Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Rural livelihoods and agricultural commercialization in colonial Uganda: conjunctures of external influences and local realities
    Haas, Michiel A. de - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema, co-promotor(en): N.B.J. Koning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436281 - 250
    cum laude - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - communities - rural areas - farmers - history - colonies - colonialism - income - gender - social inequalities - food crops - cash crops - uganda - east africa - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - gemeenschappen - platteland - boeren - geschiedenis - kolonies - kolonialisme - inkomen - geslacht (gender) - sociale ongelijkheden - voedselgewassen - marktgewassen - uganda - oost-afrika

    The economic history of Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by geographically and temporally dispersed booms and busts. The export-led ‘cash-crop revolution’ in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era is a key example of an economic boom. This thesis examines how external influences and local realities shaped the nature, extent and impact of the ‘cash-crop revolution’ in colonial Uganda, a landlocked country in central east Africa, where cotton and coffee production for global markets took off following completion of a railway to the coast. The thesis consists of five targeted ‘interventions’ into contemporary debates of comparative African development. Each of these five interventions is grounded in the understanding that the ability of rural Africans to respond to and benefit from trade integration during the colonial era was mediated by colonial policies, resource endowments and local institutions.

    The first chapter reconstructs welfare development of Ugandan cash-crop farmers. Recent scholarship on historical welfare development in Sub-Saharan Africa has uncovered long-term trends in standards of living. How the majority of rural dwellers fared, however, remains largely elusive. This chapter presents a new approach to reconstructing rural living standards in a historical context, building upon the well-established real wage literature, but moving beyond it to capture rural realities, employing sub-national rural survey, census, and price data. The approach is applied to colonial and early post-colonial Uganda (1915–70), and yields a number of findings. While an expanding smallholder-based cash-crop sector established itself as the backbone of Uganda’s colonial economy, farm characteristics remained largely stagnant after the initial adoption of cash crops. Smallholders maintained living standards well above subsistence level, and while the profitability of cash crops was low, their cultivation provided a reliable source of cash income. At the same time, there were pronounced limits to rural welfare expansion. Around the time of decolonization, unskilled wages rose rapidly while farm incomes lagged behind. As a result, an urban–rural income reversal took place. The study also reveals considerable differences within Uganda, which were mediated to an important extent by differential resource endowments. Smallholders in Uganda’s banana regions required fewer labour inputs to maintain a farm income than their grain-farming counterparts, creating opportunities for additional income generation and livelihood diversification.

    The second chapter zooms in on labour migration which connected Belgian-controlled Ruanda-Urundi to British-controlled Buganda, the central province of Uganda on the shores of Lake Victoria. The emergence of new labour mobility patterns was a key aspect of economic change in colonial Africa. Under conditions of land abundance and labour scarcity, the supply of wage labour required either the ‘pull’ forces of attractive working conditions and high wages, or the ‘push’ forces of taxation and other deliberate colonial interventions. Building upon primary sources, I show that this case diverges from the ‘conventional’ narrative of labour scarcity in colonial Africa. I argue that Ruanda-Urundi should be regarded as labour abundant and that migrants were not primarily ‘pushed’ by colonial labour policies, but rather by poverty and limited access to agricultural resources. This explains why they were willing to work for low wages in Buganda. I show that African rural employers were the primary beneficiaries of migrant labour, while colonial governments on both sides of the border were unable to control the course of the flow. As in the first chapter, this chapter highlights that the effects of trade integration on African rural development were uneven, and mediated by differences in resource endowments, local institutions and colonial policies.

    The third chapter zooms out of the rural economy, evaluating the broader opportunity structures faced by African men and women in Uganda, and discussing the interaction of local institutions and colonial policies as drivers of uneven educational and occupational opportunities. The chapter engages with a recent article by Meier zu Selhausen and Weisdorf (2016) to show how selection biases in, and Eurocentric interpretations of, parish registers have provoked an overly optimistic account of European influences on the educational and occupational opportunities of African men and women. We confront their dataset, drawn from the marriage registers of the Anglican Cathedral in Kampala, with Uganda’s 1991 census, and show that trends in literacy and numeracy of men and women born in Kampala lagged half a century behind those who wedded in Namirembe Cathedral. We run a regression analysis showing that access to schooling during the colonial era was unequal along lines of gender and ethnicity. We foreground the role of Africans in the spread of education, argue that European influences were not just diffusive but also divisive, and that gender inequality was reconfigured rather than eliminated under colonial rule. This chapter also makes a methodological contribution. The renaissance of African economic history in the past decade has opened up new research avenues to study the long-term social and economic development of Africa. We show that a sensitive treatment of African realities in the evaluation of European colonial legacies, and a critical stance towards the use of new sources and approaches, is crucial.

    The fourth chapter singles out the role of resource endowments in explaining Uganda’s ‘cotton revolution’ in a comparative African perspective. Why did some African smallholders adopt cash crops on a considerable scale, while most others were hesitant to do so? The chapter sets out to explore the importance of factor endowments in shaping the degrees to which cash crops were adopted in colonial tropical Africa. We conduct an in-depth case study of the ‘cotton revolution’ in colonial Uganda to put the factor endowments perspective to the test. Our empirical findings, based on an annual panel data analysis at the district-level from 1925 until 1960, underscore the importance of Uganda’s equatorial bimodal rainfall distribution as an enabling factor for its ‘cotton revolution’. Evidence is provided at a unique spatial micro-level, capitalizing on detailed household surveys from the same period. We demonstrate that previous explanations associating the variegated responses of African farmers to cash crops with, either the role of colonial coercion, or the distinction between ‘forest/banana’ and ‘savannah/grain’ zones, cannot explain the widespread adoption of cotton in Uganda. We argue, instead, that the key to the cotton revolution were Uganda’s two rainy seasons, which enabled farmers to grow cotton while simultaneously pursuing food security. Our study highlights the importance of food security and labour seasonality as important determinants of uneven agricultural commercialization in colonial tropical Africa.

    The fifth and final chapter further investigates the experience of African smallholders with cotton cultivation, providing a comparative explanatory analysis of variegated cotton outcomes, focusing in particular on the role of colonial and post-colonial policies. The chapter challenges the widely accepted view that (i) African colonial cotton projects consistently failed, that (ii) this failure should be attributed to conditions particular to Africa, which made export cotton inherently unviable and unprofitable to farmers, and that (iii) the repression and resistance often associated with cotton, all resulted from the stubborn and overbearing insistence of colonial governments on the crop per se. I argue along three lines. Firstly, to show that cotton outcomes were diverse, I compare cases of cotton production in Sub-Saharan Africa across time and space. Secondly, to refute the idea that cotton was a priori unattractive, I argue that the crop had substantial potential to connect farmers to markets and contribute to poverty alleviation, particularly in vulnerable, marginal and landlocked areas. Thirdly, to illustrate how an interaction between local conditions and government policies created conducive conditions for cotton adoption, I zoom in on the few yet significant ‘cotton success stories’ in twentieth century Africa. Smallholders in colonial Uganda adopted cotton because of favourable ecological and marketing conditions, and policies had an auxiliary positive effect. Smallholders in post-colonial Francophone West Africa faced much more challenging local conditions, but benefitted from effective external intervention and coordinated policy. On a more general level, this chapter demonstrates that, from a perspective of rural development, colonial policies should not only be seen as overbearing and interventionist, but also as inadequate, failing to aid rural Africans to benefit from new opportunities created by trade integration.

