Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Elearning Cursus mens-dier interactie in de varkenshouderij
    Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - varkens - diergedrag - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - varkenshouderij - gedrag - behandeling - animal welfare - animal production - pigs - animal behaviour - animal health - animal housing - pig farming - behaviour - treatment
    Hoe ervaart een varken de omgeving? En waarom is het van belang om hierbij stil te staan? Deze cursus richt zich op het belang van een goede mens-dier relatie, waarbij onder andere gekeken wordt naar de manier waarop een varken de wereld ervaart. Dit geeft inzicht in de manier van omgang, met als gevolg minder stress voor dier én mens. Het doel is een win-win situatie; het bevorderen van dierge - zondheid en dierenwelzijn dat onder andere zorgt voor meer werkplezier en meer benutting van het productie potentieel van het varken.
    The role of environmental shocks in shaping prosocial behavior
    Duchoslav, Jan - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H. Bulte, co-promotor(en): F. Cecchi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431477 - 190
    environment - behaviour - economic development - social behaviour - stress conditions - environmental temperature - physical properties - social environment - milieu - gedrag - economische ontwikkeling - sociaal gedrag - stress omstandigheden - omgevingstemperatuur - fysische eigenschappen - sociaal milieu

    All economic activity requires some degree of cooperation, and the process of economic development involves many social dilemmas. It is therefore crucial to understand how the preferences which guide our behavior vis-à-vis these situations are shaped. The ability and willingness to work for the benefit of the group rather than just one's own has evolved over many generations, and is – to some extent – innate to any healthy human being. At the same time, individual prosocial preferences are – also to a certain extent – endogenous to the physical and social environment within which we operate. This thesis identifies several ways in which environmental changes affect intrinsic prosocial preferences, and outlines a possible direction for fixing any such negative effects.

    In Chapter 1, I introduce the topic of prosocial preferences. I briefly describe how prosociality has been viewed over the course of scientific history, and summarize the current state of knowledge about the formation of social preferences. I further outline how extrinsic incentives can influence prosocial behavior without affecting the preferences which underpin it. Finally, the chapter contains an overview of the methodologies used throughout this thesis.

    In Chapter 2, I focus on an early formative factor of prosocial preferences—their fetal origins. I study how temperature shocks faced by pregnant women affect their children's later-life prosocial preferences. I find that exposure to higher than usual ambient temperatures during gestation reduces a child's probability of contribution to the public good, with the negative effect lasting into adulthood.

    Chapter 3 continues in the same vein as Chapter 2, looking at the fetal origins of prosocial preferences. In this chapter, I investigate how prenatal stress induced by random violence affects the preferences for cooperation among children born during an armed conflict. To do so, I exploit variations in the ratio of the lengths of the index and ring fingers—a marker of in utero hormone exposure negatively associated with high maternal distress during early fetal development. I show that prenatal stress reduces the probability that children contribute to the public good.

    In Chapter 4, I move away from the physical aspects of human environment, focusing instead on the social ones. I study the effects of a sudden introduction of a formal institution on individual cooperative behavior within informal arrangements. In particular, I look at how an NGO intervention which helped create a mutual health insurance affected cooperative behavior in a public goods game. I find that the introduction of formal insurance reduces contributions to the public good. This reduction in cooperation levels is, however, not due to the adopters of the formal insurance who may now have less need for informal reciprocal networks, and who therefore (partially) withdraw from them. It is instead the non-adopters who become less cooperative towards the adopters.

    To outline a possible direction for remedying the negative environmental effects on prosocial behavior described in the previous three chapters, I illustrate one of the ways in which prosocial behavior can be incentivized with a relatively simple and easily implementable policy. In Chapter 5, I evaluate the impact of introducing performance-based financial incentives on staff effort and, consequently, on allocative efficiency and output in healthcare provision. I show that in the case under investigation, financial incentives conditioned on output and worth roughly 5% of total expenditures increased staff effort to the extent that output rose by over 25%, without any detectable drop in the quality of the provided services. This not only shows the potential of incentive-compatible financing to improve the performance of underfunded healthcare systems in developing countries, but also that extrinsic motivation can be used to foster behavior which benefits the society rather than just the individual.

    Finally, I combine the main findings from the core chapters of the thesis in Chapter 6. I discuss their policy implications, and point out the some of the outstanding questions, outlining the directions for future research.

    Combining malaria control with rural electrification : social and behavioural factors that influenced the design, use and sustainability of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria elimination on Rusinga Island, western Kenya
    Oria, Prisca A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; Willem Takken, co-promotor(en): J. Alaii. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578579 - 176
    malaria - vector control - public health - culicidae - insect traps - social factors - behaviour - design - solar energy - kenya - malaria - vectorbestrijding - volksgezondheid - culicidae - insectenvallen - sociale factoren - gedrag - ontwerp - zonne-energie - kenya

    Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that informed this thesis.

