Mobilization of biomass for energy from boreal forests in Finland & Russia under present sustainable forest management certification and new sustainability requirements for solid biofuels
Sikkema, R. ; Faaij, A.P.C. ; Ranta, T. ; Heinimö, J. ; Gerasimov, Y.Y. ; Karjalainen, T. ; Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2014
Biomass and Bioenergy 71 (2014). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 23 - 36.
environmental impacts - wood - bioenergy - resources - fuel - alternatives - procurement - potentials - countries - products
Forest biomass is one of the main contributors to the EU's renewable energy target of 20% gross final energy consumption in 2020 (Renewable Energy Directive). Following the RED, new sustainability principles are launched by the European energy sector, such as the Initiative Wood Pellet Buyers (IWPB or SBP). The aim of our study is the investigation of the quantitative impacts from IWPB's principles for forest biomass for energy only. We deploy a bottom up method that quantifies the supplies and the costs from log harvest until forest chip delivery at a domestic consumer. We have a reference situation with existing national (forest) legislation and voluntary certification schemes (scenario 1) and a future situation with additional criteria based on the IWPB principles (scenario 2). Two country studies were selected for our (2008) survey: one in Finland with nearly 100% certification and one in Leningrad province with a minor areal share of certification in scenario 1. The sustainable potential of forest resources for energy is about 54 Mm3 (385 PJ) in Finland and about 13.5 Mm3 (95 PJ) in Leningrad in scenario 1 without extra criteria. The potential volumes reduce considerably by maximum 43% respectively 39% after new criteria from the IWPB, like a minimum use of sawlogs, stumps and slash for energy, and by an increased area of protected forests (scenario 2A Maximum extra restrictions). In case sawlogs can be used, but instead ash recycling is applied after a maximum stump and slash recovery (scenario 2B Minimum extra restrictions), the potential supply is less reduced: 5% in Finland and 22% in Leningrad region. The estimated reference costs for forest chips are between €18 and €45 solid m-3 in Finland and between €7 and €33 solid m-3 in the Leningrad region. In scenario 2A, the costs will mainly increase by €7 m-3 for delimbing full trees (Finland), and maximum €0.3 m-3 for suggested improved forest management (Leningrad region). In scenario 2B, when ash recycling is applied, costs increase by about €0.3 to €1.6 m-3, depending on the rate of soil contamination. This is an increase of 2%, on top of the costs in scenario 2A.
Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel
Jorgensen, A. ; Bikker, P. ; Herrmann, I.T. - \ 2012
Journal of Cleaner Production 24 (2012). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 85 - 91.
life-cycle assessment - fuel - lca
This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the 'original user' of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel rather than petrochemical diesel. Given that it is the production of the substitute for the poultry fat which mainly eliminates the benefit from using poultry fat for biodiesel, it is argued that whenever assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from biodiesel made from by-products (such as rendered animal fats, used cooking oil, etc.) it is very important to include the oil's alternative use in the assessment.
From biofuel to bioproduct: is bioethanol a suitable fermentation feedstock for synthesis of bulk chemicals?
Weusthuis, R.A. ; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2011
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 5 (2011)5. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 486 - 494.
treated wheat-straw - yarrowia-lipolytica - acid production - ethanol - inhibition - microbes - biomass - scale - fuel
The first pilot-scale factories for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose have been installed, indicating that we are on the brink of overcoming most hurdles for an economically feasible process. When bioethanol is competitive as biofuel with fuels originating from petrochemical resources, it will also become interesting to use lignocellulose as a feedstock for the fermentative synthesis of bulk chemicals. Lignocellulose hydrolysates, however, are highly complex and viscous media, posing challenges to oxygen transfer, product formation at low sugar concentration, product recovery, etc. Bioethanol is an exceptional product in this respect because it can be produced anaerobically, at low sugar concentrations, and can be easily removed from the broth by distillation. For products that do not have these benefits, another approach may be interesting, in which lignocellulose is first converted to bioethanol, which in turn serves as a substrate for a second conversion into the desired product, similar to the traditional production of acetic acid in vinegar. In this perspective, we compare these one-stage and two-stage conversions with respect to overall yield and productivity of the fermentation process and the differences that occur in product removal. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!
Seters, J.R. van; Sijbers, J.P.J. ; Denis, M. ; Tramper, J. - \ 2011
Journal of Chemical Education 88 (2011)2. - ISSN 0021-9584 - p. 195 - 196.
hydrolysis - fuel
The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material is converted to glucose by cellulase enzymes, (ii) the glucose-containing solution is fermented by baker’s yeast to a solution of approximately 5% ethanol, and (iii) the ethanol solution is subsequently distilled to yield an ethanol solution of at least 40%. All students obtained flammable end products and liked the realistic practice
Specific in vitro toxicity of crude and refined petroleum products. 1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses
Vrabie, C.M. ; Jonker, M.T.O. ; Murk, A.J. - \ 2009
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28 (2009)9. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1995 - 2003.
polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - ah receptor - estrogenic activity - aquatic toxicity - complex-mixtures - heavy oil - assay - gene - agonists - fuel
The present study is the first in a series reporting on in vitro toxic potencies of oils. The objective was to determine whether 11 crude oils and refined products activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in a dioxin receptor¿mediated luciferase assay. Cells were exposed for 6 and 24 h to different oil concentrations to screen for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon¿like or dioxin-like activity. Moreover, cytotoxicity of the oils was determined using rat hepatoma cells. Except for one crude oil, none of the oils appeared cytotoxic up to 100 mg/L, but all oils activated the AhR. Strong AhR induction was observed for most oils after 6 h, and responses decreased after 24 h, indicating the presence of metabolizable agonists. However, several oils still caused high responses after 24 h, also demonstrating the presence of persistent agonists. The potencies (calculated based on comparisons of concentrations at which 50% of the maximal effect was observed) of oils were found to be approximately 40 to 106 times lower than the potency of the assay's standards benzo[a]pyrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. However, considering that oils contain thousands of chemicals, the potencies of petrochemical agonists may be very high. Among the most potent oils were bunker and crude oils. Induction up to 200% as compared to the maximum induction caused by benzo[a]pyrene was observed for these oils. Such supermaximal responses suggest mixture effects that may not be receptor-mediated. Experiments in which oils were tested in combination with the standards demonstrated that oils acted via an antagonistic or additive mode. The results of the present study may help improve risk assessment of petroleum products and judge the necessity or priority of oil spill cleanup activities
Perspective: The social science of sustainable bioenergy production in Southeast Asia
Bush, S.R. - \ 2008
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 2 (2008)2. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 126 - 132.
The social sciences have made considerable inroads into exploring the politics of environment, land and resources throughout Southeast Asia, yet the social and political character of bioenergy development remains little understood. Current assumptions that bioenergy provides benefits to rural populations requires a much stronger empi-rical basis that will only come through further research. The challenge for the social sciences is to provide a critical but realistic understanding of the wider socio-political context of bioenergy production, giving attention to who is promoting bioenergy production, to what ends, and at whose cost. This article hopes to provoke a more con-sidered policy dialogue over bioenergy development in regions such as Southeast Asia through a more grounded understanding of production and governance to unlock, wherever possible, the potential of the sector.