    Answering the "Call of the Mountain" : co-creating sustainability through networks of change in Colombia
    Chaves Villegas, Martha - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arjen Wals, co-promotor(en): Gerard Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577251 - 152
    sustainable development - sustainability - social networks - networks - communities - rural communities - change - social change - learning - colombia - south america - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociale netwerken - netwerken - gemeenschappen - plattelandsgemeenschappen - verandering - sociale verandering - leren - colombia - zuid-amerika

    In response to the age of the ‘anthropocene,’ as some authors are calling this epoch in which one single species is disrupting major natural systems (Steffen et al 2011), there are calls for more radical, learning-based sustainability that generates deep transformations in individuals and communities so as to transition towards a more reflexive and process-oriented society (Wals 2009, Sterling 2009). The principal contention of this thesis is that new social movements (NSM) of the network society (Castells 2012, Buechler 2016), based on integrated visions of sustainability, can provide platforms for bringing about transformative learning. This thesis is based on empirical research (2012-2016) into a fraction of such NSM named the Council of Sustainable Settlements of Latin America (C.A.S.A.). Comprising a diversity of members from Indigenous pueblos, afro-colombian communities, neo-rural settlements (ecovillages), Hare Krishna communities, campesino farmers, NGOs and urban peoples and initiatives, the C.A.S.A. network organizes intercultural exchanges where transformative learning can be traced. Through new forms of collective action centered on a plurality of ideas and practices, and with a strong focus on reflection and personal development, in such encounters through ‘ontological politics’, ‘optimal dissonance’ and ‘deep reflexivity and flexibility’ members are articulating new paradigms of alternative development and creating spaces for transformation. Yet, such learning processes are incredibly complex, and the value-action gap remains substantial in many cases. What this thesis has shown, however, is that by putting into practice principles of buen vivir and the pluriverse such as reconnecting to ancestral wisdom, acknowledging the other, questioning values of competition and consumerism, and forming new relations to place and territory, one begins to question one's own set of norms, and those of society. Ultimately, the C.A.S.A. network’s struggles, negotiations and learning processes remind us that global sustainability entails more than 'menus' of good practices but a plurality of solutions which include humans and non-humans, different ontologies, and even a multiplicity of worlds, in what is a tough but rewarding aula.

    'Actief Burgerschap' : een verkenning naar burgerinitiatieven in de Limburgse samenleving
    Kruit, J. ; Breman, B.C. - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 328) - 23
    bewonersparticipatie - buurtactie - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - gemeenschappen - platteland - limburg - nederland - community participation - community action - community involvement - communities - rural areas - limburg - netherlands
    De Vereniging Kleine Kernen Limburg (VKKL) is als actieve speler in Limburg betrokken bij het borgen van de leefbaarheid in kleine kernen. Ze brengt als kennismakelaar partijen bij elkaar, ze behartigt belangen richting provincie, ze zorgt voor expertiseontwikkeling bij haar leden en ze voedt haar leden met nieuwe kennis en inzichten, onder andere via de organisatie van het plattelandsparlement in Limburg en de Limburglabs. De Limburgse samenleving verandert. De VKKL ziet een ontwikkeling dat Limburgers meer en meer zelf een actieve rol (moeten) spelen in het borgen van de leefbaarheid. Steeds meer nieuwe initiatieven, netwerken en samenwerkingsverbanden zonder vastomlijnde organisatievorm komen op. De VKKL probeert grip te krijgen op de aard- en de dynamiek van deze (verschillende typen) ‘burgerkracht’ in Limburg én aan te sluiten op de ondersteuningsbehoefte die bestaat vanuit deze initiatieven. Het onderzoek, uitgevoerd door twee masterstudenten en een ACT1 groep vanuit Wageningen UR heeft duidelijk gemaakt dat: er enorm veel verschillende soorten burgerinitiatieven in Limburg zijn te vinden, dat deze initiatieven veelal in grotere netwerken functioneren, dat het daarbij ook gaat over de verbinding tussen overheid én burgerinitiatief en dat initiatieven op verschillende manieren kunnen ontstaan, waarbij ook andere netwerkpartijen een prominente rol kunnen hebben. Ook werd duidelijk dat de VKKL nog niet altijd vanzelfsprekend in beeld is bij de verschillende bottom-up initiatieven en de samenwerkende overheden. In een creatieve sessie met de VKKL zijn ideeën opgehaald en uitgewerkt die worden meegenomen in het beleidsplan 2017-2021. Deze ideeën gaan over het werken aan een organisatie die onderscheidend en herkenbaar is. Van belang daarbij is dat de organisatie lokaal zichtbaar is en tegelijkertijd grensoverschrijdend leren en samenwerken stimuleert. Ook essentieel is dat de groep ondersteuners wordt verbreed en dat die ook nog meer gebruikt maakt van (sociale) media om kennis en informatie beter te ontsluiten.
    Certifications, child labour and livelihood strategies: an analysis of cocoa production in Ghana
    Owusu-Amankwah, R. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke; Guido Ruivenkamp, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574915 - 348
    cacao - productie - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - gemeenschappen - kinderarbeid - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - certificering - agrarische productiesystemen - ghana - cocoa - production - peasant farming - communities - child labour - livelihood strategies - certification - agricultural production systems - ghana

    Abstract

    There have been various innovative initiatives by global and local actors in response to pressure on cocoa value-chain actors to free cocoa production from child labour (CL) and especially the worst forms of child labour (WFCL) and also to improve the livelihoods of farm families. Analyses of the implementation, implications and the appropriateness of these initiatives in driving change in the cocoa supply chain and improving the labour and income conditions in cocoa farms are limited, however. This study examines initiatives being led by the key actors in the value chain – the governmental initiative of a community-based child labour monitoring (CCLM) system (CCLMS), that led by business actors of third party voluntary cocoa certification (TPVCC), and farmers’ own way of diversifying income – in order to understand current developments in the cocoa value-chain and analyse the dynamics between the local and global actors and the effect of these dynamics for the reorganisation of the cocoa production system in Ghana.

    This thesis employs an interdisciplinary perspective and combines innovation theory with livelihood, social perspectives and other social science tools to empirically investigate the initiatives as they operate at micro-, meso- and macro-levels so as to ascertain their implications for farmers’ livelihoods and children’s social situations. It also reflects scholarly interest in understanding how global-level development interacts with and affects local-level development, and how globalisation shapes and mediates local influences within the cocoa production system.

