Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Occurence and trend analysis of organochlorine in animal feed
    Adamse, P. ; Peters, R.J.B. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2013.009) - 41
    diervoeding - organische chloorverbindingen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - voersamenstelling - polychloorbifenylen - voederkwaliteit - voederveiligheid - diergezondheid - animal nutrition - organochlorine compounds - organochlorine pesticides - feed formulation - polychlorinated biphenyls - forage quality - feed safety - animal health
    In this report historical data are used to give insight into the trends in levels of organochlorine compounds in compound feeds and feeding materials for animals in the Netherlands. The main focus is on pesticides, but non-dioxin-like PCBs have been studied as well. The latter will be included in the trend analysis reports about dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in the future. This analysis was performed on request of the NVWA (Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority). The results of these analyses will enable the NVWA to develop a risk-directed sampling strategy for the National Feed Monitoring program. More than 5000 feed samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds in the period 2001-2011. The materials in these samples originate from all over the world, but were sampled in the Netherlands. Samples were taken by the NVWA for the Netherlands National Feed Monitoring program and by the feed industry.
    Ex situ treatment of sediments with granular activated carbon : a novel remediation technology
    Rakowska, M.I. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Bart Koelmans; Tim Grotenhuis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738981 - 240
    polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen - polychloorbifenylen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - verontreinigde sedimenten - remediatie - actieve kool - mariene sedimenten - rivieren - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - polychlorinated biphenyls - organochlorine pesticides - contaminated sediments - remediation - activated carbon - marine sediments - rivers

    Over the last decades, industrial and urban development and emisions of many hazardous organic compounds have threatened the ecological quality of marine and freshwater sediments. Sediments accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thus may pose serious risks to ecosystems and human health. Over the past years sediment treatment by sorbent addition such as activated carbon (AC) to achieve sequestration of HOCs in situ has been proposed as an alternative approach to traditional remediation technologies such as dredging and disposal. The present research was meant to explore ex situ extraction of sediment by granular AC (GAC) (‘active stripping’) as a novel approach in comparison to traditional in situ AC sediment remediation technologies using amendments of powdered AC (PAC) or GAC.

    Chapter2 discusses the current state of the art in AC amendment technology as a method for sediment remediation. In this chapter, major knowledge gaps are revealed on sediment-AC-HOC interactions controlling the effectiveness of HOC binding such as AC type, particle size, dosage, sediment and sorbate characteristics,and efficiency of AC to reduce bioaccumulation in benthic invertebrates.In addition, the review discusses potential negative effects of AC on aquatic life. Finally, we discuss whether the effects of AC addition can be predicted using fate and transport models.

    Chapter 3explores the potential of GAC in the context of ex situ sediment remediation technology. Since the added GAC would compete for the sorption of HOCs with natural sediment phases, its effectiveness would strongly depend on its dosage. Consequently, in this chapter we investigate the distribution coefficients for short-term sorption processes, and the optimal dosage level of GAC to be used in intensive sediment remediation. A suite of candidate GAC materials is screened for maximum efficiency in extracting PAHs from sediment with very high PAH and oil pollution levels within 24 h. The effectiveness of GAC is compared to a single-step solid phase extraction (SPE) with Tenax beads, Sorption data are interpreted in terms of aqueous phase concentration reduction ratios and distribution coefficients. Despite the considerable fouling of GAC by organic matter and oil, 50-90% of the most available PAH was extracted by the GAC during 28-d contact time, at a dose as low as 4%.

    A prerequisite for the application of active stripping with GAC in contaminatedsediment remediation is effective transport of pollutantsfrom the sediment to the GAC during the relatively short mixing stage. Therefore, in Chapter 4kinetics of PAH transfer from sediment using GAC at a relatively low dose as a solid extraction phase kinetic parameters are obtained by modeling experimental sediment-GAC exchange kinetic data following a two-stage model calibration approach. Rate constants (kGAC) for PAH uptake by GAC range from 0.44 to 0.0005 d-1, whereas GAC sorption coefficients (KGAC) range from 105.57to 108.57L kg-1. These results show that ex situ extraction with GAC is sufficiently fast and effective to reduce the risks of the most available PAHs among those studied, such as fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene.

