Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Citizen science and remote sensing for crop yield gap analysis
    Beza, Eskender Andualem - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. Herold, co-promotor(en): L. Kooistra; P. Reidsma. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436410 - 196
    crop yield - maximum yield - yield forecasting - remote sensing - models - small farms - data collection - gewasopbrengst - maximum opbrengst - oogstvoorspelling - remote sensing - modellen - kleine landbouwbedrijven - gegevens verzamelen

    The world population is anticipated to be around 9.1 billion in 2050 and the challenge is how to feed this huge number of people without affecting natural ecosystems. Different approaches have been proposed and closing the ‘yield gap’ on currently available agricultural lands is one of them. The concept of ‘yield gap’ is based on production ecological principles and can be estimated as the difference between a benchmark (e.g. climatic potential or water-limited yield) and the actual yield. Yield gap analysis can be performed at different scales: from field to global level. Of particular importance is estimating the yield gap and revealing the underlying explanatory factors contributing to it. As decisions are made by farmers, farm level yield gap analysis specifically contributes to better understanding, and provides entry points to increased production levels in specific farming systems. A major challenge for this type of analysis is the high data standards required which typically refer to (a) large sample size, (b) fine resolution and (c) great level of detail. Clearly, obtaining information about biophysical characteristics and crop and farm management for individual agricultural activities within a farm, as well as farm and farmer’s characteristics and socio-economic conditions for a large number of farms is costly and time-consuming. Nowadays, the proliferation of different types of mobile phones (e.g., smartphones) equipped with sensors (e.g., GPS, camera) makes it possible to implement effective and low-cost “bottom-up” data collection approaches such as citizen science. Using these innovative methodologies facilitate the collection of relatively large amounts of information directly from local communities. Moreover, other data collection methods such as remote sensing can provide data (e.g., on actual crop yield) for yield gap analysis.

    The main objective of this thesis, therefore, was to investigate the applicability of innovative data collection approaches such as crowdsourcing and remote sensing to support the assessment and monitoring of crop yield gaps. To address the main objective, the following research questions were formulated: 1) What are the main factors causing the yield gaps at the global, regional and crop level? 2) How could data for yield gap explaining factors be collected with innovative “bottom-up” approaches? 3) What are motivations of farmers to participate in agricultural citizen science? 4) What determines smallholder farmers to use technologies (e.g., mobile SMS) for agricultural data collection? 5) How can synergy of crowdsourced data and remote sensing improve the estimation and explanation of yield variability?

    Chapter 2 assesses data availability and data collection approaches for yield gap analysis and provides a summary of yield gap explaining factors at the global, regional and crop level, identified by previous studies. For this purpose, a review of yield gap studies (50 agronomic-based peer-reviewed articles) was performed to identify the most commonly considered and explaining factors of the yield gap. Using the review, we show that management and edaphic factors are more often considered to explain the yield gap compared to farm(er) characteristics and socio-economic factors. However, when considered, both farm(er) characteristics and socio-economic factors often explain the yield gap. Furthermore, within group comparison shows that fertilization and soil fertility factors are the most often considered management and edaphic groups. In the fertilization group, factors related to quantity (e.g., N fertilizer quantity) are more often considered compared to factors related to timing (e.g., N fertilizer timing). However, when considered, timing explained the yield gap more often. Finally, from the results at regional and crop level, it was evident that the relevance of factors depends on the location and crop, and that generalizations should not be made. Although the data included in yield gap analysis also depends on the objective, knowledge of explaining factors, and methods applied, data availability is a major limiting factor. Therefore, bottom-up data collection approaches (e.g., crowdsourcing) involving agricultural communities can provide alternatives to overcome this limitation and improve yield gap analysis.