    Firstly, the CCLMS study (Chapter 3) reveals three kinds of benefits to children: an expanded social network, a reduction in their participation in hazardous work and an improvement in school attendance. The findings show that absenteeism on the part of the pupils in a community with a CCLM intervention is approximately half that of two communities without intervention. In addition, it is observed that although children are involved in hazardous and non-hazardous activities in all the three communities involved in the study, the extent of their involvement in hazardous activities is higher in the communities without intervention.

    Secondly, third party certification (TPC) formulated by the business actors is a key innovation in the cocoa production system of Ghana. The study presented in Chapter 4 shows the potential of TPVCC to mobilise financial, human and social capitals to address gaps and

    dysfunctions and create a win-win situation for all the actors of the value chain. However, sector-wide standards that address sector specific needs taking into consideration the views of chain actors, especially farmers and their socio-cultural context will enhance compliance. This is because global or international standards cannot be imposed but are analysed, contested and adapted by farmers to suit on-the-ground practices. The study also shows the potential of TPVCC to address CL and livelihood issues, but these will yield better results if it is implemented in enhanced socio-economic conditions. Regardless of these positives, the net benefit of certification is unclear due to the difficulty in conducting proper cost-benefit analyses in the absence of proper documentation of farmer-level costs and other factors.

    Thirdly, the findings show that about 70% of farmers are diversifying into other (non-cocoa) farm and non-farm activities using largely indigenous resources, but on a small scale and at subsistence level. This condition means that the goal of farmers to supplement cocoa income and reduce risk is not achieved throughsuch a level of diversification. There is some indication of increasing importance of income and resources from non-farm activities, but income from cocoa continues to determine household income as well as the demand for non- farm goods and investment in the non-farm sector. This study also finds that children are involved in both farm and non-farm activities, which can be classified as hazardous and non- hazardous. Farmers, especially caretakers, producing at subsistence level are likely to use their children to supplement labour needs. Some policy recommendations are made in the areas of economic incentives and multi-stakeholder collaboration to stimulate the sector towards sustainability.

    Seeds, food networks and politics: different ontologies in relation to food sovereignty in Ecuador
    Martinez Flores, L.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574908 - 194
    voedselsoevereiniteit - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - gemeenschappen - voedsel - netwerken - ontologieën - zaden - politiek - lupinus - voedselketens - landbouwbeleid - overheidsbeleid - etnografie - andes - ecuador - food sovereignty - peasant farming - communities - food - networks - ontologies - seeds - politics - lupinus - food chains - agricultural policy - government policy - ethnography - andes - ecuador

    Abstract

    In this thesis I explore the ontological proposal of food sovereignty and I discuss the possibilities offered by studies like this one to the attempts of the social sciences to explain – in a symmetrical fashion - that develop between humans and other entities at the time of production, processing and consumption of food. In this effort I combine ethnography and history.

    I argue that in countries like Ecuador, food networks such as that of the lupine, Lupino mutabilis Sweet, since they do not establish ontological differences between nature and culture, promote the implementation of food sovereignty in practice, as long as agricultural and science and technology (S&T) policies enable the autonomous development of such networks. More specifically, food networks in the Andean highlands have functioned in a rhizomatic way, without establishing hierarchies between entities of different ontology: foods as goods or foods as gifts, society and nature, and have spread without discontinuities between town and country. This analysis enables me to show that these networks can promote food sovereignty, because in them is condensed an ontology distinct from that of modernity with regard to the cultivation, processing and consumption of food. Considering these findings I analyse the rationality of S&T policies and the current policies of the Ecuadorian State. I argue that such policies go against the logic of food networks. Food sovereignty is an achievable goal if Ecuadorian government policies contribute to the strengthening of food networks, creating new links so that they can sidestep the agribusiness model.

    The organisation of this thesis is unusual, as the object of study is a food network. This forced me to research and structure this dissertation in a particular way. So, I start with the ethnographic explanation of a food network. Here I analyse its operation, relationships and the paths it establishes. From this analysis it is possible to understand why S&T policies, specifically those related to plant breeding, created new social relations that affected the food networks of the highlands. I show here how the modern rationality on which agricultural policies are based inhibits the growth of food networks and works against food sovereignty. Then, from the analysis of the formation of the food sovereignty network, I examine the introduction of the food sovereignty proposal into the Ecuadorian Constitution and the changes made to the original proposal. I show how the translation of the Via Campesina proposal present in the constitution and the subsequent law is possible due to the intervention of actors linked with the big businesses of the food trade. All this enables me, finally, to discuss my contribution: the analysis of the ontological promise present in the food sovereignty proposal.

    A social analysis of contested fishing practices in Lake Victoria
    Medard, M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; R. Mwaipopo. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789462572478 - 278
    visserij - gemeenschappen - productiviteit - hulpbronnen - ontwikkeling - sociologie - organisatie - visserijbeheer - ondernemerschap - meren - tanzania - fisheries - communities - productivity - resources - development - sociology - organization - fishery management - entrepreneurship - lakes - tanzania

    Thesis abstract

    The thesis explored how the global market for Nile Perch fish has reconfigured the social and the natural in dramatic ways. The demand for Nile Perch and Dagaa played, willingly or unwillingly, an important role in converting its products into regionally and globally desired commodity. It has also simultaneously restructured the organisation of fisheries into a complex and aggressively managed sector. In fishing and fish trade, one needs to externalize costs and risks to the lower actors in the production and business hierarchy. From an historical point of view, power has shifted from many points of coordination and decision making into a few hands, those that own fishing camps and export processing factory. Moreover, illegal fishing and trading are continuous and corruption is rife to safe guard individual interest in turn shaping the local practices (governance) of Lake Victoria. Finally the debate about fisheries policies and fisheries regulation in L. Victoria does not address local realities and are largely irrelevant and that the real focus of power and driver of change is the international and regional markets for Nile Perch and Dagaa and global players with a lot of capital.

    Alternative Food Networks (AFNs) in Calabria : a sociological exploration of interaction dynamics
    amico, S. D' - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke; G. Gulisano, co-promotor(en): Bettina Bock; Stefano Pascucci. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572713 - 269
    voedsel - sociale netwerken - gemeenschappen - voedselvoorziening - voedselgroepen - consumenten - participatie - boeren - markten - landbouw - calabrië - italië - food - social networks - communities - food supply - food groups - consumers - participation - farmers - markets - agriculture - calabria - italy

    This thesis aims to advance the understanding of identities and roles of Alternative Food Networks (AFNs). It focusses on AFNs which operate in contexts where traditional aspects are still dominant within the local agrifood systems, and which act on both food provisioning and raising awareness about civic issues. This research examines the identities and roles of AFNs by shedding light on the dynamics of the organisation and implementation of their activities. For this, the thesis firstly adapts a theoretical and methodological framework – Interaction Ritual (IR) theory - for the investigation of social phenomena, starting by unveiling the functioning of their internal dynamics; secondly, it operationalises and applies the selected theoretical and methodological framework in order to analyse GAS M which is a case of an AFN. Namely it is a case of ‘Gruppo di Acquisto Solidale’ (Solidarity Purchasing Group - GAS).

