Molecular Plant Pathology 15 (2014)9. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 957 - 961.
sclerotinia-sclerotiorum - disease development - oxalic-acid - gray mold - cinerea - plant - infection - flowers - diversity - fruits
Plant pathology has a long-standing tradition of classifying microbes as pathogens, endophytes or saprophytes. Lifestyles of pathogens are categorized as biotrophic, necrotrophic or hemibiotrophic. Botrytis species are considered by many to be archetypal examples of necrotrophic fungi, with B.¿cinerea being the most extensively studied species because of its broad host range and economic impact. In this review, we discuss recent work which illustrates that B.¿cinerea is capable of colonizing plants internally, presumably as an endophyte, without causing any disease or stress symptoms. The extent of the facultative endophytic behaviour of B.¿cinerea and its relevance in the ecology and disease epidemiology may be vastly underestimated. Moreover, we discuss the recent discovery of a novel Botrytis species, B.¿deweyae, which normally grows as an endophyte in ornamental daylilies (Hemerocallis), but displays facultative pathogenic behaviour, and is increasingly causing economic damage. We propose that the emergence of endophytes ‘gone rogue’ as novel diseases may be related to increased inbreeding of hybrid lines and reduced genetic diversity. These observations lead us to argue that the sometimes inflexible classification of pathogenic microbes by their lifestyles requires serious reconsideration. There is much more variety to the interactions of Botrytis with its hosts than the eye (or the plant pathologist) can see, and this may be true for other microbes interacting with plants.
Sensory and health properties of steamed and boiled carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus)
Bongoni, R. ; Stieger, M.A. ; Dekker, M. ; Steenbekkers, B. ; Verkerk, R. - \ 2014
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 65 (2014)7. - ISSN 0963-7486 - p. 809 - 815.
beta-carotene - processed vegetables - cooking methods - fruits - texture - quality - bioavailability - pectin - juice - raw
This study examined the influences of domestic processing conditions applied by consumers on firmness, colour and amount of phytochemicals and liking and sensory attributes intensity rating of carrots. The aim was to identify a cooking method and time that yields carrots with higher amount of b-carotene while maintaining consumer liking. Instrumentally measured firmness and colour showed comparable degradation trends between cooking methods. While boiling showed a significant decrease in the amount b-carotene after 20 min (19%), steaming maintained the amount (+40%). Cooking method did not show a significant effect on liking and intensity ratings for the majority of the sensory attributes. Medium firm carrots were liked the most and low firm carrots the least. This study demonstrates that for optimum liking, carrots should be in the range of medium firmness. This can be obtained through either cooking methods but steamed carrots possess a higher amount of b-carotene and maintains liking.
Predictive modelling of vegetable firmness after thermal pre-treatments and steaming
Dekker, M. ; Dekkers, E. ; Jasper, A. ; Baár, C. ; Verkerk, R. - \ 2014
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 25 (2014). - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 14 - 18.
pectin - kinetics - texture - fruits
Texture is an important product property that strongly affects the quality evaluation of processed vegetables by consumers. The rate of texture decrease is dependent on the processing temperature and the type of vegetable. A large data set on instrumental texture measurements of carrot and broccoli was produced with different time–temperature combinations for steaming the vegetables. This data set was fitted with a fractional conversion model to describe the kinetics of texture change. Pre-treating the vegetables by steaming at 50–80 °C can increase the resistance towards softening in a subsequent steaming process. The effect of time and temperature of the thermal pre-treatment on the rate constant of softening during subsequent steaming has been evaluated. A response surface two factor interaction model could well describe this effect. Pre-treatments enable more flexibility to optimise several product properties like health, texture and colour. The predictive model presented here is a valuable tool for this multi-criteria optimisation. Industrial relevance A model to describe the softening of vegetable texture during steaming is presented, and the effect of pre-treatment conditions on the reduction of the subsequent softening rate is included in the model. With this model vegetable texture can be improved by predicting the optimal time and temperature of the pre-treatment. This model can be integrated into a multi-criteria optimization approach to improve other quality attributes and still give a desired texture.