    Chapter 2 systematically documented and analysed how the mosquito trapping technology and related social contexts mutually shaped each other and how this mutual shaping impacted the design and re-design of the intervention. Our analysis focused on the design, re-design and piloting of the innovative approach to controlling malaria largely before its field implementation had started. During the pre-intervention year, various aspects of the intervention were re-designed ahead of the project roll-out. Changes to the technology design included removal of carbon dioxide from the blend, trap improvements and re- design of the electricity provision system. In order to gain and maintain the support of the community and organisations on the island, the project adapted its implementation strategies regarding who should represent the community in the project organisation team, who should receive solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS), and in which order the systems should be rolled out. This process involved not only the project team and the producers of the different components of SMoTS, but also included feedback from the residents of Rusinga Island. This process of incorporating feedback from a broad range of stakeholders utilized data from the entomological, technical and socio-behavioural researches as well as data from more broad engagements with the social environment of the study population and setting. The analysis demonstrates how system innovation theory helps to provide insights into how a promising malaria control intervention evolves and matures through an interaction between technical and social phenomena. This part of the study demonstrated that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but similar to other malaria strategies, required new social organisational arrangements to go with it.

    In chapter 3, this thesis investigated immediate community response to the innovation and the implications for ongoing implementation and supportive community communication outreach. The explorations found that the main benefit of SMoTS to study participants was house lighting and suggested that the main reason that people adhered to recommended behaviours for SMoTS deployment was to ensure uninterrupted lighting at night, rather than reducing mosquito biting or malaria risk. Electrification led to a number of immediate benefits including reduced expenditure on kerosene and telephone charging and conveniences (such as lit early mornings and late nights, increased study hours, etc.). The changes brought about by electric lighting provided conveniences which improved the welfare of residents. Some respondents also reported hearing fewer mosquito sounds when interviewed a few weeks after a SMoTS was installed in their house. On the question of maintenance, we found that residents of Rusinga Island adequately maintained SMoTS. Households also reported maintenance needs to the project and project technicians carried out repair and maintenance needs.

    Chapter 4 documented the perceived impact of SMoTs on family dynamics, social and economic status, and the community as a whole. The findings suggest that even when the use of energy is restricted, electricity can enhance the value of life. Although data on malaria prevention was yet to be fully collected and analysed, there was evidence of enhanced socio-economic and emotional well-being of study participants which may enhance the desire to sustain the intervention. In the end, this may be a double-edged intervention that delivers health benefits and contributes to improved welfare. The utility, social significance and emotional benefits experienced with the lighting component of SMoTS may create the desire to sustain the intervention. However, the motivation to sustain the whole SMoTS will also depend on the results of the entomological and parasitological components of this intervention.

    Chapter 5 evaluated the knowledge, perceptions and practices related to malaria control before and after the roll-out of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems. As a malaria control strategy, SMoTS were installed in Rusinga to complement the existing use of long- lasting insecticidal nets (LLINS) and prompt malaria care seeking. The message about the complementariness of SMoTS as a malaria strategy was further stressed during social mobilisation to encourage continued use of LLINs and prompt malaria care seeking. The findings suggest that overall, the SolarMal project did not induce a negative effect of the innovation on the uptake of existing malaria strategies. The continuation of LLIN use and recommended malaria treatment seeking was likely contributed to by the social mobilisation component of the SolarMal intervention as well as a mass distribution of LLINs campaign, suggesting the need for a strong continuous demand generation exercise. The number of respondents who reported that mosquito densities had reduced was much higher at the end of the research phase confirming that the recorded entomological changes (that showed SMoTS had proved effective in controlling mosquitoes) had also been experienced by residents.

    Chapter 6 investigated whether the community preferred individual or cooperative solutions for organising the sustainability components of SMoTS, and whether and how known social dilemma factors could be recognised in the reasoning of actors. The findings of the explorations of sustainability of installed SMoTS beyond the research period did not portray a promising picture. While residents were unanimous that they would like to continue enjoying the benefits of SMoTS (especially house electrification), it appeared that residents preferred largely individual approaches. Yet the individual approaches suggested by residents for sustaining SMoTS may be realistic for sustaining only the lighting component. Sustaining the mosquito control component, which is what would impact malaria, requires more resources (than the lighting component) and may be better facilitated by more collective undertakings by residents. Residents expressed concerns about working collectively with others that seemed to suggest that the situation had features of a social dilemma.