    Below the main contributions and recommendations of this research are synthesised.

    1) This research contributes to the body of knowledge on AFNs by generating insight into the identity of an AFN which operates in a context of a traditional agrifood system, attributes to both consumers and consumer-based civil society organisations leading roles, and works on both food provisioning and activities of civic relevance. The research demonstrates that the identity of GAS M is not clearly defined. Instead, it is continuously re-shaped in response to the varying combination of material and civic activities and interests. The mentioned activities and interests attract different groups of people. It is especially the small group that manages GAS M that is interested in civic activities. Often people in this group choose the organisational arrangements that are in line with their interests so their interests override other people’s interests. GAS M is undergoing a process of ideological and material selection which, together with the pre-eminence of civic interests, has three main implications: a) the equity of the food provisioning system recreated by GAS M is reduced; b) its role as a creator of occasions where producers and consumers can satisfy their needs of buying and selling products with specific physical features is reduced. Furthermore, while its role in building community and creating spaces for socialising and learning is supported, it only reaches people sharing certain interests; c) the durability of GAS M and its likelihood of expansion are limited.

    2) The second result and contribution of this research is theoretical and methodological.

    First of all, the study contributes to refining IR theory. It represents a first attempt to apply the IR model in a study of AFN activities. The research reinterprets IR theory in an explorative and strictly dynamic-centred way. It operationalises the guidelines of IR theory for the collection and analysis of data that result naturally from normal everyday AFN interactions. Furthermore, this approach provides analytical tools to ascertain the intensity of AFNs’ activities, what attracts attention in these activities, which sort of attention, and what its significance is. 

    Secondly, this research has contributed towards advancing the existing body of research into AFN dynamics. Previous studies have focussed on processes of negotiating meaning in order to understand AFN identities and roles. Following IR theory, this research goes beyond the negotiation of meaning by analysing not only the content of interaction but also its intensity. In doing so the study shows not only which issues influence AFN identities and roles, but also which activities play an important role. In addition, the study provides insight into the dynamics of power and inclusivity in AFN interaction that is, among others, reflected in decision making about activities. Unlike previous studies which have looked into these questions by interviewing actors and relying on their rationalisations, this study explores these questions through the analysis of normal every day activities and interactions, and what is also being indicated as ‘natural data’. In this way, this research contributes to overcoming actors’ personal preferences and ideas, which may bias their rationalisations about these matters.

    3) Finally, this research gives some recommendations for further research. It advises to study more cases of AFN in order to check to what extent the results of this case-study may be generalizable.  Furthermore, it offers some inputs on how the approach can be used so as to consider a broader variety of cases in the analysis. Secondly, this research invites future researchers look into what influences the intensity of AFNs’ activities and contributes to their stabilisation, and to explore the causal relationship between civic and material activities and interests.

     

    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods
    McDougall, C.L. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572881 - 322
    bewonersparticipatie - governance - sociale samenwerking - sociaal leren - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosbouw - gemeenschappen - middelen van bestaan - adaptatie - sociaal kapitaal - vrouwen - armoede - nepal - community participation - governance - social cooperation - social learning - natural resources - forestry - communities - livelihoods - adaptation - social capital - women - poverty - nepal

    Short Summary

    Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

    Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

    Community-based natural resource governance has taken root around the globe. And, yet, as demonstrated by community forestry in Nepal, such programmes have generally not yet lived up to their goals and expectations. After decades of implementation, community forestry in Nepal faces several key challenges. Central to these challenges are: the need to increase equity in community forest user group decision making and benefit sharing; and, to increase the livelihood benefits from community forestry overall. The research project on which this study is based sought to address these challenges at the community forest user group scale. The research objective was to contribute empirically-based insights regarding if and how adaptive collaborative governance of community forests in Nepal can constructively influence engagement, livelihoods, social capital and conflict—especially in regard to women and the poor. Further, the research aimed to elucidate the underlying issue of power in community-based natural resource governance. In particular, it sought to contribute deeper, theoretically-based understanding of the persistence of power imbalances in community forestry, and of the potential of adaptive collaborative governance to shift such imbalances.

    Mending new communities after involuntary resettlement in the Philippines and Indonesia
    Quetulio-Navarra, M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Hilje van der Horst; Wander van der Vaart. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570696 - 257
    bevolkingsverplaatsing - migratie - gemeenschappen - sociaal kapitaal - social network analysis - bevolkingsgroepen met een laag inkomen - huishoudens - filippijnen - indonesië - resettlement - migration - communities - social capital - social network analysis - low income groups - households - philippines - indonesia

    Displacement of poor families contribute to the worsening of their poverty situation yet involuntary resettlement still takes place. According to the latest Report of the Indonesian Centre on Housing Rights and Eviction, more than 12,000 people were reportedly evicted in August 2008 to give way to the “green space” land reclamation projects (COHRE 2008). In the Philippines, 59,462 households were relocated in the period 2001 – 2006 (HUDCC 2008) because of various infrastructure projects. Though more recent data are lacking, there is no evidence that the pace of displacement is slowing down.

    The Impoverishment, Risks and Reconstruction (IRR) model of Cernea (2000) identifies nine interlinked potential risks inherent to displacement: landlessness, joblessness, home­lessness, marginalization, food insecurity, increased morbidity and mortality, loss of access to common property, social disarticulation and educational loss. Out of the nine risks, social disarticulation or the loss of social capital in a resettlement site is the most complicated, because different factors are involved and because of its impact on vulnerability to the other risks. Social capital building or transplanting in an entirely different or new environment such as resettlement sites has remained an elusive topic in the research arena. This study tries to fill the void by addressing the following research problem: How does social capital grow across time in an involuntary resettlement setting and what is the role of the context and its elements in shaping this growth?

    The study used a comparative approach and a longitudinal perspective. Applying a longitudinal perspective aimed at capturing the process of social capital building through time. It entailed a framework that wove the factors involved in the process – as hypo­thesised on the basis of social capital and resettlement theories – into a timeline that comprised four periods. These four periods included before resettlement, the first year in the site after resettlement, the following years in the site, and the year of the field study (2011 in the first study area and 2012 in the second). The influence of social capital development in each period on the following period was investigated.

    Using a comparative perspective, two resettlement communities in Southeast Asia were chosen for this study. The first study site was in the Philippines and concerned an urban resettlement community named ‘Kasiglahan Village 1’ (KV1), situated in Barangay San Jose, Rodriguez, Rizal Province. The second study site, a rural resettlement community named ‘Bantarpanjang Translok’ (BT), was in Indonesia and located in Bantarpanjang, Cimanggu, Cilacap in Central Java Province, Both are government-managed resettlement communities. Moreover, the resettled households in both countries had incomes that were below the minimum standard of living, and the ages of the communities were sufficiently similar – the Philippine site was 12 years old, and the Indonesian site was 11 years in existence at the time of fieldwork. The age of the resettlement site is crucial for the longitudinal perspective utilized for this research. Although comparable in important aspects, the two locations differ in terms of their cultural traditions, physical location, institutional context, national resettlement policies, religion, ethnicity, and demographic and socio-economic profile. This allowed for a contextual analysis on the way in which social capital evolves.

