Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Aardappel: knolgewas van wereldformaat : De oorsprong van de aardappel (herziene versie)
    Pistorius, R. ; Hoekstra, R. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland - 20
    aardappelen - herkomst - verspreiding - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - rassen (planten) - potatoes - provenance - dispersal - plant genetic resources - varieties
    In vier eeuwen tijd is de aardappel uitgegroeid van een lokaal voedselgewas tot het op drie na grootste bulkvoedselgewas ter wereld. Nederland is in de laatste eeuw uitgegroeid tot 's werelds grootste exporteur van pootaardappelen. De aardappelteelt en -export liggen diep verankerd in onze landbouwgeschiedenis.
    Bomen aan der einder : Onze bomen en bossen door de eeuwen heen (herziene versie)
    Pistorius, R. ; Vries, S.M.G. de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    bomen - soortendiversiteit - historische ecologie - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - trees - species diversity - historical ecology - plant genetic resources
    Pas in de laatste decennia hebben bossen hun voornaamste functie, houtproductie, verloren. Ons huidige, relatief weinig diverse, bosbestand getuigt nog van die verloren functie. Reden te meer het behoud van de biodiversiteit van onze bossen aandacht te geven. Deze brochure belicht ons nationaal bosbeheer door de eeuwen heen en staat stil bij de huidige bewaring van genetisch materiaal van autochtone bomen.
    Crop Wild Relatives (CWRs) in Nederland
    Hoekstra, R. ; Treuren, R. van; Hintum, T.J.L. van - \ 2016
    wilde verwanten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - conservering - ex-situ conservering - in-situ conservering - natuurgebieden - genenbanken - nederland - wild relatives - plant genetic resources - conservation - ex situ conservation - in situ conservation - natural areas - gene banks - netherlands
    Seeds as biosocial commons : an analysis of various practices in India
    Patnaik, Archana - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578302 - 166
    rice - seeds - plant genetic resources - plant genetics - seed production - seed storage - community development - gender - social environment - india - rural development - rijst - zaden - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantengenetica - zaadproductie - opslag van zaden - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - geslacht (gender) - sociaal milieu - india - plattelandsontwikkeling

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities). Therefore, conservation and management of PGRs in the form of seeds are essential for plant breeding, agricultural production and to meet the growing food demand of the increasing population. However, the changed use of PGRs through enclosures and appropriation of the Intellectual Property Rights creates underutilisation of these resources, risking their important societal role. Thus, this research aimed at analysing how the processes of commonisation of PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons emerge in the Indian context.

    The research applied an in-depth qualitative research approach using case study method. It focused on four distinct issues of disconnection, collective resistance, strategies of repossession and ability of stakeholders to provide insights broadly into the processes of commonisation of PGRs. Describing the different cases it also establishes whether and how opportunities for commonisation of PGRs as biosocial commons emerge within these contexts. The research analysed four cases where one case reflected on the intellectual commons produced through institutionalisation of PGRs and the other three cases reflected on the bottom-up perspective of commons produced through Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).

    The research through its first case, the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a public ex situ genebank, describes the disconnection of PGRs, while through the second case reflects on the collective activity of resistance through management of community seed banks (CSBs) by the Deccan Development Society (DDS). The third and fourth cases involved small, local initiatives; Loka Samabaya Pratisthan (LSP) and Sambhav that fostered collective action for repossession through in situ seed banks. The research used various techniques, such as interviews with respondents, focus group discussions (FGDs) and participant observation for primary sources of data, with published and unpublished documents, reports and official websites as secondary sources.

    The second chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of disconnection and argues that storing seeds at genebanks disconnects the resources from their biosocial environment. Further, the evaluation of genetic traits within the stored seeds through the scientific intervention at the genebank creates the divide between the resources (seeds) and their informational content. Thus, this chapter concludes that disconnection of seeds from their biosocial environment leads to the creation of exclusive but positive intellectual commons.

    The third chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of collective resistance and argues that disconnection of the community from their local food system can generate resistance and collective activity among the community. This chapter finds that the resistance and collective activity further brought in the interaction between the resource and the stakeholders through informal social relations and seed networks.

    The fourth chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of strategies of repossession and argues that socio-political and ecological context play an important role in determining the strategy for repossession and commonisation of PGRs which further inhibits or facilitates the production of seeds as biosocial commons.