    Chapter 3 explores the motivations of farmers to participate in citizen science. Building on motivational factors identified from previous citizen science studies, a questionnaire based methodology was developed which allowed the analysis of motivational factors and their relation to farmers’ characteristics. Using the developed questionnaire, semi-structured interviews were conducted with smallholder farmers in three countries (Ethiopia, Honduras and India). The results show that for Indian farmers a collectivistic type of motivation (i.e., contribute to scientific research) was more important than egoistic and altruistic motivations. For Ethiopian and Honduran farmers an egoistic intrinsic type of motivation (i.e., interest in sharing information) was most important. Moreover, the majority of the farmers in the three countries indicated that they would like to receive agronomic advice, capacity building and seed innovation as the main returns from the citizen science process. Country and education level were the two most important farmers’ characteristics that explained around 20% of the variation in farmers’ motivations. The results also show that motivations to participate in citizen science are different for smallholders in agriculture compared to other sectors. For example fun has appeared to be an important egoistic intrinsic factor to participate in other citizen science projects, the smallholder farmers involved in this research valued ‘passing free time’ the lowest.

    Chapter 4 investigates the factors that determine farmers to adopt mobile technology for agricultural data collection. To identify the factors, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model was employed and extended with additional constructs of trust, mastery-approach goals and personal innovativeness in information technology. As part of the research, we setup data collection platforms using open source applications (Frontline SMS and Ushahidi) and farmers provided their farm related information using SMS for two growing seasons. The sample for this research consisted of group of farmers involved in a mobile SMS experiment (n=110) and another group of farmers which was not involved in a mobile SMS experiment (n=110), in three regions of Ethiopia. The results from the structural equation modelling showed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, price value and trust were the main factors that influence farmers to adopt mobile SMS technology for agricultural data collection. Among these factors, trust is the strongest predictor of farmer’s intention to adopt mobile SMS. This clearly indicates that in order to use the citizen science approach in the agricultural domain, establishing a trusted relationship with the smallholder farming community is crucial. Given that performance expectancy significantly predicted farmer’s behavioural intention to adopt mobile SMS, managers of agricultural citizen science projects need to ensure that using mobile SMS for agricultural data collection offers utilitarian benefits to the farmers. The importance of effort expectancy on farmer’s intention to adopt mobile SMS clearly indicates that mobile phone software developers need to develop easy to use mobile applications.

    Chapter 5 demonstrates the results of synergetic use of remote sensing and crowdsourcing for estimating and explaining crop yields at the field level. Sesame production on medium and large farms in Ethiopia was used as a case study. To evaluate the added value of the crowdsourcing approach to improve the prediction of sesame yield using remote sensing, two independent models based on the relationship between vegetation indices (VIs) and farmers reported yield were developed and compared. The first model was based on VI values extracted from all available remote sensing imagery acquired during the optimum growing period (hereafter optimum growing period VI). The second model was based on VI values extracted from remote sensing imagery acquired after sowing and before harvest dates per field (hereafter phenologically adjusted VI). To select the images acquired between sowing and harvesting dates per field, farmers crowdsourced crop phenology information was used. Results showed that vegetation indices derived based on farmers crowdsourced crop phenology information had a stronger relationship with sesame yield compared to vegetation indices derived based on the optimum growing period. This implies that using crowdsourced information related to crop phenology per field used to adjust the VIs, improved the performance of the model to predict sesame yield. Crowdsourcing was further used to identify the factors causing the yield variability within a field. According to the perception of farmers, overall soil fertility was the most important factor explaining the yield variability within a field, followed by high presence of weeds.

    Chapter 6 discusses the main findings of this thesis. It draws conclusions about the main research findings in each of the research questions addressed in the four main chapters. Finally, it discusses the necessary additional steps (e.g., data quality, sustainability) in a broader context that need to be considered to utilize the full potential of innovative data collection approaches for agricultural citizen science.