    Chapter 7 synthesises the main findings. Subsequently, this results in the overall conclusions of the thesis that are discussed within the broader debates on research and policy. This thesis shows that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but required new social organisational arrangements to go with it. The intervention was a composite of which the technical component was one and focussing on it without the others may have negative implications for effectiveness. By implication, the scaling up of SMoTS will also require scaling-up the intervention process and social organisation that played a role in its effectiveness in the trial setting. This thesis also demonstrates the importance of flexibility and continuous learning in multiple spheres in a complex multidisciplinary innovative intervention to control malaria. The key addition to the knowledge base for similar public health programs is that intervention design is not a one-off occurrence and neither is implementation a linear process. Social science research was a core component in this process and the process required not only integrating social inquiry into the design, but also into planning, implementation, and monitoring. This contributed to ensuring that flexibility and adaptability to the local realities were built into the SolarMal intervention and contributed to the success of the intervention. Rather than project management, persons involved in rolling-out innovations should perhaps focus on adaptive and proactive management and on facilitating change. While managing emphasises control and certainty, an innovation process requires flexibility to allow continuous adaptations which characterise the process. In practice, this means keeping attuned to perceiving signals, analysing feedback loops and using those signals to mitigate what is not going well or amplify what is going well.

    Quantitative and ecological aspects of Listeria monocytogenes population heterogeneity
    Metselaar, K.I. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering; Tjakko Abee, co-promotor(en): Heidy den Besten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577664 - 173
    listeria - listeria monocytogenes - stress - stress tolerance - ribosomes - proteins - lactobacillus plantarum - behaviour - ecological assessment - genome analysis - dna sequencing - resistance - heterogeneity - listeria - listeria monocytogenes - stress - stresstolerantie - ribosomen - eiwitten - lactobacillus plantarum - gedrag - ecologische beoordeling - genoomanalyse - dna-sequencing - weerstand - heterogeniteit

    Bacterial stress response and heterogeneity therein is one of the biggest challenges posed by minimal processing. Heterogeneity and resulting tailing representing a more resistant fraction of the population, can have several causes and can be transient or stably in nature. Stable increased stress resistance is caused by alterations in the genome and therefore inheritable and is referred to as stable stress resistant variants. Also L. monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous response upon stress exposure which can be partially attributed to the presence of stable stress resistant variants. Adverse environments were shown to select for stable stress resistant variants. The objective of the research described in this thesis was to evaluate if L. monocytogenes population diversity and the presence of stable resistant variants is a general phenomenon that is observed upon different types of stress exposure, to get more insight in the mechanisms leading to increased resistance and to evaluate the ecological behaviour and potential impact on food safety of these stable resistant variants. Acid stress was chosen as it is an important hurdle both in food preservation, as well as in stomach survival.

    First, the non-linear inactivation kinetics of L. monocytogenes upon acid exposure were quantitatively described. A commonly used biphasic inactivation model was reparameterized, which improved the statistical performance of the model and resulted in more accurate estimation of the resistant fraction within L. monocytogenes WT populations. The observed tailing suggested that stable stress resistant variants might also be found upon acid exposure. Indeed, 23 stable acid resistant variants of L. monocytogenes LO28 were isolated from the tail after exposure of late-exponential phase cells to pH 3.5 for 90 min, with different degrees of acid resistance amongst them. Increased acid resistance showed to be significantly correlated to reduced growth rate. Studying the growth boundaries of the WT and a representative set of variants indicated that the increased resistance of the variants was only related to survival of severe pH stress but did not allow for better growth or survival at mild pH stress.
    A set of variants were further characterized phenotypically and cluster analysis was performed. This resulted in three clusters and four individual variants and revealed multiple-stress resistance, with both unique and overlapping features related to stress resistance, growth, motility, biofilm formation and virulence indicators. A higher glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity correlated with increased acid resistance. Whole genome sequencing of a set of variants was performed and revealed mutations in rpsU, encoding ribosomal protein S21. This rpsU mutation was found in all 11 variants comprising the largest phenotypic cluster, indicating a potential role of this ribosomal protein in stress resistance. Mutations in ctsR, which were previously shown to be responsible for increased resistance of heat and HHP resistant variants, were not found in the acid resistant variants. This underlined that large population diversity exists within one L. monocytogenes strain and that different adverse conditions drive selection for different variants.

    Next, the performance in mixed species biofilms with Lactobacillus plantarum was evaluated, as well as their benzalkonium chloride (BAC) resistance in these biofilms. It was hypothesized that the acid resistant variants might also show better survival in biofilms with L. plantarum, which provide an acidic environment by lactose fermentation with pH values below the growth boundary of L. monocytogenes when biofilms mature. L. monocytogenes LO28 WT and eight acid resistant variants were capable of forming mixed biofilms with L. plantarum at 20°C and 30°C in BHI supplemented with manganese and glucose. Some of the variants were able to withstand the low pH in the mixed biofilms for a longer time than the WT and there were clear differences in survival between the variants which could not be correlated to (lactic) acid resistance alone. Adaptation to mild pH of liquid cultures during growth to stationary phase increased the acid resistance of some variants to a greater extent than of others, which could be correlated to increased survival in the mixed biofilms. There were no clear differences in BAC resistance between the wild type and variants in mixed biofilms.