    Data for this study were gathered by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative methods, such as in-depth interviews, exploratory interviews, observation, focus group discussions and life histories, were blended with quantitative methods. The latter included a household survey that used a tailored calendar tool to enhance the validity and reliability of the retrospective data. Social network analysis was conducted as well.

    The results of the analysis of the state of the communities before involuntary resettlement and a year later conveyed the following. Overall, involuntary resettlement in both setting did not significantly harm the households’ structural and cognitive social capital. After a year, the households in both settings were able to create and somehow duplicate the levels of trust and reciprocity they had in their previous communities. Moreover, the data suggest that the civic engagement history of the households is only influential in social capital building within a new community when the households share cultural traditions and social practices that are regularly observed. In the absence of such cultural traditions social practices, it is institutional interventions that will stimulate social capital formation.

    When looking at social capital creation across time in the two locations, the forging of ties among the household grows every year. There are three perspectives that can explain such a process. These are represented by variables relating to (i) individual and household attributes, (ii) the institutional context, and (iii) social capital history. On developing weak and strong ties, both cases demonstrate growth spurts during the year when there was an influx of resettlers and basic services and public places had been put in place. Moreover, after a period of upsurge, social capital attains a level of steady growth. Social capital growth can be seen as intertwined with the stabilisation of the resettlement sites in terms of physical infrastructure and social services as well as the achievement of a sense of “getting settled”.

    The study provides rich insights on the effects of resettlement programs and social capital on whether households in an involuntary resettlement context ‘get by’ or manage to ‘get ahead’ and improve their situation. The outcomes differ according to resettlement policies, culture, location, and phase of resettlement (first year and last year). In addition, all forms of structural social capital turned out meaningful for getting by and getting ahead, although some types of ties would feature more prominently than others. In the Philippines case, the number of support ties played a prominent role in the economic and physical well-being of the households, while in the Indonesian case it is the number of close individuals and number of government ties that mattered most. Overall, ‘soft’ resettlement inputs were found indispensable in both locations for the households’ capacity to get by and get ahead. Government meetings and membership of civic organizations contributed positively to household food security (last year) and social well-being (both years) of the Philippine resettlers. For the Indonesians, these contributed to their household income (first year) and social well-being in both periods. Community organisation should therefore be an integral part of resettlement projects.

    Social network analysis was conducted on the networks of households in Indonesia and those of community leaders in the Philippines. In Indonesia and the Philippines, social network analysis revealed that after a certain period in a new community and living among other involuntarily resettled strangers, households eventually establish inter­connections among them. Gender proved to be a factor not only in shaping social networks but also in reinforcing certain advantages of some of the features of the social networks in a resettlement site. Gender differences emerged in both settings, the female advantage in forming friendships being one of them. In both cases, women (housewives in Indo­nesia and leaders in the Philippines) have a bigger proportion of friends in their network than men, indicating that they are better at nurturing connections that develop into friendship. The analysis also shows how the emerging community as a whole can benefit from the friendship networks of women. The default assignment of authority to men in the community and the wives supporting this gender construction, can account for the male-dominated brokerage roles and men being the influential actors in the Indonesian site. Contrastingly, in the Philippine location women leaders mono­polize the brokerage role and are influential actors. Compared to male leaders, Filipino women leaders in the community have better interpersonal skills, are more empowered and are more active in civic organisations and activities. They bring more projects and activities to their members and connect better to the authorities than their male counterparts.

    This study provides strong evidence on a number of issues. First, the mending of new social communities by social capital building takes place right after the resettlement and amidst a worsening poverty situation in the new location. Second, civic engagement history can only significantly enhance social capital building in a site when it is shared by almost the entire community. Third, social capital history can be created by the new inhabitants of a resettlement site even in a short period of time. And fourth, the results of applying the institutional perspective underscore the importance of the creation of policies and projects that target the community’s physical development and its social organisation. Overall, the process of social capital growth seems to be largely beyond the control of the individual resettlers. It is shaped by the context and its con­stituting elements, rather than by the characteristics of the individuals and households concerned.

    Community-driven reconstruction in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo : capacity building, accountability, power, labour, and ownership
    Kyamusugulwa, P.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): Paul Richards; M. Mashanda. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739032 - 251
    bewonersparticipatie - reconstructie - ontwikkelingsprogramma - capaciteitsopbouw - gemeenschappen - politieke macht - sociale processen - democratische republiek kongo - community participation - reconstruction - development programmes - capacity building - communities - political power - social processes - congo democratic republic
    This PhD research focuses on community-driven reconstruction (CDR): the social dynamics of target communities in post-conflict eastern Congo. The main research question: how do social dynamics and power relations influence decision making and implementation of CDR and how do perceptions of local people and International Rescue Committee (IRC) staff shape development in the communities of Burhinyi, Luhwindja and Kaziba?
    Landscapes of deracialization : power, brokerage and place-making on a South African frontier
    Leynseele, Y.P.B. Van - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737311 - 248
    landhervorming - grondrechten - gemeenschappen - grondeigendom - landverdeling - landgebruik - rassendiscriminatie - plattelandsontwikkeling - rurale sociologie - limpopo - zuid-afrika - land reform - land rights - communities - land ownership - land diversion - land use - racial discrimination - rural development - rural sociology - limpopo - south africa
    This thesis deals with the politicized struggles for land in South Africa’s Limpopo Province. With land having been an essential part of colonial and apartheid segregation policies and practice – with 87% of land appropriated by whites –, a land reform programme was imperative after the African National Congress came to power in 1994. One of the three branches of the land reform programme, land restitution, is a key focus of this thesis. It is particular in its goal to do justice to victims of past land dispossessions who lost land rights as result of racially-discriminatory laws by compensating them for this past loss of land and livelihoods. Where compensation for lost rights involves the government buying and redistributing land to groups with historical rights to land, such land deals present particular challenges around the ideal of restorative justice and what is means to ‘bring the past into the present’.
    Disturbance and recovery of litter fauna: a contribution to environmental conservation
    Comor, V.N.R. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Steven Bie, co-promotor(en): Frank van Langevelde. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737496 - 114
    bodemfauna - bodemverstoring - ecologische verstoring - gemeenschappen - ecologisch herstel - ecosystemen - bodemecologie - milieubeheer - natuurbescherming - soil fauna - soil disturbance - ecological disturbance - communities - ecological restoration - ecosystems - soil ecology - environmental management - nature conservation

    Disturbances play a great role in ecosystem functioning and, with the increasing anthropogenic activities, they have more and more influence on ecosystems. They have been studied for several decades but recovery, the ecological phenomenon following a disturbance, has seldom been the focus of research. In this thesis, I studied the impact of disturbances on the structure of soil and litter fauna communities and their ensuing recovery in varying environmental conditions, combined with the effect of productivity, life-history traits and community structure. I combined all the results to draw some conclusions on the main factors involved in recovery, how to improve recovery of ecosystems and how to make better predictions on recovery.