    Retrospectieve analyse van standaard vastgelegde data in de vleeskuikenproductieketen
    Jong, I.C. de; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1013) - 32
    vleeskuikens - vleeskuikenproductie - pluimveehouderij - prestatiekenmerken - gegevens verzamelen - gegevensanalyse - nederland - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - broilers - broiler production - poultry farming - performance traits - data collection - data analysis - netherlands - animal welfare - animal production
    Goed registreren, welk systeem?
    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. ; Oldenbroek, J.K. - \ 2016
    Zeldzaam huisdier 41 (2016)4. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 10 - 11.
    zeldzame rassen - dieridentificatiesystemen - informatiesystemen - gegevens verzamelen - registreren - stamboeken - rare breeds - animal identification systems - information systems - data collection - recording - herdbooks
    In voorgaande edities van
    Zeldzaam Huisdier is aandacht
    gegeven aan verschillende systemen
    voor het registreren van
    (zeldzame) rassen, te weten:
    Zoo Easy, Iris, GReIS en Elda,
    Falcoo en Equis (Delta Horses).
    In dit laatste artikel van deze
    reeks geven we een overzicht
    van deze systemen.
    Open data voor precisielandbouw in Nederland
    Dijk, C.J. van; Kempenaar, C. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (Wageningen Plant Research rapport 662) - 32
    gegevens verzamelen - gegevensanalyse - gegevensbeheer - precisielandbouw - nederland - data collection - data analysis - data management - precision agriculture - netherlands
    In Nederland is het aanbod van open data voor precisielandbouw toepassingen divers maar relatief beperkt. Het zijn vooral de nationale en lokale overheden en (semi-overheids) instellingen zoals KNMI, Kadaster, CBS, PDOK, PBL en kennisinstellingen die hun data vrij beschikbaar stellen voor gebruik door derden. Binnen het agrarisch bedrijfsleven is er weinig tot geen bereidheid is tot het delen van data. Dit is terug te voeren op de zorgen die leven met betrekking tot eigendomsrechten, compliance, kwaliteit, aansprakelijkheid, beveiliging en privacy. Deze terughoudendheid is een rem op de mogelijkheden om toepassingen voor precisielandbouw te ontwikkelen. Naast technische oplossingen op het gebied van data management, infrastructuur en interoperability is er een sterke behoefte aan ‘verdienmodellen’ waarbij partijen die gegevens aanleveren delen in de revenuen (benefit-sharing).
    Eindrapportage Veerkracht van Melkvee I : verandering van dynamiek, voorspellende kracht
    Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Mol, Rudi de; Werf, Joop van der; Reenen, Kees van - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 956) - 94
    melkkoeien - melkvee - gustperiode - lactatie - rundveeziekten - diergezondheid - diergedrag - dierfysiologie - gegevens verzamelen - voorspelling - rundveeteelt - dairy cows - dairy cattle - dry period - lactation - cattle diseases - animal health - animal behaviour - animal physiology - data collection - prediction - cattle farming
    The transition period is a critical phase in the life of dairy cows. Early identification of cows at risk for disease would allow for early intervention and optimization of the transition period. Based on the theory of resilience of biological systems we hypothesize that the level of vulnerability of an individual cow can be quantified by describing dynamical aspects of continuously measured physiological and behavioural variables. To examine the relationship between the risk to develop diseases early in lactation and dynamic patterns of high-resolution, physiological and behavioural data, were continuously recorded in individual cows before calving. Dynamic, quantitative parameters for high-resolution physiological and behavioural measures, continuously acquired during the dry period have predictive value for the risk of cows to develop diseases during the early lactation period. Our results suggest that quantitative parameters derived from sensor data may reflect the level of resilience of individual cows.
    Big data analysis for smart farming : Results of TO2 project in theme food security
    Kempenaar, C. ; Lokhorst, C. ; Bleumer, E.J.B. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Been, Th. ; Evert, F.K. van; Boogaardt, M.J. ; Ge, L. ; Wolfert, J. ; Verdouw, C.N. ; Bekkum, Michael van; Feldbrugge, L. ; Verhoosel, Jack P.C. ; Waaij, B.D. ; Persie, M. van; Noorbergen, H. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (Wageningen Plant Research report ) - 82
    animal production - milk production - farming - data analysis - data collection - information technology - models - dierlijke productie - melkproductie - landbouw bedrijven - gegevensanalyse - gegevens verzamelen - informatietechnologie - modellen
    In this report we describe results of a one-year TO2 institutes project on the development of big data technologies within the milk production chain. The goal of this project is to ‘create’ an integration platform for big data analysis for smart farming and to develop a show case. This includes both technical (hard/software) and organizational integration (developing business ecosystem) and combining and linking of data and models. DLO, NLR and TNO worked together in 2015 towards the realization of an IT data infrastructure that makes it possible to solve to connect data from different sources and models in an effective and safe way, ontology problems, specific analysis tools develop, opportunities and risks to identify and assess the acquired knowledge and experience and present it in a smart farming show case, from 'grass to glass‘.
    BioScore 2 - Plants & Mammals : background and pre-processing of distribution data
    Hennekens, S.M. ; Hendriks, J.M. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Santini, L. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 50) - 221