    Lastly, a set of robustness and fitness parameters of WT and variants was obtained and used to model their growth behaviour under combined mild stress conditions and to model their performance in a simulated food chain. This gave more insight in the trade-off between increased stress resistance and growth capacity. Predictions of performance were validated in single and mixed cultures by plate counts and by qPCR in which WT and an rpsU deletion variant were distinguished by specific primers. Growth predictions for WT and rpsU deletion variant were matching the experimental data generally well. Globally, the variants are more robust than the WT but the WT grows faster than most variants. Validation of performance in a simulated food chain consisting of subsequent growth and inactivation steps, confirmed the trend of higher growth fitness and lower stress robustness for the WT compared to the rpsU variant. This quantitative data set provides insights into the conditions which can select for stress resistant variants in industrial settings and their potential persistence in food processing environments.

    In conclusion, the work presented in this thesis highlights the population diversity of L. monocytogenes and the impact of environmental conditions on the population composition, which is of great importance for minimal processing. The work of this thesis resulted in more insight in the mechanisms underlying increased resistance of stress resistant variants and quantitative data on the behaviour of stress resistant variants which can be implemented in predictive microbiology and quantitative risk assessments aiming at finding the balance between food safety and food quality.

    Sustainable consumption and marketing
    Dam, Y.K. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576490 - 176
    consumer behaviour - marketing - consumption - household consumption - market research - decision making - behavioural changes - behaviour - economic psychology - sustainability - consumentengedrag - marketing - consumptie - huishoudelijke consumptie - marktonderzoek - besluitvorming - gedragsveranderingen - gedrag - economische psychologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability)

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the ‘importance’ of ‘sustainability’ has a meaning that is not directly translated into purchases.

    The cognitive and motivational perceptual structures of sustainability among light users of sustainable products are empirically compared to the Brundlandt definition (needs of future generations) and the Triple-P-Baseline (people, planet, prosperity) definition of sustainability. Results show that light users cognitively can distinguish between the social and temporal dimensions of the Brundlandt definition, as well as the people, planet and prosperity dimensions of the Triple-P definition of sustainability. In the motivational structure of light users of sustainable products, all attributes that do not offer direct and personal benefits are collapsed into a single dimension. This single dimension explains purchases more parsimoniously than a more complex structure, and is itself explained by a set of psychographic predictors that appears to be related to identity.

    Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. Attribute relevance is commonly measured by self-reported importance in a Likert type scale. In order to measure attribute determinance a survey based measure is developed. In an empirical survey (N=1543) determinance of sustainability related product attributes is measured through a set of forced choice items and contrasted to self-reported relevance of those attributes. In line with expectations, a priori determinance predicts sustainable food choice more efficiently than perceived relevance. Determinance of sustainability related product attributes can be predicted by future temporal orientation, independently of relevance of these attributes.

    These results support an interpretation of the attitude to behaviour gap in terms of construal level theory, and this theory allows for testable hypotheses on low construal motivators that should induce light users to purchase sustainable products. Sustainable consumption is viewed as a dilemma between choices for immediate (low construal) benefits and choices that avoid long-term collective (high construal) harm.

    Identity theory suggests that self-confirmation could be a driving motive behind the performance of norm-congruent sustainable behaviour. Through identity people may acquire the intrinsic motivation to carry out pro-environmental behaviour. This view is tested in two empirical studies in The Netherlands. The first study shows that sustainable identity predicts sustainable preference, and that the effect of identity on preference is partly mediated by self-confirmation motives. The second study confirms that sustainable identity influences the determinance of sustainable attributes, and through this determinance has an impact on sustainable product choice. This effect is partly mediated by stated relevance of these attributes.

    Sustainable certification signals positive sustainable quality of a product, but fail to create massive demand for such products. Based on regulatory focus theory and prospect theory it is argued that negative signalling of low sustainable quality would have a stronger effect on the adoption of sustainable products than the current positive signalling of high sustainable quality. The effects of positive vs. negative signalling of high vs. low sustainable quality on attitude and preference formation are tested in three experimental studies. Results show (1) that negative labelling has a larger effect on attitude and preference than positive labelling, (2) that the effect of labelling is enhanced by regulatory fit, and (3) that the effect of labelling is mediated by personal norms, whereas any additional direct effect of environmental concern on preference formation is negligible.