    In the second chapter of this thesis, I studied how the structure of soil and litter fauna communities from two climatically contrasting biomes was affected by a similar disturbance and how these communities recovered. I sampled litter macrofauna in a temperate and a boreal forest and, to be able to determine whether the communities had recovered, I created a “recovery index” that took into account the pre- and post-disturbance conditions of the disturbed and the control communities, taking into account natural variations. I hypothesised that the temperate communities would recover more rapidly due to the warmer temperatures and to higher species richness and abundance. Recovery was as fast in both biomes, which also had similar species richness. Contrary to my assumption, higher pre-disturbance species abundance did not favour the resistance of communities to the disturbance; on the contrary, high-abundance communities suffered a proportionally greater loss than other communities. Analyses based on life-history traits revealed that dispersal capabilities were the most relevant traits for species facing a disturbance and also for re-establishing. An unexpected factor that influenced the outcome of the disturbance was the litter layer, which, thick in the temperate forest and almost inexistent in the boreal one, protected the fauna of this former biome.

    The aim of my third chapter was to consider the main two theories of species assembly, the niche and neutral theory, in the context of a recovery. I considered these two theories not as mutually exclusive but as if they were at opposite ends of a stochasticity gradient. The neutral theory predicts recovered communities in a similar environment to be dissimilar from one another and the niche theory predicts the opposite, because, in this case, species assembly is driven by deterministic factors inherent to communities and to the environment. I used the same experiments as in the previous chapters and hypothesised that the more constraining environmental conditions of the boreal forest would lead to a species assembly rather driven by deterministic factors, with recovered communities more similar to each other than the temperate ones. These latter ones, from a less constraining environment, would be more dissimilar to each other. I found that the structure of each community before and one year after the disturbance was indeed more similar in the boreal forest. This would mean that, in low-productivity environments, the response of communities being less variable, it could be more easily predictable.

    In Chapter 4, I studied the structure of communities from a different perspective, using the density – body mass (DBM) relationship to detect changes in the structure of communities after a disturbance. I hypothesised that the slope of the relationship would be less steep if smaller organisms were mainly impacted or that it would be steeper if larger organisms were mainly impacted. By collecting the soil and litter fauna before, just after and again one and two months after a disturbance, I could establish that the DBM relationship reflected the changes of the structure of communities responding to modifications of the environment. In disturbed conditions, the slope of the DBM relationship of a community was less steep, because mainly the small organisms were impacted by the disturbance. I also showed that, at the very early stage of the recovery, the slope was even less steep, because of the large body mass of the first colonisers. This study confirmed the necessity to sample a broad spectrum of body masses and it was the first time that the DBM relationship was shown to be able to reflect changes of the structure of communities. I concluded by suggesting that it could be used for environmental biomonitoring.

    After the satisfying results of Chapter 4, I decided to test the ability of the DBM relationship to reflect different structures of communities living in environments varying by their productivity and subjected or not to a disturbance. I hypothesised that communities from low-productivity areas would have a less steep slope than high-productivity area communities and that disturbed communities would also have a less steep slope. To test this, soil and litter fauna were collected from a salt marsh at four elevation levels (hence subjected to varying sea inundation frequencies, from daily to annually), half of which were subjected to cattle grazing (i.e., the disturbance). I assumed that the least inundated sites were more productive and used the quantity of plant litter to confirm this. The only significant result was between the daily and annually inundated ungrazed areas, confirming that communities from high-productivity areas have a steeper DBM relationship slope. High productivity does not seem to equally affect all the trophic levels, certainly due to inefficient transfers of energy from one level to the other.

    In the synthesis, I suggested that recovery should first be properly defined to establish when a community has reached that stage and I advise to use pre- and post-disturbance states of control communities for that purpose. Besides, several environmental factors have to be taken into account instead of only focusing on one species or one ecosystem service, as I have showed that the species richness and abundance of communities, and the productivity and heterogeneity of the environment can influence the resistance and recovery of ecosystems. I also propose, in a first time, to study species assembly in constraining environments, where stochastic factors are limited, in order to obtain a better mechanistic understanding of the processes involved. As there is yet not such understanding, I suggest that managers in charge of environmental conservation rather use a phenomenological approach to quickly estimate outcomes of recovery.

    Movements against the current : scale and social capital in peasants’ struggles for water in the Ecuadorian Highlands
    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent; M. Baud, co-promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735904 - 193
    watervoorraden - waterrechten - water - boerenstand - inheemse volkeren - sociaal kapitaal - gemeenschappen - politieke bewegingen - watergebruik - instellingen - irrigatiesystemen - hooglanden - ecuador - water resources - water rights - water - peasantry - indigenous people - social capital - communities - political movements - water use - institutions - irrigation systems - highlands - ecuador
    This thesis is about peasant and indigenous struggles for water rights in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It is based on the following main research question: How have peasant and indigenous communities developed multi-scalar political agency in water governance to gain and maintain their water access and related rights in the Ecuadorian Highlands since the 1980s? To answer this question, this thesis analyses the histories and relationships between organized water users, water reforms and non-governmental development organisations (NGOs) active in the Ecuadorian irrigation sector. Through state reforms, and processes of coproduction between NGOs and local peasant and indigenous communities, water user associations were created in many supra-community irrigation systems. Once created, these organisations formed the basis for the development of provincial and national federations and policy advocacy networks and platforms that now form the building blocks of the Ecuadorian water users movement.
    Ondernemen in Montferland
    Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2012
    In: Welkom in de natuur / Koedoet, M., van Rooijen, H., Velp : Van Hall Larenstein - ISBN 9789081742641 - p. 20 - 23.
    omgevingspsychologie - openluchtrecreatie - natuur - gemeenschappen - kinderen - gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - landschapsbeleving - environmental psychology - outdoor recreation - nature - communities - children - health - nature and environmental education - landscape experience
    Speelnatuur wordt op steeds meer plekken in Nederland aangelegd: in woonwijken, natuurgebieden, bij kinderdagverblijven en op schoolpleinen. De manier waarop deze plekken tot stand komen, verschilt sterk per locatie. De opmars van speelnatuur lijkt voorlopig niet tot een einde te komen. Veel schoolpleinen zijn helemaal betegeld, dus er kan veel meer speelnatuur worden ontwikkeld. Ook de kwaliteit van bestaande speelnatuur kan beter. Vooral het beheer is een aandachtspunt.
    The social side of river management
    Groot, W.T. de; Warner, J.F. - \ 2011
    New York : NovaScience Publishers, Inc. (Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology ) - ISBN 9781611229806 - 159
    rivieren - waterbeheer - milieubeheer - stroomgebieden - beheer van waterbekkens - natuurtechniek - rivierregulering - waterbeleid - sociale kwesties - sociaal conflict - plaatselijke bevolking - gemeenschappen - rivers - water management - environmental management - watersheds - watershed management - ecological engineering - river regulation - water policy - social issues - social conflict - local population - communities
    River management faces many challenges world-wide including climate change, flood risks and the demand for more adaptive and 'ecosystem-based' systems. Instead of raising the dikes even higher, the new adage for river managers is to give the rivers more space to drain their waters. This in turn implies that river management will become a social business, with strong involvement of local communities. This book offers various examples and theories on how to avoid conflict and enter into fruitful relationships with river communities.
    Community health promotion : facilitating and evaluating coordinated action to create supportive environments
    Wagemakers, A. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Maria Koelen; Lenneke Vaandrager. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856306 - 192
    gezondheidsbevordering - gemeenschappen - efficiëntie - health promotion - communities - efficiency
    Introduction
    Community programs to promote health have been launched all over the world and fit
    well with Dutch policy that emphasizes the participation of all citizens in all facets of
    society. However, researchers, practitioners, and policy makers report uncertainty about how to implement and evaluate health promotion programs. In particular, the social environment of health is still overlooked and underexposed due to a lack of consensus on concepts relating to the social environment of health, a lack of information on interventions that bring about social change, and a lack of feasible methods and tools. Consequently, the effectiveness of health promotion may not be evaluated under all relevant headings.