Rehydration kinetics of freeze-dried carrots
Vergeldt, F.J. ; Dalen, G. van; Duijster, A.J. ; Voda, A. ; Khalloufi, S. ; Vliet, L.J. van; As, H. van; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van; Sman, R.G.M. van der - \ 2014
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 24 (2014). - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 40 - 47.
fruits - foods - microstructure - vegetables - quality - impact - nmr
Rehydration kinetics by two modes of imbibition is studied in pieces of freeze-dried winter carrot, after different thermal pre-treatments. Water ingress at room temperature is measured in real time by in situ MRI and NMR relaxometry. Blanched samples rehydrate substantially faster compared to non-blanched samples, independent of their porous microstructure. It is proposed that for non-blanched tissues immobilized sugars result in nearly complete swelling of the solid matrix, hindering the ingress of water through the porous network. Nonblanched carrot pieces frozen at-28 °C rehydrate faster compared to those frozen at-150 °C, due to blocking of smaller pores by swelling. In blanched tissues themobilization of sugars results in amore homogeneous Sugar distribution, leading to less swelling of the solid matrix and allowing fast ingress of water via capillary suction. Industrial relevance: The dried fruits and vegetables that are currently available on the market are a poor compromise between convenience (rehydration kinetics) and sensorial quality. This is a major bottleneck for consumers to “Make the Healthy Choice the Easy Choice” and this also negatively impacts market growth. Currently, rational optimization of drying processes is impeded by lack of insight which structural features determine rehydration kinetics (convenience) and texture (sensorial quality) upon rehydration. We therefore started a program to quantitatively assess and model microstructural features and rehydration behavior of freeze-dried carrots as a model system.
Evaluation of the nutritive value of muiumba (Baikiaea plurijuga) seeds: chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility and in vitro gas production
Rodrigues, M.A.M. ; Lourenço, A.L. ; Cone, J.W. ; Nunes, F.M. ; Santos, A.S. ; Cordeiro, J.M.M. ; Guedes, C.M.V. ; Ferreira, L.M.M. - \ 2014
SpringerPlus 3 (2014). - ISSN 2193-1801
nonstarch polysaccharides - production profiles - plant materials - dietary fiber - tree fodder - fermentation - feed - fractions - leaves - fruits
One of the main constraints hindering the increase of animal production in semi-arid regions of Africa is the inadequate supply of nutrients during the dry season. Incorporation of alternative feed resources in ruminant diets during this period could be a viable approach to overcome these limitations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of muiumba (Baikiaea plurijuga) tree seeds as an alternative nutrient source for ruminants. Muiumba seeds were compared to other eight feedstuffs including two cereal grains (corn and oat), two wheat by-products (wheat bran and distilled wheat) and four protein meals (coconut meal, sunflower meal, soybean meal and rapeseed meal) as to its chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and in vitro gas production. The moderate crude protein concentrations (145 g/kg DM) of muiumba seeds indicate that this feedstuff could not be used as a protein supplement, contrarily to the majority of multipurpose tree seeds. Although the starch content was scarce (15 g/kg DM), the low neutral detergent fibre (235 g/kg DM), low molecular weight sugar (76.1 g/kg DM) and non-starch polysaccharide (510.5 g/kg DM) contents indicate that this feedstuff has potential feeding value. This was confirmed by the IVOMD (0.770) and by the data provided by the in vitro gas production showing that muiumba seeds had high (P <0.05) maximum gas production and fractional fermentation rates, suggesting that these seeds are characterized by a highly fermentable fraction.
Carotenoid composition of berries and leaves from six Romanian sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) varieties
Pop, R.M. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Socaciu, C. ; Pintea, A. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2014
Food Chemistry 147 (2014). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1 - 9.
mass-spectrometry - esters - identification - quantification - fruits - acid - zeaxanthin - lutein - seeds
Berries and leaves from six varieties of Carpathians’ sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., ssp. Carpatica) were analysed for their carotenoid composition (free and esterified) using a combination of HPLC-PAD, GC–MS and UHPLC–PAD–ESI-MS techniques. GC–MS techniques revealed the fatty acid profile specific for each berry variety, while targeted UHPLC–MS analysis identified the fatty acids involved in carotenoids esterification: palmitic (C16:0), myristic (C14:0) and stearic (C18:0). Total carotenoid content varied between 53 and 97 mg/100 g dry weight in berries, and between 3.5 and 4.2 mg/100 g DW in leaves. The carotenoid di-esters represented the main fraction among berry varieties having zeaxanthin di-palmitate as major compound, while leaves contained only free carotenoids like lutein, ß-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin. Principal component analysis identified the suitable carotenoid biomarkers characteristic for the Carpathians’ sea buckthorn from Romania with contribution to their taxonomic classification and authenticity recognition.