    Overall the present thesis suggests that the attitude to behaviour gap in sustainable consumption can be explained as a conflict between high construal motives for the abstract and distant goals of sustainable development and the low construal motives that drive daily consumption. Activating low construal motives for sustainable consumption, be it intrinsic motives to affirm a sustainable self-concept or loss aversion motives, increases sustainable consumer behaviour. Applying these insights to marketing decision making opens a new line of research into the individual, corporate, and institutional drivers that may contribute to the sustainable development of global food markets.

    I was totally there! : understanding engagement in entertainment-ducation narratives
    Leeuwen, L. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; S.J.H.M. Putte, co-promotor(en): Reint-Jan Renes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573369 - 153
    communicatie - communicatietheorie - volksgezondheid - alcoholisme - vertier - onderwijs - drinken - gedrag - psychologie - adolescenten - educatieve televisie - communication - communication theory - public health - alcoholism - entertainment - education - drinking - behaviour - psychology - adolescents - educational television

    Summary

    I was totally there!: Understanding engagement in entertainment-education narratives

    By Lonneke van Leeuwen

    Introduction
    Narratives have the power to influence their recipients’ health behaviors. With the entertainment-education (E-E) strategy, health organizations turn this narrative power to good account by employing narratives in their health promoting campaigns. E-E programs, mostly in the form of televised narratives, have been shown to effectively encourage a variety of health-related behaviors. Because of these positive results, the E-E strategy is considered a promising communication strategy to encourage healthy behaviors. One quality of E-E narratives that has been shown to be crucial for narrative impact is the ability of E-E narratives to engage target recipients. Engaged recipients may experience four dimensions of narrative engagement (NE): narrative understanding, attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence. Although evidence is growing that NE plays a role in E-E narratives’ impact (hereafter: E-E impact), little is known about how NE leads to E-E impact and about how NE emerges in recipients of narratives.

    Objective
    The objective of this dissertation is to provide a better understanding of NE in E-E narratives, by investigating how NE is associated with E-E narratives’ impact, and by investigating the processes that contribute to experiencing NE.

    Context
    The studies described in this dissertation are conducted within the context of NE in E-E narratives aiming to discourage alcohol (binge) drinking among adolescents and young adults. In 2008, the televised E-E drama series Roes (High in English) was broadcast on national television. Roes consists of 11 case stories (25 minutes each) portraying negative experiences and outcomes of adolescent protagonist(s) drinking alcohol and/or using other drugs.

    Research questions
    Three research questions are addressed in this dissertation:
    RQ1: Does Roes discourage alcohol (binge) drinking in E-E narrative recipients?
    RQ2a: Are NE dimensions associated with E-E impact on alcohol (binge) drinking?
    And, if so:
    RQ2b: Do negative and positive thoughts about alcohol (binge) drinking mediate associations between NE dimensions and E-E impact on alcohol (binge) drinking?
    RQ3: Which psychological processes experienced during narrative reception contribute to experiencing NE dimensions?

    Main findings
    This dissertation has shown that Roes discouraged alcohol (binge) drinking. Viewing multiple episodes of Roes positively predicted a decrease in alcoholic drinks consumed per occasion, an increase in the intention to decrease alcohol use, and an increase in perceived normative pressure. One year after exposure, the impact on the intention to decrease alcohol use was still present. One of the Roes episodes, Verliefd (In love in English), was further examined. After the participants had viewed this episode, their beliefs relating to the negative outcomes of alcohol binge drinking (BD) were more contra-BD as compared to their beliefs prior to viewing the episode. Attitudes towards BD and willingness to engage in BD also became more contra-BD.

    Then, the roles of the NE dimensions attentional focus, narrative understanding, emotional engagement, and narrative presence in E-E impact were investigated. It was shown that the NE dimensions attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence were positively associated with E-E impact. Attentional focus was associated both with stronger beliefs about the severity of the negative outcomes of BD and with a lowered intention to engage in BD. Emotional engagement and narrative presence were associated with stronger beliefs that BD leads to negative outcomes (negative outcome beliefs), and with stronger beliefs about being vulnerable to these negative outcomes (vulnerability beliefs). Surprisingly, the NE dimension narrative understanding was associated with increased willingness to engage in BD.

    No evidence was found that negative thoughts about BD mediated associations between NE dimensions and E-E impact. Relations between NE dimensions, positive thoughts about BD, and E-E impact could not be investigated: only one participant reported a positive thought about BD in response to Verliefd. Based on these findings we conclude that attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence are important for E-E impact, and that thoughts about BD do not play a role therein.

    Because NE dimensions were found to be associated with E-E impact, it was investigated which psychological processes contribute to NE dimensions. Negative thoughts about the perceptual persuasiveness of Verliefd negatively associated with emotional engagement and narrative presence. Furthermore, it was shown that enjoyment of Verliefd was a strong contributor to NE, mainly through contributing to attentional focus. Another strong contributor to NE was narrative realism, mainly through contributing to narrative understanding. Finally, personal relevance, character involvement, and perceived severity contributed mainly through emotional engagement.