    It is unclear how the GAC/sediment mixing step affects desorption kinetics of HOCs for instance by changing the sediment particle size distributions, and whether these factors may influence the effectiveness of ex situ GAC extraction technology. Chapter 5 presents the results of investigations on the effect of mixing intensity on the extraction rate of PAHs from contaminated sediment. Desorption data are interpreted using a radial diffusion model. Mixing caused the 161 µm particles originally present at a stirring rate of 200 rpm to decrease in size to 9 µm at a rate of 600 rpm. Desorption rate constants decreased with increasing PAH hydrophobicity but increased with the intensity of mixing. The results demonstrate that desorption of PAHs is significantly accelerated by a reduction of particle aggregate size caused by shear forces induced by mixing.

    So far, the remediation effectiveness and ecological side effects of AC application have been studied in the short term, and mainly in laboratory studies. However, it is still not clear to what extent these reduced pore water concentrations change over longer times and how they differ for chemicals and for different AC remediation scenarios under field conditions. Chapter 6 presents (pseudo-)equilibrium as well as kinetic parameters for in situ sorption of a series of PAHs and PCBs to powdered and granular activated carbons (AC) after three different sediment treatments: sediment mixed with powdered AC (PAC), sediment mixed with granular AC (GAC), and addition of GAC followed by 2 d mixing and subsequent removal (‘sediment stripping’) in the field. Remediation efficiency is assessed by quantifying fluxes towards SPME passive samplers inserted in the sediment top layer, which shows that efficiency decrease in the order of PAC > GAC stripping > GAC addition. Sorption was very strong to PAC, with log KAC (L/kg) values up to 10.5. Log KAC values for GAC ranged from 6.3 - 7.1 and 4.8 - 6.2 for PAHs and PCBs, respectively. Log KAC values for GAC in the stripped sediment were 7.4 - 8.6 and 5.8 - 7.7 for PAH and PCB. Apparent first order adsorption rate constants for GAC (kGAC) in the stripping scenario were calculated with a first-order kinetic model and ranged from 1.6×10-2 (PHE) to 1.7×10-5 d-1 (InP). This study showed that sediment treatment with PAC is most effective and less prone to organic matter fouling and ongoing natural processes in the field. The effectiveness of GAC is higher in the 48 h sediment stripping scenario than in the GAC amendment approach.

    In Chapter 7 the effects of three different AC treatments (see above) on HOC concentrations in pore water, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton and fish (Leuciscus idus melanotus) are tested. The AC treatments result in a significant decrease in HOC concentrations in pore water, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, macrophytes and fish. In 6 months, PAC treatment caused a reduction of accumulation of PCBs in fish by a factor of 20 bringing pollutant levels below toxic thresholds. All AC treatments supported growth of fish, but growth was inhibited in the PAC treatment, which is likely to be explained from reduced nutrient concentrations, resulting in lower zooplankton (i.e., food) densities for the fish. During the course of the field study, sediment stripping as well as sediment treatment with GAC turned out to be slower in reducing PCB bioaccumulation in biota, but the treatments were not harmful to any of the biota either.

    In the final chapter (Chapter 8), overarching answers to the main research questions (see above) are formulated and an outlook regarding the actual use of ex situ GAC is provided.