Direct quantification of carotenoids in low fat babyfoods via laser photoacoustics and colorimetric index a
Doka, O. ; Ajtony, Z. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Valinger, D. ; Vegvari, G. - \ 2014
International Journal of Thermophysics 35 (2014)12. - ISSN 0195-928X - p. 2197 - 2205.
reflectance spectroscopy - lycopene content - cultivars - products - antioxidants - retinol - disease - fruits - color - pulp
Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index a * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC) and by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) at 473 nm. The latter requires a minimum of sample preparation and only a one time calibration step which enables practically direct quantification of TCC. Results were verified versus UV–Vis spectrophotometry (SP) as the reference technique. It was shown that RC and LPAS (at 473 nm) provide satisfactory results for a *, R 2 = 0.9925 and R 2 = 0.9972, respectively. Other color indices do not show a correlation with TCC. When determining the TCC in baby foods containing tomatoes, it is necessary to select a different analytical wavelength to compensate for the effect of lycopene’s presence in the test samples.
Multiphysics pore-scale model for the rehydration of porous foods
Sman, R.G.M. van der; Vergeldt, F.J. ; As, H. van; Dalen, G. van; Voda, A. ; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van - \ 2014
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 24 (2014). - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 69 - 79.
moisture transport - mass-transfer - water - imbibition - quality - media - pressure - lattice - liquid - fruits
In this paper we present a pore-scale model describing the multiphysics occurring during the rehydration of freeze-dried vegetables. This pore-scale model is part of a multiscale simulation model, which should explain the effect of microstructure and pre-treatments on the rehydration rate. Simulation results are compared to experimental data, obtained by MRI and XRT. Time scale estimates based on the pore-scale model formulation agree with the experimental observations. Furthermore, the pore-scale simulation model provides a plausible explanation for the strongly increased rehydration rate, induced by the blanching pre-treatment. Industrial relevance The increased insight in the physical processes governing the rehydration of porous or freeze-dried foods gives more rationale for optimizing all processing steps. Industry is seeking for means to give dried fruits and vegetables more convenience, but also higher quality concerning health and texture. This study shows that blanching pretreatment prior to freeze-drying strongly enhances the rehydration, while the loss of nutrients is hardly affected.
Can transcriptomics provide insight into the underlying chemopreventive mechanisms of complex mixtures of phytochemicals in humans?
Breda, S.G. van; Wilms, L.C. ; Gaj, S. ; Briedé, J.J. ; Helsper, J.P.F.G. ; Kleinjans, J.C. ; Kok, T.M. de - \ 2014
Antioxidants and redox signaling 20 (2014)14. - ISSN 1523-0864 - p. 2107 - 2113.
Blueberries contain relatively large amounts of different phytochemicals which are suggested to have chemopreventive properties, but little information is available on the underlying molecular modes of action. This study investigates whole genome gene expression changes in lymphocytes of 143 humans after a four-week blueberry-apple juice dietary intervention. Differentially expressed genes and genes correlating with the extent of antioxidant protection were identified in 4 subgroups. The magnitude of the preventive effect after the intervention differed between these four subgroups. Furthermore, subjects in two groups carried genetic polymorphisms that were previously found to influence the chemopreventive response. Pathway analysis of the identified genes showed strong but complex gene expression changes in pathways signaling for apoptosis, immune response, cell adhesion, and lipid metabolism. These pathways indicate increased apoptosis, upgraded growth control, induced immunity, reduced platelet aggregation and activation, blood glucose homeostasis, and regulation of fatty acid metabolism. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that combining transcriptomic data with phenotypic markers of oxidative stress may provide insight into the relevant cellular processes and genetic pathways which contribute to the antioxidant response of complex mixtures of phytochemicals, such as found in blueberry-apple juice
Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC– time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming
Fernandes, V.C. ; Lehotay, S.J. ; Geis-Asteggiantec, L. ; Kwon, H. ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Kamp, H.J. van der; Mateus, N. ; Domingues, V.F. ; Delerue-Matos, C. - \ 2014
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 31 (2014)2. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 262 - 270.