    plants - mammals - biogeography - regression analysis - models - biodiversity - data collection - habitats - planten - zoogdieren - biogeografie - regressieanalyse - modellen - biodiversiteit - gegevens verzamelen - habitats
    This report highlights the background and pre-processing of the distribution of plant species, habitats and mammal species. For plants a selection of about 900 taxa has been made, based on 45 Annex I habitat types, which represent a substantial part of European natural and semi-natural vegetation. For animals all species existing in Europe have been taken into account. The data covers more or less all EU28 countries and is pre-processed in three steps to feed the BioScore 2 model. In the first step for each species or habitat type a climate/soil model has been created by using Boosted Regression Models (GBM). On the basis of these models presence/absence maps are derived to define the distribution range of the species/habitat types. In the second step additional knowledge was brought in to further specify the potential habitat within the distribution range, by laying an explicit mask over it, selecting only those land use types (land cover classes) suitable for the occurrence of the habitat type or species. In the third step the effect of human-induced pressures on habitat quality and species occurrence/abundance within the suitable habitats in the calculated distribution ranges was taken into account. The dose-effect relations were calculated on the basis of Generalized Linear Models (GLM). All outcomes of the three steps have been further used by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) to set up the BioScore 2 model.
    Programa Nacional de Agrologística : Informe 5: Análisis territorial preliminar
    Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 80
    logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - geographical information systems - physical planning - data collection - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - geografische informatiesystemen - ruimtelijke ordening - gegevens verzamelen - mexico
    National Agrologistics Program : report 5: Preliminary territorial analysis
    Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 80
    logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - geographical information systems - physical planning - structural policy - data collection - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - geografische informatiesystemen - ruimtelijke ordening - structuurbeleid - gegevens verzamelen - mexico
    Documentatie Habitatrichtlijn-rapportage artikel 17, 2007-2012
    Schmidt, A.M. ; Adams, A.S. - \ 2015
    Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 55) - 50
    habitatrichtlijn - gegevens verzamelen - habitats - bedreigde soorten - habitats directive - data collection - habitats - endangered species
    Dit WOt-technical report betreft de documentatie van de Habitatrichtlijn (HR)-rapportage over de periode 2007-2012. Het beschrijft het rapportageproces, de onderbouwing van de keuzes die gemaakt zijn bij het invullen van de rapportageformats en verwijst naar het archief (op de WOT IN-server) waarin de HRrapportage en achterliggende bronnen en achtergronddocumentatie zijn opgeborgen.
    Plan van Aanpak voor MBO 'training en opleiding' rond Smart Dairy Farming : onderdeel van BOGO project 'Sensoren in SDF 1.0: lessen voor validatie en informatievoorziening'
    Lokhorst, C. ; Fokkema, R. - \ 2015
    Livestock Research Wageningen UR (Livestock Research rapport 934) - 14
    melkveehouderij - gegevens verzamelen - gegevensanalyse - sensors - bedrijfsvoering - opleiding melkveehouderij - beroepsopleiding - onderwijsprogramma's - dairy farming - data collection - data analysis - sensors - management - dairy education - vocational training - education programmes
    Boomkronen afleiden uit het Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland : kwaliteitsaspecten rondom het geautomatiseerd in kaart brengen van bomen op basis van het AHN2-bestand
    Meijer, M. ; Rip, Frans ; Benthem, R. van; Clement, J. ; Sande, C. van der - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2671) - 85
    bomen - kroondak - kroon - gegevensanalyse - gegevens verzamelen - methodologie - remote sensing - hoogteligging - cartografie - nederland - trees - canopy - crown - data analysis - data collection - methodology - remote sensing - altitude - mapping - netherlands
    Alom wordt erkend dat bomen belangrijk zijn. Zowel voor de mens, de natuur als het klimaat. Recentelijk is een procedure ontwikkeld om op basis van het nationale Nederlandse hoogtebestand AHN2 een bestand te genereren met alle boomkronen in Nederland, genaamd ‘CP’. Een dergelijk bestand kan onder andere het groenbeheer van de gemeenten in Nederland vereenvoudigen en helpen bij het inventariseren van landschapselementen. De vraag is echter: hoe goed is dit bestand? In dit rapport wordt voor een drietal verschillende gebieden onderzocht wat de kwaliteit is van CP. Verder wordt mede op basis van de ervaringen die tijdens het kwaliteitsonderzoek zijn gedaan een standaard kwaliteitsraamwerk opgezet voor het controleren van nieuwe versies van het boomkronenbestand. Daarnaast is dit document er ook op gericht om de potentiële gebruiker een beter beeld van de kwaliteit te geven.
    Robustness of life cycle assessment results : influence of data variation and modelling choices on results for beverage packaging materials
    Harst-Wintraecken, E.J.M. van der - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Carolien Kroeze, co-promotor(en): Jose Potting. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575097 - 217
    levenscyclusanalyse - onzekerheid - modelleren - gegevensanalyse - gegevens verzamelen - afvalverwerking - recycling - milieueffect - life cycle assessment - uncertainty - modeling - data analysis - data collection - waste treatment - recycling - environmental impact