    PIMM-Biota 2002/2003, analyses in het kader van het Provinciaal Integraal Meetnet Mileukwaliteit (PIMM), provincie Zuid-Holland; deelrapport 2: organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen in mollen en wormen en mogelijke risico's
    Brink, N.W. van den; Pol, J.J.C. van der - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 855.2) - 75
    gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - pesticiden - lumbricus rubellus - kleine zoogdieren - aporrectodea caliginosa - milieueffect - risicoschatting - nederland - ecotoxicologie - organochlorine pesticides - pesticides - lumbricus rubellus - small mammals - aporrectodea caliginosa - environmental impact - risk assessment - netherlands - ecotoxicology
    In het kader van het Provinciaal Integraal Meetnet Milieukwaliteit (PIMM) van de Provincie Zuid-Holland is een studie uitgevoerd waarin OCBs in wormen zijn geanalyseerd. Tevens is een risicoanalyse van andere contaminanten (dioxine-achtige stoffen, estrogene stoffen en bestrijdingsmiddelen) in mollen uitgevoerd. Doelstellingen van het onderzoek waren om (a) trends in concentraties van OCBs te bepalen (b) een risicoanalyse voor wormen en voor risico’s van doorvergiftiging naar hogere organismen uit te voeren en (c) het screenen van blootstelling van mollen aan andere contaminanten en de daaraan verbonden risico’s. De gehalten van p,p’-DDE in wormen zijn hoger op natuurlocaties dan op agrarische locaties. Andere OCBs geven dit beeld niet. Overschrijding van referentiegetallen wordt in geval van wormen niet waargenomen. In mollen is overschrijding van de referentiedata voor een aantal stoffen aantoonbaar gebleken, met name p,p’-DDE, Som DDT, dieldrin en cis-HCE. Er worden geen directe effecten van de OCBs op de groei van wormen gevonden, en ook geen potentiële risico’s op doorvergiftiging naar hogere organismen berekend (OMEGA). Op één van de onderzochte locaties is bij de mol blootstelling aan dioxine-achtige stoffen aannemelijk gemaakt met behulp van biomarkers en bioassays (potentieel risico), actuele risico’s zijn niet aangetoond. Dioxine-achtige stoffen vormen mogelijk een potentieel risico voor mollen
    Ontwikkelen van een bevestigingsmethode voor de simultane bepaling van polychloorbifenylen (pcb's) en organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen (oc's) in dierlijke vetten, plantaardige vetten/oliën, vetzuren en diervoeders
    Weg, G. van der; Traag, W.A. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 2003.010) - 15
    polychloorbifenylen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - analytische methoden - spectroscopie - polychlorinated biphenyls - organochlorine pesticides - analytical methods - spectroscopy
    Resultaten onderzoek organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen, chloorbifenylen en zware metalen in organen en vetten : jaaroverzicht 1997 (Nationaal plan hormonen en overige stoffen en concept nationaal plan pluimvee)
    Roos, A.H. ; Kamp, H.J. van der; Oostrom, J.J. van - \ 1998
    Wageningen : RIKILT-DLO (Rapport / DLO-Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor Land- en Tuinbouwprodukten 98.009) - 9
    dierlijk vet - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - zware metalen - polychloorbifenylen - pesticidenresiduen - animal fat - organochlorine pesticides - heavy metals - polychlorinated biphenyls - pesticide residues
    Onderzoek naar de aanwezigheid van tris (4-chloorfenyl)methanol en tris (chloorfenyl)-methaan in marine toppredatoren uit de Noordzee en Waddenzee
    Boer, J. de; Wester, P.G. - \ 1994
    IJmuiden : RIVO (RIVO rapport C006/94) - 11
    gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - zeehonden - zeedieren - predatoren - analytische methoden - organochlorine pesticides - seals - marine animals - predators - analytical methods
    Een methode werd ontwikkeld voor de analyse van tris(4-chloorfenyl)methanol (TCP) in organismen. Met behulp van soxhletextractie, gelpermeatiechromatografie, fractionering over silicagel en gaschromato-grafische analyse met massaspectrometrische detectie (negatieve chemische ionisatie) kan TCP in organismen bepaald worden met een recovery van 90% en een detectiegrens van 0,02 µg/kg.