    This dissertation shows that E-E narratives can be an effective health communication strategy to discourage alcohol (binge) drinking in young people. Furthermore, this dissertation provides health communication researchers and media psychologists with insights into the role of NE in E-E impact, and offers E-E developers practical recommendations about how to create engaging and impactful E-E narratives.

    Expertisecentrum Dierenwelzijn - gedragsonderzoek
    Walstra, I. ; Koot, S. ; Hopster, H. - \ 2013
    dierenwelzijn - onderwijs - hoger onderwijs - beroepsopleiding - gedrag - onderzoek - animal welfare - education - higher education - vocational training - behaviour - research
    Door middel van het project 'Expertisecentrum Dierenwelzijn' wordt getracht dierenwelzijn in het hogere groene onderwijs meer in te bedden. Hiermee wordt een impuls gegeven aan de doorvertaling van nieuwe inzichten en ontwikkelingen via toekomstige dienstverleners, adviseurs en toeleveranciers naar dierhouders en praktijk. In dit onderdeel van het project is met name aandacht voor het uitbreiden van gedragsonderzoek uitbreiden in het HBO onderwijs en de verbinding met de praktijk.
    Eikenprocessierups op verkeerde spoor
    Bergervoet, J.H.W. ; Raaij, H.M.G. van; Stevens, L.H. - \ 2012
    [S.l.] : YouTube
    thaumetopoea processionea - quercus - plantenplagen - plagenbestrijding - natuurlijke producten - biologische bestrijding - extracten - gedrag - innovaties - landbouwkundig onderzoek - thaumetopoea processionea - quercus - plant pests - pest control - natural products - biological control - extracts - behaviour - innovations - agricultural research
    Eenvoudig, milieuvriendelijk en goedkoop de eikenprocessierups bestrijden. Dat komt dichterbij nu onderzoekers van Plant Research International (PRI), onderdeel van Wageningen UR, een natuurproduct hebben gevonden waarmee de rupsen om de tuin geleid kunnen worden. In samenwerking met gemeenten en groenbeheerders moet verder onderzoek uitwijzen welke stoffen voor deze reactie zorgen en hoe ze geproduceerd kunnen worden. De verwachting is dat dit onderzoek twee jaar zal duren. Deze film is gemaakt doorJan Bergervoet. Deze film hoort bij het persbericht van Wageningen UR die op 13 november 2012 verschenen is onder de titel: Wageningse onderzoekers leiden eikenprocessierups om de tuin. Voor meer informatie zie de website: www.wageningenur.nl/eikenprocessierups
    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction
    Steg, L. ; Berg, A.E. van den; Groot, J.I.M. de - \ 2012
    UK : Wiley-Blackwell (BPS textbooks in psychology ) - ISBN 9780470976388 - 406
    omgevingspsychologie - gezondheid - welzijn - landschapsbeleving - wild - natuur - perceptie - gedrag - milieubeheer - stedelijke gebieden - studieboeken - environmental psychology - health - well-being - landscape experience - wildlife - nature - perception - behaviour - environmental management - urban areas - textbooks
    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's effects on human wellbeing and behaviour, factors influencing environmental behaviour and ways of encouraging pro-environmental action •Provides a state-of-the-art overview of recent developments in environmental psychology, with an emphasis on sustainability as a unifying principle for theory, research and interventions •While focusing primarily on Europe and North America, also discusses environmental psychology in non-Western and developing countries •Responds to a growing interest in the contribution of environmental psychologists to understanding and solving environmental problems and promoting the effects of environmental conditions on health and wellbeing
    Kijk naar de context : de alledaagse sociale omgeving als startpunt voor patiëntgebonden leefstijladvisering
    Bouwman, L.I. ; Koelen, M.A. ; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Dapper, T. - \ 2012
    Voeding Nu 14 (2012)6/7. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 18 - 20.
    gezondheidsbevordering - levensstijl - voeding en gezondheid - gedrag - patiënten - sociaal milieu - health promotion - lifestyle - nutrition and health - behaviour - patients - social environment
    Het verband tussen leefstijl en gezondheid is evident. De voordelen van een gezonde leefstijl zijn bekend, maar hoe begeleid je patiënten optimaal op hun pad richting die gezonde leefstijl? Deze intrigerende vraag, die speelt op zowel het gebied van beleid, wetenschap als in de huisartsenpraktijk, stond centraal tijdens een afscheidssymposium op 10 mei 2012 in Nijmegen.
    Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour
    Voordouw, J. ; Snoek, H.M. ; Broek, E. van den; Reinders, M.J. ; Meeusen, M.J.G. ; Veggel, R.J.F.M. van; Kooijman, V.M. ; Stijnen, D.A.J.M. ; Trentelman, I. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 9
    voeding en gezondheid - jeugd - schoollunches - gedrag - kinderen - schoolmaaltijden - schoolkinderen - schoolontbijten - nutrition and health - youth - school lunches - behaviour - children - school meals - school children - school breakfasts
    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to study the effects of a school lunch programme in the Netherlands, based on an overview of studies by LEI and Food and Biobased Research, both part of Wageningen UR.
    Concurrentie tussen honingbijen en wilde bijen (1)
    Cornelissen, B. ; Visser, A. - \ 2011
    Bijenhouden 5 (2011)2. - ISSN 1877-9786 - p. 16 - 17.
    wilde bijenvolken - honingbijen - concurrentie tussen dieren - voedselopname - discussie - landschap - gedrag - wild honey bee colonies - honey bees - animal competition - food intake - discussion - landscape - behaviour
    Eerste deel van een reeks over de concurrentie tussen honingbijen en wilde bijen. In 2010 was er veel te doen over concurrentie tussen honingbijen en wilde bijen. Erik van der Spek (2010) stelde dat het plaatsen van grote aantallen bijenkasten een bedreiging vormt voor de wilde bijen in natuurgebieden. Niet vee later schreef Arie Koster (2010) hij op de Elspeter heide rond bijenvolken net zoveel heidezijdebijen waarnam als op andere delen van de heide. Een dergelijke discussie is zeker niet nieuw. In 1998 schreef Koster er al over in bijenteelt en in 1998 verscheen er een rapport over dit onderwerp met aanbevelingen vooer aantallen bijenvolken in natuurgebieden (Smeekens e.a., 1998). Sindsdien is echter nog veel meer onderzoek gedaan. Tijd voor een update
