Gene-Edited Crops : Towards a Harmonized Safety Assessment
Kleter, Gijs A. ; Kuiper, Harry A. ; Kok, Esther J. - \ 2019
Trends in Biotechnology 37 (2019)5. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 443 - 447.
crop biotechnology - gene editing - genetically modified crops - international harmonization - novel plant breeding techniques - regulation - risk assessment - safety assessment
Gene editing and other innovative plant breeding techniques are transforming the field of crop biotechnology. Divergent national regulatory regimes worldwide apply to crops bred with these techniques. A plea is made for international harmonization of the premarket assessment of their safety. Such harmonization has previously been achieved for genetically modified (GM) crops.
The costs of coexistence measures for genetically modified maize in Germany
Venus, T.J. ; Dillen, K. ; Punt, M.J. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2017
Journal of Agricultural Economics 68 (2017)2. - ISSN 0021-857X - p. 407 - 426.
Bt maize - coexistence measure cost - genetically modified crops
We estimate the perceived costs of legal requirements ('coexistence measures') for growing genetically modified (GM) Bt maize in Germany using a choice experiment. The costs of the evaluated ex-ante and ex-post coexistence measures range from zero to more than € 300 per measure and most are greater than the extra revenu the farmers in our survey expect from growing Bt maize or than estimates in the literature. The cost estimates for temporal separation, the ighest in our evaluation, imply that the esclusion of this measure in Germany is justified. The costliest measures of the ones that are currently applied in Germany are joint and strict liability for all damages. Our results further show that neighbours do not cause a problem and opportunities for reducing costs through agreements with them exist. Finally, we find that farmers' attitudes towards GM crops affect the probability of adoption of Bt maize. Our results imply that strict liability will deter the cultivation of Bt maize in Germay unless liability issues can be addressed through other means, for example, through neighbours agreements.
Substantial equivalence - an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?
Kuiper, H.A. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Noteborn, H.P.J.M. ; Kok, E.J. - \ 2002
Toxicology 181/182 (2002). - ISSN 0300-483X - p. 427 - 431.
safety evaluation - genetically modified crops - concept of substantial equivalence