    Verontreinigingen in aal en snoekbaars : monitorprogramma ten behoeve van de Nederlandse sportvisserij 1992
    Boer, J. de; Dao, Q.T. ; Pieters, H. - \ 1993
    IJmuiden : RIVO (RIVO rapport 93.006) - 26
    polychloorbifenylen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - kwik - waterverontreiniging - palingen - snoekbaars - sportvissen - ecotoxicologie - polychlorinated biphenyls - organochlorine pesticides - mercury - water pollution - eels - pike perch - game fishes - ecotoxicology
    Stability of organochlorine pesticides in a candidate animal feed reference material (CRM 115)
    Roos, A.H. ; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T. ; Matser, A.M. - \ 1992
    Wageningen : DLO-State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products (Report / RIKILT-DLO 92.22)
    gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - referentienormen - diervoedering - organochlorine pesticides - reference standards - animal feeding
    Preparation and homogeneity of a candidate animal feed reference material organochlorine pesticides (CRM 115)
    Roos, A.H. ; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T. ; Matser, A.M. - \ 1991
    Wageningen : DLO-State lnstitute tor Quality Control of Agricultural Products (Report / RIKILT-DLO 91.59) - 15
    gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - voer - monsterverwerking - referentienormen - organochlorine pesticides - feeds - sample processing - reference standards
    Een kandidaat referentiemateriaal mengvoeder gecontamineerd met organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen werd bereid. Door aan een olie gecontamineerd met organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen een hoeveelheid van het gehomogeniseerde basisvoeder, gebaseerd op legpluimvee en varkensvoer, toe te voegen en te homogeniseren werd eerst een premix verkregen. Deze premix werd na controle op homogeniteit met het overige basisvoeder gemengd en gehomogeniseerd. Het verkregen voeder werd geampulleerd. Tijdens de bereiding is nagegaan of er in de afzonderlijke grondstoffen geen interferenties met de bestrijdingsmiddelen optraden. Tevens is in alle fasen van de bereiding de homogeniteit gecontroleerd. Na het uitvullen van het mengvoeder in de ampullen is opnieuw de homogeniteit bepaald. Deze was vergelijkbaar met de voor ampulleren gemeten variatiecoëfficiënt voor de herhaalbaarheid.
    Negen jaren van organochloor-pesticiden onderzoek in rode aal
    Kerkhoff, M. ; Boer, J. de; Vries, A. de - \ 1986
    IJmuiden : R.I.V.O. (Rapport Rijksinstituut voor Visserijonderzoek no. MO 86-02) - 12
    anguillidae - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - palingen - visziekten - nederland - ecotoxicologie - anguillidae - organochlorine pesticides - eels - fish diseases - netherlands - ecotoxicology
    Het gehalte aan organochloor-bestrijdingsmiddelen in afgebroeide tulpebollen
    Roos, A.H. ; Munsteren, A.J. van; Neer, T.C.H. van; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th. - \ 1981
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 81.64) - 6
    gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - tulpen - bloembollen - broeien - organochlorine pesticides - tulips - ornamental bulbs - scalding
    Doel is het geven van een overzicht van de besmetting met organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen van afgebroeide tulpebollen toegepast voor veevoederdoeleinden en de gevolgen hiervan voor de besmetting van melk en zuivelprodukten.
    Interne niveaucontrole I : de bepaling van organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen in rundvet, kalfsvet en varkensvet (periode januari-december 1979)
    Roos, A.H. ; Struys-van de Putte, H.M. van der; Munsteren, A.J. van; Werdmuller, G.A. ; Driessen, J.J.M. ; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th. - \ 1980
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 80.80)
    gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - pesticiden - vet - vetten - organochlorine pesticides - pesticides - fat - fats
    Doel van dit onderzoek was: Het verkrijgen van een inzicht in de recovery van organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen en de spreiding van deze recovery's in rund-, kalfs- en varkensvetten.
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