    Families on the balance: eating behaviour and weight status of adolescents and their families
    Snoek, H.M. - \ 2010
    Radboud University Nijmegen. Promotor(en): R.C.M.E. Engels; J.M.A.M. Janssens; T. van Strien. - Den Haag : Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen - ISBN 9789090249452 - 238
    voedingsgewoonten - eten - dwangmatig eten - mentale stress - emoties - gedrag - adolescenten - gezinnen - feeding habits - eating - compulsive eating - mental stress - emotions - behaviour - adolescents - families
    This dissertation focusses on three eating styles: Emotional eating which is the tendency to eat in response to emotional (dis)stress, external eating which is the tendency to eat in response to food cues, and restrained eating which is the tendency to restrict food intake in order to loose weight or prevent weight gain.
    Effecten van de visserij gedurende het voortplantingsseizoen op het duurzaam beheer van visbestanden: een uitgebreide Nederlandse samenvatting
    Overzee, H.M.J. van; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2010
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR 076/10) - 21
    kuitschieten - periode van kuitschieten - visserij - voortplantingsvermogen - gedrag - visserij-ecologie - spawning - spawning season - fisheries - reproductive performance - behaviour - fisheries ecology
    In opdracht van Stichting Vis & Seizoen heeft IMARES een uitgebreide literatuurstudie uitgevoerd naar de mogelijke effecten van de visserij tijdens het voortplantingsseizoen. Dit rapport geeft een uitgebreide Nederlandse samenvatting van het Engelstalige rapport “Effects of fisheries during the spawning season: implications for management”.
    On the development, environmental effects and human dimension of weed management strategies
    Riemens, M.M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Kropff, co-promotor(en): Bert Lotz. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856696 - 176
    onkruidbestrijding - onkruiden - zaadbanken - milieueffect - handmatige onkruidbestrijding - gedrag - weed control - weeds - seed banks - environmental impact - manual weed control - behaviour
    On the development, environmental effects and human dimension of weed management strategies.
    On farm weed management is influenced by many factors. These factors comprise the development and availability of weed management tools, the environmental impact of these tools and the attitude and behaviour of the farmer. In this research major gaps in our knowledge on each of these aspects were identified. Research questions were formulated concerning ecological weed management strategies depleting the soil seed bank, environmental effects of chemical weed management and the human dimension of weed management.
    Two ecological weed management strategies were investigated regarding the reduction of the soil seed bank. The principle of the first strategy was to stimulate the germination and emergence of weed seeds within a growing season. The principle of the second strategy was to reduce the seed return to the soil seed bank within a crop rotation. To test the applicability of the first strategy several stale seedbed treatments in combination with mechanical weed control techniques were applied. Similar levels of annual weed control during crop growth were achieved as with chemical control. To test the applicability of the second strategy three different levels of seed return to the soil seed bank were allowed: one level aimed at a 100% prevention of seed return, one level at the prevention of seed return from the largest plants (thus, the plants with most seeds), and a reference level, representing standard weed control in an organic system. The strategies were applied for a period of seven years and their effects on the aboveground weed density and the soil seed bank were monitored at the end of this period. The weed densities in plots aiming at a 100% prevention of seed return became significantly lower than the weed densities in plots allowing for the other weed seed return levels. Both strategies targeting the soil seed bank proved to be useful strategies to reduce weed densities during crop growth.
    Research questions on environmental effects of chemical control focused on the risk assessment of herbicides to terrestrial non target plants. The influence of plant development stage and surrounding vegetation on the plant sensitivity to herbicides, the influence of the choice of end point and the use of greenhouse data for assessment of effects in the field were investigated for small and broad spectrum herbicides. Effects on the biomass of greenhouse and field-grown plants were found to be related at different effect levels, indicating that it might be possible to translate results from greenhouse studies to field situations. The relationship between greenhouse and field effects is probably herbicide specific and should be assessed for each group of herbicides with a similar mode of action. The response of a single plant species to sublethal herbicide dosages differed to the response of the same species grown in a mixture with other species. The results also suggest consequences at the population level. Even when only marginal effects on the biomass of non-target plants are expected, their seed production and thereby survival at the population level may be negatively affected.
    The third part of the thesis investigated the human dimension of weed management. Most studies on weed population dynamics in farming systems have focused on the effects of different farming systems. Those studies usually assume that farmers, operating within a particular system, show homogeneous management behaviour. However, it is likely that weed management behaviour will vary between farms that operate within one system, thereby influencing the weed pressure. The farmer’s beliefs and knowledge on weed control techniques differed between farmers with different weed pressures.
    It was concluded that future sustainable weed management strategies with a minimum environmental impact would benefit from an approach combining social and natural sciences.