    Methods
    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to gain the required knowledge to
    contribute to the development of methods, tools, and theory to facilitate and evaluate
    community health promotion. Case studies have been selected that are guided
    by action research or in which action research was part of the research activities.
    Methods, tools, and theory have been developed, piloted, and evaluated simultaneously and iteratively in the Eindhoven program Working on Healthy Neighborhoods and the Healthy Lifestyles program in Amsterdam. Based on these case studies and the experiences in other Dutch community health programs, factors that are important in community health promotion were identified and a framework to facilitate and evaluate the social environment of health was developed. Based on the factors and the framework a Checklist for Coordinated Action was developed and assessed for usability in six different partnerships: a national program, an academic collaborative and four local partnerships.

    Results
    In the Eindhoven program the participatory action research facilitated the restart
    and continuation of the program, the achievement of intersectoral collaboration,
    the initiation of community participation, and other accompanying research. In the
    Amsterdam program, participatory approaches facilitated the participation of 15%
    of the target population at the desired level in the different phases of the program.
    The factors important in community health promotion are representation of relevant
    societal sectors, discussing aims, objectives, roles and responsibilities, communication infrastructure, visibility and management. These factors helped to develop a framework and guidelines which offer operational variables of participation and collaboration and thereby provide common ground for researchers and practitioners. The developed Checklist for Coordinated Action facilitates and evaluates partnerships that differ in context and level, phase of the program and topics addressed.

