Fewer invited talks by women in evolutionary biology sympsosia
Schroeder, J. ; Dugdale, H.L. ; Radersma, R. ; Hinsch, M. ; Buehler, D.M. ; Saul, J. ; Porter, L. ; Liker, A. ; Cauwer, I. de; Johnson, P.J. ; Santure, A.W. ; Griffin, A.S. ; Bolund, E. ; Ross, L. ; Webb, T.J. ; Feulner, P.G.D. ; Winney, I. ; Szulkin, M. ; Komdeur, J. ; Versteegh, M.A. ; Hemelrijk, C.K. ; Svensson, E.I. ; Edwards, H. ; Karlsson, M. ; West, S.A. ; Barrett, E.L.B. ; Richardson, D.S. ; Brink, V. van den; Wimpenny, J.H. ; Ellwood, S.A. ; Rees, M. van; Matson, K.D. - \ 2013
Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26 (2013)9. - ISSN 1010-061X - p. 2063 - 2069.
gender-differences - job applicants - science - recommendation - visibility - professors - female
Lower visibility of female scientists, compared to male scientists, is a potential reason for the under-representation of women among senior academic ranks. Visibility in the scientific community stems partly from presenting research as an invited speaker at organized meetings. We analysed the sex ratio of presenters at the European Society for Evolutionary Biology (ESEB) Congress 2011, where all abstract submissions were accepted for presentation. Women were under-represented among invited speakers at symposia (15% women) compared to all presenters (46%), regular oral presenters (41%) and plenary speakers (25%). At the ESEB congresses in 2001–2011, 9–23% of invited speakers were women. This under-representation of women is partly attributable to a larger proportion of women, than men, declining invitations: in 2011, 50% of women declined an invitation to speak compared to 26% of men. We expect invited speakers to be scientists from top ranked institutions or authors of recent papers in high-impact journals. Considering all invited speakers (including declined invitations), 23% were women. This was lower than the baseline sex ratios of early-mid career stage scientists, but was similar to senior scientists and authors that have published in high-impact journals. High-quality science by women therefore has low exposure at international meetings, which will constrain Evolutionary Biology from reaching its full potential. We wish to highlight the wider implications of turning down invitations to speak, and encourage conference organizers to implement steps to increase acceptance rates of invited talks.
The influence of student characteristics on the use of adaptive e-learning material
Seters, J.R. van; Ossevoort, M.A. ; Tramper, J. ; Goedhart, M.J. - \ 2012
Computers and Education 58 (2012)3. - ISSN 0360-1315 - p. 942 - 952.
computer-simulations - gender-differences - prior knowledge - hypermedia - feedback - motivation - instruction - education - game - tool
Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive elearning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics in a heterogeneous student group by collecting demographic data and measuring motivation and prior knowledge. We also measured the learning paths students followed and learning strategies they used when working with adaptive e-learning material in a molecular biology course. We then combined these data to study if and how student characteristics relate to the learning paths and strategies they used. We observed that students did follow different learning paths. Gender did not have an effect, but (mainly Dutch) BSc students differed from (international) MSc students in the intrinsic motivation they had and the learning paths and strategies they followed when using the adaptive e-learning material
Examining Attachment to God and Health Risk-Taking Behaviors in College Students
Barrett, J. ; Horton, K.D. ; Ellison, Ch.G. ; Loukas, A. ; Downey, D.L. - \ 2012
Journal of Religion and Health 51 (2012)2. - ISSN 0022-4197 - p. 552 - 566.
gender-differences - social support - substance use - emerging adulthood - binge drinking - alcohol-use - religiosity - metaanalysis - stress - love
Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God—secure, avoidant, and anxious—were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are genderspecific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men.
Characterizing a scientific elite: the social characteristics of the most highly cited scientist in environmental science and ecology
Parker, J.N. ; Lortie, C. ; Allesina, S. - \ 2010
Scientometrics 85 (2010)1. - ISSN 0138-9130 - p. 129 - 143.
publication output - gender-differences - citation analysis - productivity - level - specialization - authors
In science, a relatively small pool of researchers garners a disproportionally large number of citations. Still, very little is known about the social characteristics of highly cited scientists. This is unfortunate as these researchers wield a disproportional impact on their fields, and the study of highly cited scientists can enhance our understanding of the conditions which foster highly cited work, the systematic social inequalities which exist in science, and scientific careers more generally. This study provides information on this understudied subject by examining the social characteristics and opinions of the 0.1% most cited environmental scientists and ecologists. Overall, the social characteristics of these researchers tend to reflect broader patterns of inequality in the global scientific community. However, while the social characteristics of these researchers mirror those of other scientific elites in important ways, they differ in others, revealing findings which are both novel and surprising, perhaps indicating multiple pathways to becoming highly cited.
Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes towards genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease
Morren, M. ; Rijken, M. ; Baanders, A.N. ; Bensing, J. - \ 2007
Patient Education and Counseling 65 (2007)2. - ISSN 0738-3991 - p. 197 - 204.
human-genome-project - general-practitioners - gender-differences - information needs - primary-care - focus group - cancer - discrimination - perceptions - population
Objective: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition, patients were asked about their preferred source of genetic information. Methods: Questionnaires were mailed to participants of a nationwide representative sample of patients with chronic diseases in the Netherlands (n = 1916). Results: The response rate was 82% (n = 1496). Perceived genetic knowledge was low, particularly among older and lower educated patients. Attitudes towards genetics were rather positive, especially among younger and higher educated patients. Some concerns were also documented, mainly about the consequences of genetic testing for employment and taking insurance. Patients who perceived to have little knowledge found it difficult to formulate an opinion about genetic testing. Higher levels of genetic knowledge were associated with a more favourable attitude towards genetics. Chronic patients prefer to receive genetic information from their GP. Conclusion: Chronic patients are ill prepared when they require genetic knowledge to make decisions regarding the treatment of their disease. This seems to result from a knowledge deficiency rather than from disagreement with the genetic developments. Practice implications: When chronic patients are in need of information about genetics or genetic testing, their general practitioner should provide this. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A. ; Osch, M.J.P. ; Nievelstein, R.A.J. ; Grond, J. van der - \ 2006
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (2006)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1297 - 1305.
human orbitofrontal cortex - sensory-specific satiety - gender-differences - liquid food - eating behavior - sex-differences - stimuli - appetite - humans - fmri
Background:The brain plays a crucial role in the decision to eat, integrating multiple hormonal and neural signals. A key factor controlling food intake is selective satiety, ie, the phenomenon that the motivation to eat more of a food decreases more than does the motivation to eat foods not eaten. Objective:We investigated the effect of satiation with chocolate on the brain activation associated with chocolate taste in men and women. Design:Twelve men and 12 women participated. Subjects fasted overnight and were scanned by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging while tasting chocolate milk, before and after eating chocolate until they were satiated. Results:In men, chocolate satiation was associated with increased taste activation in the ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex and with decreased taste activation in somatosensory areas. Women showed increased taste activation in the precentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and putamen and decreased taste activation in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Sex differences in the effect of chocolate satiation were found in the hypothalamus, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex (all P <0.005). Conclusions:Our results indicate that men and women differ in their response to satiation and suggest that the regulation of food intake by the brain may vary between the sexes. Therefore, sex differences are a covariate of interest in studies of the brain's responses to food.
The sex difference of plasma homovanillic acid is unaffected by cross-sex hormone administration in transsexual subjects
Giltay, E.J. ; Kho, King H. ; Blansjaar, B.A. ; Verbeek, M.M. ; Geurtz, P.B.H. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2005
Journal of Endocrinology 187 (2005)1. - ISSN 0022-0795 - p. 109 - 116.
central dopaminergic activity - to-female transsexuals - schizophrenic-patients - gender-differences - postmenopausal women - human brain - catecholamine metabolites - neuroleptic treatment - cyproterone-acetate - treatment response
There is a close relationship between the brain and the endocrine system. The brain expresses receptors for sex steroids and is capable of metabolizing these hormones. We explored (1) sex differences in homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and (2) the effects of cross-sex steroid administration in transsexual subjects. First, we compared plasma HVA levels between 38 male and 34 female healthy volunteers (not using hormone replacement therapy) of a mean age of 72 years (range 65-84 years). Secondly, we measured plasma HVA levels in 15 male-to-female transsexuals treated with 100 ¿g ethinyl estradiol/day and 100 mg cyproterone acetate/day for 4 months, and in 17 female-to-male transsexuals treated with testosterone esters (250 mg/2 weeks i.m. for 4 months). Plasma HVA levels were lower in elderly men than in elderly postmenopausal women (geometric mean 25.4 nmol/l (percentile (P)10 4.9; P90 69.8) vs 39.0 nmol/l (19.0; 76.1); P=0.027). In transsexuals before cross-sex hormone administration, genetic males also had lower plasma levels of HVA than genetic females (geometric mean 14.8 nmol/l (P10 7.0; P90 35.0) vs 34.3 nmol/l (21.8; 61.4); P0.5). The pretreatment sex difference in plasma HVA was unaffected after 4 months of cross-sex hormone administration (P=0.003). The sex difference in plasma HVA was not reversed by cross-sex hormone administration in transsexuals, and was also preserved in elderly subjects. This indicated that differences in dopamine gene expression were largely unaffected by exposure to sex hormone levels in adulthood, but must rather be explained by a sex difference in genetic factors or by the organizing effects of sex hormones during early development
Gene expression profiling of adipose tissue : individual, depot-dependent and sex-dependent variabilities
Klaus, S. ; Keijer, J. - \ 2004
Nutrition 20 (2004)1. - ISSN 0899-9007 - p. 115 - 120.
adipocyte differentiation - metabolic syndrome - microarray analysis - insulin-resistance - gender-differences - secreted proteins - obese subjects - in-vivo - identification - fat