    Implications of fisheries during the spawning season for the sustainable management and recovery of depleted fish stocks: a conceptual framework
    Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2009
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR no. C093.09) - 13
    kuitschieten - periode van kuitschieten - visserij - voortplantingsvermogen - gedrag - visserij-ecologie - spawning - spawning season - fisheries - reproductive performance - behaviour - fisheries ecology
    Fishing during the spawning season may negatively affects the reproductive potential and reproductive dynamics of exploited fish stocks due to a variety of mechanisms such as the disturbance of the natural spawning behaviour, effects on the age, size and sex composition of the spawning population and effects on the population genetics. The effect may differ between species in relation to the spawning strategy and population dynamic characteristics. Based on first principles of reproductive biology, population biology and fishing methods, a theoretical framework is developed on the effects of fishing during the spawning period. This framework is used to structure a review of the available scientific evidence. Implications of the findings on the recovery of depleted fish stocks and the sustainability of exploitation will be discussed and illustrated for a selection of North Sea fish stocks (flatfish, roundfish and pelagic).
    Vertraging van biologische zeugen naar de weide om mineralenverlies te verminderen
    Houwers, H.W.J. ; Vermeer, H.M. - \ 2009
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 207) - 11
    biologische landbouw - varkenshouderij - zeugen - weiden - diergedrag - gedrag - mineralenboekhouding - organic farming - pig farming - sows - pastures - animal behaviour - behaviour - nutrient accounting system
    Delay of admittance to pasture raised the amount of manure on the paved area with 25 % and reduced the amount of manure in the pasture by 7% compared to sows with unrestricted access.
    Consumption, Distribution and Production of Farm Animal Welfare
    Kjaernes, U. ; Bock, B.B. ; Roe, E. ; Roex, J. - \ 2008
    Cardiff : School of City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University (Welfare and quality reports no. 7) - ISBN 9781902647784 - 367
    dierenwelzijn - voedselconsumptie - consumentengedrag - marketing voor de detailhandel - rundveeteelt - attitudes - gedrag - europa - ketenmanagement - animal welfare - food consumption - consumer behaviour - retail marketing - cattle farming - attitudes - behaviour - europe - supply chain management
    The influence of temperature and solar radiation on the behaviour of butterflies
    Malinowska, A.H. ; Cormont, A. - \ 2008
    klimaatverandering - milieueffect - effecten - lepidoptera - zonnestraling - gedrag - climatic change - environmental impact - effects - lepidoptera - solar radiation - behaviour
    Poster on the influence of temperature and solar radiation on the behaviour of butterflies
    Spelen in het groen
    Berg, A.E. van den - \ 2007
    Alterra
    kinderen - gehandicapte kinderen - gedrag - belevingswaarde - landschapsbeleving - natuur - children - children with disabilities - behaviour - experiential value - landscape experience - nature
    Pamflet over spelen in het groen en het effect van spelen in het groen op het gedragen de concentratie van kinderen
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