    Conclusion
    The thesis has revealed that action research methods and tools are valuable because they fit community health promotion, they generate actionable knowledge for relevant stakeholders, and they are essential and complementary in capturing and
    assessing the full effects of a community health promotion intervention. Scientific
    quality is assured by the use of different verification techniques and scientific criteria.
    Participation is of cardinal value as it contributes to health and serves multiple purposes in health promotion programs. Systematic learning processes can make participation manageable, and research activities are a proper way to facilitate those learning processes. Nonetheless, the potential of participation has not yet been harnessed. Participation thrives in principle-based programs: programs that are characterized by the co-generation of knowledge by involved stakeholders in a flexible and tailored way. To further develop and harvest the full benefit of participation and principle-based programs, researchers are challenged to broaden their research paradigm, practitioners are challenged to foster and coordinate principle-based programs, participation and learning processes and policymakers are challenged to stimulate and support science and practice. By participating and collaborating supportive social environments for health can be created.
    Van wie is het bos eigenlijk? Essays over participatie en natuurbeheer
    Keulartz, F.W.J. ; Veen, M. v.d. - \ 2009
    Driebergen : Staatsbosbeheer - 92
    bossen - participatie - samenleving - filosofie - individuen - gemeenschappen - regering - politiek - natuurbeheer - maatschappelijk middenveld - natuur - forests - participation - society - philosophy - individuals - communities - government - politics - nature management - civil society - nature
    In fear of abandonment : slum life, community leaders and politics in Recife, Brazil
    Koster, M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Th. Blom Hansen, co-promotor(en): Monique Nuijten; Pieter de Vries. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852971 - 356
    sociologie - sociale antropologie - steden - stedelijke gebieden - armoede - economisch achtergestelden - buurten - sociale structuur - stedelijke samenleving - stedelijke bevolking - gemeenschappen - leiderschap - politiek - stadsontwikkeling - brazilië - latijns-amerika - sociology - social anthropology - towns - urban areas - poverty - economically disadvantaged - neighbourhoods - social structure - urban society - urban population - communities - leadership - politics - urban development - brazil - latin america
    This book sets out to contribute to the pursuit of ‘making nonpersons full human beings’
    (Boff & Boff:1987:8). It provides insights in the lives of residents of the slum of “Chão de
    Estrelas” in Recife, Brazil. I argue that slum dwellers should not be mystified and
    misrecognised as “the other”, as different from “normal” citizens, because of their
    marginalised position. I show that the slum is, in fact, an eminently knowable world.
    This book presents how slum dwellers, directed by local lideres comunitarios, community
    leaders, strive for material and intangible resources and engage in utopian projects. I
    argue that the needs and aspirations of these people, who are at constant risk of being
    ignored, disconnected, and abandoned, emerge from their yearnings for recognition and
    connectivity, and a fear of abandonment. To understand this life in the slum, I focus on
    the ways slum dwellers attempt to realise their needs and aspirations, modes of
    operating which I call “slum politics”.
    Chapter 1 defines slum politics as grounded in the needs and aspirations of those
    who live in the margins. Drawing on the work of Oscar Lewis (1959, 1965), it analyses
    how life in the slum, through stigmatisation and a long history of marginalisation, is
    reproduced in ways that are fundamentally different from middle- and upper-class
    people. This difference, expressed in particular needs and aspirations, is not generated
    because slum dwellers are a different kind of people, but because have they been
    structurally segregated in the dominant political and economic order. This chapter
    documents how these particular needs and aspirations, although not solely held by
    slum dwellers, are more emphatically and urgently present in their lives in the margins
    of the political and economic order, and have material, intangible and utopian
    dimensions. Material needs exist, for instance, for money, food, and employment.
    Intangible, or social, needs can be viewed in attempts to establish connections to all
    kinds of people and to gain prestige. Utopian aspirations find their expression in slum
    dwellers’ cravings for solidarity, a better environment, and a desire to be connected to
    the world instead of being ignored by it.
    This chapter coins the concept of slum politics as the ongoing and never finished
    endeavour of slum dwellers of creating connections and possibilities which break off all
    the time. Slum politics, driven by attempts to be connected to the political and economic
    order, centres on the notion of connectivity, the intricate face-to-face relations between
    persons which need to be constantly maintained, and a fear abandonment, which means
    being forsaken and excluded by everybody. It includes practices in the realms of family
    life, making a living, and dreaming about the future.
    Chapter 2 provides a portrait of community leadership. It shows how community
    leaders are the main facilitators of slum politics, as they articulate and consolidate needs
    and aspirations of their fellow slum dwellers, which they, being slum dwellers
    340
    themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
    dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
    slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
    create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
    those of their fellow slum dwellers.
    Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
    engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
    practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
    They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
    results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
    expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
    politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
    Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
    beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
    marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
    and making money.
    Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
    personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
    attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
    slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
    trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
    achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
    which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
    case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
    give shape to slum politics in their projects.
    Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
    histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
    the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
    often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
    coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
    circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
    connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
    In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
    electoral and themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
    dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
    slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
    create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
    those of their fellow slum dwellers.
    Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
    engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
    practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
    They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
    results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
    expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
    politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
    Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
    beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
    marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
    and making money.
    Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
    personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
    attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
    slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
    trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
    achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
    which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
    case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
    give shape to slum politics in their projects.
    Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
    histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
    the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
    often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
    coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
    circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
    connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
    In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
    electoral and governmental politics. I follow Partha Chatterjee’s theorising on popular
    politics, conceptualised as those ‘contrary mobilisations’ that may have ‘transformative
    effects … among the supposedly unenlightened sections of the population’ (2004:49).
    Chatterjee distinguishes the politics of marginalised people from the politics of the state
    apparatus and the government, and argues that the former should not be understood as
    “pre-political” and backward, but as a politics with its own parameters and logics,
    ‘different from that of the elite’ (idem:39). My reservation to Chatterjee’s theorisations is that he presents popular politics as a residual category, derived from governmental
    politics. I argue instead that slum politics is not primarily reactive to or derived from
    governmental politics, but co-exists with it as it is constituted in the needs and
    aspirations of slum dwellers.
    Chapter 6, zeroing in on the 2004 municipal elections, shows the overlap between
    slum politics and electoral politics. It documents how electoral politics penetrates into
    the slum and contaminates slum politics. Community leaders employ the moment of the
    elections to negotiate with candidates to garner resources for the community and
    themselves. However, electoral politics entails the possible risk of steering away from
    community interests into issues of self-interested yearnings for power and money. Two
    case studies show attempts of community leaders, as political canvassers, to manoeuvre
    in the realm of electoral politics in such ways as to also make money, cater to needs and
    aspirations of fellow slum dwellers, and steer clear of accusations of being selfinterested.
    Chapter 7 presents a case study of encounters between slum politics and
    governmental politics. Parts of Chão de Estrelas were planned to be regenerated by a
    large World Bank funded slum upgrading programme. I analyse the preamble of the
    programme, how it affected the population of the slum, and how community leaders
    dealt with it. With reference to Bruno Latour’s work, I argue that the ambiguity which
    existed around the programme actually called it into existence. I contend that a project
    creates a context in which it becomes real, through rumours and ‘little solidities’ (Latour
    1996:45), like meetings, surveys, maps, aerial photographs, offices, brochures, registers,
    maps, surveyors and their reports, and census stickers.
    I also argue that the programme affected slum dwellers in their most vulnerable
    places: their homes, neighbourhoods, and possibilities for work. As a consequence,
    feelings of despair, evoking fears of being ignored as a person with specific needs and
    aspirations, hit hard in the lives of slum dwellers.
    Chapter 8 analyses how life in the slum is framed by violence. Next to the symbolic
    and structural violence of discrimination, slum dwellers face acts of violence on a daily
    basis, like fights, assaults and shoot-outs, often related to drug trade. Community
    leaders and drug traders maintain a tacit balance by which they steer clear of contact
    with each other. Slum dwellers, I show, perceive of violence as extraordinary through
    acts of mentioning it, reflecting upon it, avoiding it, and expressing aspirations for a life
    without it. In contrast, they also see violence as normal, as it is an everyday life
    experience.
    Furthermore, this chapter argues that, whereas actual violence occurs at random,
    potential violence is structured and structuring. Dealing with potential violence, slum
    dwellers ban violence discursively from their personal lives by depicting it as related to
    ‘the other’ and ‘elsewhere’. In addition, they adhere to moral categories which define
    those who die from violence as evil, as such seeing their death as a good thing which rids the community of wrong-doers.
    Turning again to the intersection between slum politics and governmental politics,
    the chapter argues that the concept of citizenship does not resonate with the lives of
    slum dwellers who reside in sites where citizenship rights per definition do not hold.
    Part of the violence slum dwellers face is related to the intrusive workings of the statedesigned
    project of registered citizenship, which centres on the compulsory carrying of
    identity cards. Slum dwellers, instead of being recognised as citizens through their
    identity cards, are discriminated and approached in violent ways by the police who
    consider them as criminals.
    Chapter 9, as a conclusion, argues once more against the mystification and
    “othering” of slum dwellers, and distances them from the philosopher Giorgio
    Agamben’s notion of homo sacer (1998, 2005). Slum dwellers do not coincide with homo
    sacer, as they are not officially abandoned by law and maintain personal connections
    with people outside the slum. Further, the dominant image of the slum dweller as a
    dangerous criminal separates him from homo sacer, who is harmless. Moreover, slum
    politics assigns a political quality to life in the slum, which makes it a politically
    qualified life (bios) instead of the bare life (zoē) of homo sacer. Slum dwellers’ position in
    the political and economic order, although marginalised, is different from the position of
    homo sacer, who exists outside of the order. Finally, in contrast to homo sacer, slum
    dwellers are not a minority, but a fast growing social class which will soon exist of more
    than half of the world’s population. I incite anthropologists to study not only the general
    exclusionary workings of political systems, but also the mundane practices and utopian
    aspirations of people living in the margins, as an analysis of these may help to imagine
    novel political possibilities.
    The rules of the game and the game of the rules : normalization and resistance in Andean water control
    Boelens, R.A. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg; H. Achterhuis. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789085048961 - 573
    irrigatiewater - irrigatiesystemen - waterbeheer - gemeenschappen - watergebruik - waterverdeling - waterbeleid - gebergten - Peru - Ecuador - Chili - Zuid-Amerika - waterrechten - andes - staat - irrigation water - irrigation systems - water management - communities - water use - water distribution - water policy - mountains - Peru - Ecuador - Chile - South America - water rights - andes - state - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Social learning towards a sustainable world
    Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860319 - 540
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenleving - gemeenschappen - kapitaalvennootschappen - wereld - leren - methodologie - oefening - ontwikkeling - maatschappelijke vorming - natuur- en milieueducatie - sustainability - development - learning - methodology - practice - society - communities - companies - world - social education - nature and environmental education
    This comprehensive volume - containing 27 chapters and contributions from six continents - presents and discusses key principles, perspectives, and practices of social learning in the context of sustainability. Social learning is explored from a range of fields challenged by sustainability including: organizational learning, environmental management and corporate social responsibility; multi-stakeholder governance; education, learning and educational psychology; multiple land-use and integrated rural development; and consumerism and critical consumer education. An entire section of the book is devoted to a number of reflective case studies of people, organizations and communities using forms of social learning in moving towards sustainability.
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