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of product and service systems throughout their life cycles. However, it can happen that LCAs for the same product have different and even conflicting outcomes. LCA results need to be robust and trustworthy if they are used in decision making. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate whether the use of multiple data sets and multiple modelling options can increase the robustness of LCA results.

    The research starts with identifying reasons for differences in LCA results for the same product. The results of ten existing LCAs for disposable beverage cups are compared to each other as to examine the consistency and robustness of these results. The comparison of the LCAs shows no consistent best or worst cup material. And, the quantitative results for cups made from the same material vary across the LCAs. The evaluation of the methodological choices and the used data sources in each LCA made it possible to identify possible sources for discrepancies in the LCA results. Reasons for differences in results include the variation in the properties of the cups, production processes, waste treatment options, allocation options, choices in system boundaries, impact indicators, and potentially also the data sets that are used.

    The thesis next describes a novel method to evaluate and include the influence of data sets and modelling choices on the LCA results. The method is applied in a case study of a disposable polystyrene (PS) beverage cup. The study purposely uses different data sets from various sources for processes with an influential contribution to the LCA results. The study includes two waste treatment options (incineration and recycling). The multiple data sets represent the variability among processes, and the waste treatments represent choices in the modelling of the life cycle of the PS cup.

    This variability among the data sets for a similar process is presented as a spread in the results. This spread in the results for the PS cup is caused by differences in the amount and type of the used resources and energy, reported emissions, the origin of the production location, the time period of data collection, or choices in the value of recycled PS. The overlapping spread in the quantitative results for incineration and recycling prevents a decisive conclusion on the preferred waste treatment option for the PS cups.

    Next, the method for the use of multiple data sets and modelling choices is applied in a comparative LCA of disposable beverage cups. Three cups are compared: a PS cup, a polylactic acid cup (PLA, a biobased plastic), and a cup made from biopaper (paper with a lining of biobased-plastic). The waste treatment options consist of incineration and recycling for all three cups, and additionally composting and anaerobic digestion for the PLA and biopaper cup.

    The use of multiple data sets and modelling choices leads to a considerable spread in the LCA results of the cups. The results do not point to the most environmentally friendly cup material, and neither to a preferred waste treatment option. The results clearly identify composting, however, as the least preferred waste treatment option for the PLA and biopaper cups. The spread in the results makes the comparison of the results for the cups more complex, but the results provides more robust information for decision makers. The combined inclusion of the variability among data sets and the waste treatment options makes the results more trustworthy.