pressure gas-chromatography - tandem mass-spectrometry - performance liquid-chromatography - quechers sample preparation - qualitative aspects - multiresidue method - vegetables - fruits - extraction - foods
In this study, we analyzed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming to integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. We applied three different methods for analysis: (i) 27 pesticides were targeted using LC-MS/MS; (ii) 143 were targeted using low pressure GC - tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC-MS/MS); and (iii) More than > 600 pesticides were screened in a targeted and untargeted approach using comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS). Comparison was made of the analyses using the different methods for the shared samples. The results were similar, thereby providing satisfactory confirmation of both similarly positive and negative findings. No pesticides were found in the organic-farmed samples. In samples from integrated pest management practices, 9 pesticides were determined and confirmed to be present ranging from 2 µg kg-1 for fluazifop-p-butyl to 50 µg kg-1 for fenpropathrin. Concentrations of residues in strawberries were less than European maximum residue limits.
Metabolic diversity in apple germplasm
Khan, S.A. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Chibon, P.Y.F.R.P. ; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Beekwilder, M.J. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Schouten, H.J. - \ 2014
Plant Breeding 133 (2014)2. - ISSN 0179-9541 - p. 281 - 290.
x domestica borkh. - linkage group 16 - phenolic-compounds - genetic diversity - malus-sieversii - mqtl hotspot - rosaceae - origin - fruits - genome
We analysed metabolic diversity in apples from wild species, elite material and a F1 population, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The evaluated elite material appeared to have strongly reduced levels of phenolic compounds, down to 1% of the concentrations in the investigated wild germplasm. In one quarter of the F1 population, the concentrations of phenolic compounds such as quercetin derivatives, procyanidin, catechin and epicatechin were further significantly reduced, due to accumulation of recessive alleles of putatively leucoanthocyanidin reductase, a structural gene that is located at the top of LG16. In another part of F1 progeny, putatively glycosylated forms of ß-glycols were up to 50 times more abundant compared to both parents. These metabolites were mapped with high logarithm of odds (LOD) scores at the top of LG8, and progeny that was homozygous recessive for the candidate gene showed the elevated levels. We hypothesize that this was caused by inheritance of non-functional alleles of enoyl-CoA hydratase gene. Both examples of
Where to prick the apple for skin testing?
Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J. ; Weg, W.E. van de; Heide, S. van der; Dubois, A.E.J. - \ 2013
Allergy 68 (2013)9. - ISSN 0105-4538 - p. 1196 - 1198.
cultivars - allergenicity - fruits
Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle.
Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the detection of phomopsin A in lupin and lupin-containing retail food samples from the Netherlands
Nijs, W.C.M. de; Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H. ; Dam, R.C.J. van; Rijk, T.C. de; Egmond, H.P. van; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2013
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 30 (2013)10. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1819 - 1826.
mycotoxin analysis - leptostromiformis - extraction - maize - wheat - spectrometry - pesticides - matrices - fruits - seeds
Phomopsins (PHO) are mycotoxins produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica (also referred to as Phomopsis leptostromiformis). Lupin is the most important host crop for this fungus and PHO are suspected as cause of lupinosis, a deadly liver disease, in sheep. Lupin is currently in use to replace genetically modified soy in many food products available on the European market. However, a validated method for analysis of PHO is not available until now. In this work, a dilute-and-shoot LC-MS/MS-based method was developed for the quantitative determination and identification of phomopsin A (PHO-A) in lupin and lupin-containing food. The method involved extraction by a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/20/1 v/v), dilution of the sample in water, and direct injection of the crude extract after centrifugation. The method was validated at 5 and 25 µg PHO-A kg(-1) product. The average recovery and RSD obtained were 79% and 9%, respectively. The LOQ (the lowest level for which adequate recovery and RSD were demonstrated) was 5 µg PHO-A kg(-1). Identification of PHO-A was based on retention time and two transitions (789 > 226 and 789 > 323). Using the average of solvent standards from the sequence as a reference, retention times were all within ± 0.03 min and ion ratios were within ± 12%, which is compliant with European Union requirements. The LOD (S/N = 3 for the least sensitive transition) was 1 µg PHO-A kg(-1) product. Forty-two samples of lupin and lupin-containing food products were collected in 2011-2012 from grocery stores and internet shops in the Netherlands and analysed. In none of the samples was PHO-A detected