    The thesis then dives deeper into the methodological modelling of recycling in LCA and describes and evaluates six widely used recycling modelling methods: three substitution methods, an allocation method, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. The main difference among the six methods lies in the assumption on where and how to apply credits for recycled material in the life cycle of the product.

    These six methods are applied in two case studies: a disposable PS beverage cup and an aluminium beverage can. The results for the aluminium can clearly depend on the applied recycling modelling method, the recycling rate of the disposed cans, and the amount of recycled material used in the cans. The results for the PS cup additionally depend on the consideration of a drop in the quality of the recycled PS compared to the original PS, and the other waste treatments (landfilling and incineration) for the cups. Including several recycling modelling methods in the LCA incorporates the various underlying modelling philosophies of the methods, and thus makes the results more robust.

    This thesis demonstrates the added value of including multiple data sets and multiple modelling choices in LCA. The use of multiple data sets is especially useful if general processes instead of specific processes are used in the representation of the product system. The use of multiple data sets increases the accuracy of the results, and is a supplemental tool next to statistical methods which increase the precision of the results. The simultaneous handling of variability among data sets and modelling choices is hardly performed in LCA. The method presented in this thesis fills this gap and provides a transparent tool to capture these uncertainties. The trade-off between an increase in the robustness of the results and the additional demand for resources (time, money, effort) should be assessed, and depends on the goal of the study and on the intended use of the results. This thesis shows that inclusion of the uncertainty in the LCA results provides the decision maker with valuable information. This thesis thus provides a useful method to increase the robustness of LCA results.

    Quick scan voedselfraude in Nederland; Wie verzamelt welke data? Welk onderzoek is er? Wat zijn de cijfers? Wat zijn mogelijke kennislacunes?
    Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Benninga, J. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI VR14-126) - 32
    voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedselinspectie - voedselproducten - gegevens verzamelen - inventarisaties - nederland - beleid inzake voedsel - food safety - food quality - food inspection - food products - data collection - inventories - netherlands - food policy
    In Nederland is er geen database gevonden, die specifiek is ontwikkeld voor incidenten van voedselfraude in Nederland. De NVWA en het bedrijfsleven vielen buiten de scope van dit onderzoek. Onderzoeken naar voedselfraude betreffen voornamelijk de ontwikkeling van een specifieke (analytische) detectiemethode voor specifieke producten. Incidenten van voedselfraude in Nederland opgenomen in het Europese Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) of beschreven in dagbladen en vaktijdschriften betreffen vooral vlees(producten), vis(producten), veevoer en eieren. De fraude betreft toevoeging, verdunning of vervanging met goedkoop vreemd productmateriaal, of frauduleuze declaratie van het productie (management) systeem of van het productie proces. Geïdentificeerde lacunes in kennis betreffen risicofactoren voor voedselfraude, geschiktheid van (analytische) methoden voor de detectie van verschillende typen voedselfraude bij verschillende product(groep)en, het juridisch handhavingskader, en een risico-gebaseerd controlesysteem specifiek gericht op voedselfraude.
    Resultaten van het Rijkswaterstaat JAMP 2014 monitoringsprogramma van schol (Pleuronects platessa L.)
    Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, M. van; Barneveld, E. van - \ 2015
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C049/15) - 14
    pleuronectes - schol - monitoring - gegevens verzamelen - noordzee - pleuronectes - plaice - monitoring - data collection - north sea
    In opdracht van Rijkswaterstaat zijn in 2014 door IMARES werkzaamheden uitgevoerd in het kader van het Joint Assessment and Monitoring Program van de OSPARCOM. De werkzaamheden bestonden uit het verzamelen van monsters schol waarin, naast het vaststellen van biologische parameters, milieukritische stoffen zijn geanalyseerd. De verzamelde gegevens en analyse-uitkomsten worden aangeleverd in dit rapport.
    Tweede jaar op rij een recordaantal teken gevangen
    Vliet, A.J.H. van; Bron, W.A. ; Takken, W. - \ 2015
    Nature Today (2015).
    borrelia burgdorferi - lyme-ziekte - tekenbeten - nimfen - larven - tekenbesmettingen - gegevens verzamelen - vangen van dieren - onderzoek - vangmethoden - borrelia burgdorferi - lyme disease - tick bites - nymphs - larvae - tick infestations - data collection - capture of animals - research - trapping
    Voor het tweede jaar op rij is er door vrijwilligers een recordaantal teken gevangen op 12 vaste tekenvanglocaties. In totaal zijn er 17.400 teken gevangen. Vorig jaar waren dat er 16.800. Van de drie levensstadia namen vooral de larven sterk in aantal toe, terwijl het aantal gevangen nimfen juist lager lag dan in 2013. In combinatie met het grote aantal muizen afgelopen jaar, de belangrijkste gastheer van de teek, kan dit jaar juist het aantal nimfen hoog uitkomen. Nimfen veroorzaken de meeste tekenbeten.
    Discards Sampling of the Dutch and German Brown shrimp fisheries in 2009 - 2012
    Steenbergen, J. ; Ullewelt, J. ; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Nijman, R.R. ; Panten, K. ; Helmond, A.T.M. van - \ 2015
    IJmuiden : Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek (CVO report / Stichting DLO, Centre for Fisheries Research (CVO) 15.003) - 40
    garnalen - discards - visserijbeheer - eu regelingen - monitoring - gegevens verzamelen - nederland - duitsland - shrimps - discards - fishery management - eu regulations - monitoring - data collection - netherlands - germany
    In the European Union the collection of discard data is enforced trough the Data Collection Regulation or Framework (DCF) of the European Commission (EC). To comply with this ruling, shrimp trawlers have been monitored since 2008 for the Netherlands and since 2006 for Germany. This report presents the information of both sampling programmes from 2009 to 2012. The initiative to describe the methods and results of the monitoring of brown shrimp fisheries in a joint report anticipates on the harmonised regional sampling of commercial fisheries as described in the DCF.
    Rapportages op grond van de Europese Vogelrichtlijn en Habitatrichtlijn : evaluatie rapportageperiode 2007-2012 en aanbevelingen voor de periode 2013-2018
    Schmidt, A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Bink, R.J. ; Soldaat, L. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 19) - 70
    flora - fauna - vogels - habitatrichtlijn - vogelrichtlijn - monitoring - gegevens verzamelen - natura 2000 - flora - fauna - birds - habitats directive - birds directive - monitoring - data collection - natura 2000
    In dit rapport wordt op grond van een evaluatie van de afgelopen rapportageperiode (2007-2012) een advies gegeven aan het Ministerie van Economische zaken hoe te anticiperen op de volgende rapportageperiode (2013-2018). Dit betreft de rapportages op grond van de Europese Vogelrichtlijn en Habitatrichtlijn, en specifiek de rapportageonderdelen waar ecologische kennis en informatie voor vereist is. Aanbevelingen worden gedaan voor het rapportageproces (proces), de beschikbaarheid en kwaliteit van data, informatie en kennis (inhoud) en de technische voorzieningen om het rapportageproces te ondersteunen (techniek). Beweegredenen om de desbetreffende aanbevelingen door te voeren, zijn het verhogen van de efficiency van het rapportageproces, de doorwerking van beleid en de kwaliteit van de beleidsinformatie.
    State of the art in federated querying in SPARQL
    Wigham, M.L.I. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1522) - 13
    gegevens verzamelen - gegevensanalyse - voedsel - data collection - data analysis - food
    Visie Internationale Agrologistiek : inventarisatie naoogst verliezen en verbeterde voedselzekerheid in opkomende landen en de mogelijke bijdrage van het Nederlandse bedrijfsleven
    Scheer, F.P. ; Gogh, J.B. van; Ravensbergen, P. ; Burgh, M. van der; Waarts, Y.R. ; Rutten, M.M. ; Aramyan, L.H. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1430) - ISBN 9789461736994 - 84
    logistiek - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële sector - gegevens verzamelen - deskundigen - reductie - voedselopslagverliezen - overgangseconomieën - logistics - supply chain management - agroindustrial sector - data collection - experts - reduction - food storage losses - transition economies
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