    The fifth chapter of the thesis analyses the ability of stakeholders and finds that apart from institutional rights other factors like the social relations, ideology, negotiations and social identity of a stakeholder determines their ability in accessing the conserved resources.

    The overall finding of the research suggests that the informal seed networks in the cases analysed stimulated in establishing the biosocial relations between the stakeholders and the resources. The biosocial relation further led seeds to function as biosocial commons. The research thus proposes that strengthening of these biosocial relations through informal seed networks can lead to the commonisation of the PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons in the Indian context.

    Using genetic resources : Rules for international exchange
    Crisson, L.J.R. ; Visser, L. - \ 2016
    genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische bronnen - internationale verdragen - internationale samenwerking - eu regelingen - diversiteit - animal genetic resources - plant genetic resources - genetic resources - international agreements - international cooperation - eu regulations - diversity
    International rules for the exchange and use of genetic resources have been agreed upon, and providers and users are obliged to follow these rules. This folder provides background information on the relevant international agreements, explains various terms that are often used, and provides basic guidance for users seeking access to genetic resources. This folder is relevant for all Dutch public institutes, companies and individuals using genetic resources for research and development.
    Country Report for The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture – The Netherlands : CGN Report 34
    Brink, M. - \ 2015
    biodiversity - food and agriculture organization - netherlands - food production - government policy - animal genetic resources - genetic resources - plant genetic resources - ecosystems - agricultural production systems - biodiversiteit - voedsel- en landbouworganisatie - nederland - voedselproductie - overheidsbeleid - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische bronnen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - ecosystemen - agrarische productiesystemen
    The Netherlands Country Report for The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture forms, together with country reports from other countries, thematic studies, reports from international organizations and inputs from other relevant stakeholders, the basis for the report on the State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture (SoWBFA report). The structure of the Country report follows the FAO’s guidelines, to provide baseline information, highlight knowledge gaps and to facilitate the regional and global synthesis of the information from different countries. The report focuses on developments in the area of Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture (BFA) observed in the last 10 years.
    Approaches to the conservation of forest genetic resources in Europe in the context of climate change
    Kelleher, Colin T. ; Vries, S.M.G. de; Baliuckas, Virgilijus - \ 2015
    Rome : Biodiversity International - ISBN 9789292550325 - 46
    forest trees - genetic diversity - genetic resources - plant genetic resources - forest resources - climatic change - forest policy - bosbomen - genetische diversiteit - genetische bronnen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - bosbestanden - klimaatverandering - bosbeleid
    In Europe, forests have been expanding in terms of area and timber stock over the past 50 years and subsequently they have acted as a carbon sink while they have been recovering from previous eras of deforestation. National adaptation strategies to climate change and other policies have been formulated in many European countries to harness the potential of forests and the forestry sector for mitigating climate change. However, the impacts of climate change on forests, and especially on their genetic diversity have not been given a proper consideration in these policies. For these reasons, the EUFORGEN Steering Committee established a working group on climate change and the conservation of forest genetic resources that made several recommendations for action presented in this report
    Exploiting wild tomato genetic resources for resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus
    Caro Rios, C.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Yuling Bai; Richard Kormelink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575936 - 187
    solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - wild relatives - plant genetic resources - disease resistance - tomato yellow leaf curl virus - gene mapping - solanum habrochaites - introgression - plant breeding - solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - wilde verwanten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - ziekteresistentie - tomatengeelkrulbladvirus - genkartering - solanum habrochaites - introgressie - plantenveredeling
    Beroep op zadenbank op Spitsbergen
    Visser, B. - \ 2015
    zaden - opslag van zaden - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - syrië - seeds - seed storage - plant genetic resources - syria
    Voor het eerst sinds de opening in 2008 maakt een land aanspraak op zaden uit de Svalbard Global Seed Vault, de wereldwijde ondergrondse kluis voor landbouwzaden op Spitsbergen. Syrië heeft een deel van haar ingeleverde zaden nodig, omdat de eigen zadenbank bij Aleppo in de oorlog zwaar beschadigd is, en veel van de daar opgeslagen gewassen vervangen moeten worden. Bert Visser, directeur van het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland, in deze uitzending.
    The conservation and use of crop genetic resources for food security
    Khoury, C.K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): A. Jarvis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574427 - 302
    genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische diversiteit - germplasm - landbouwontwikkeling - klimaatadaptatie - wilde verwanten - ex-situ conservering - voedselzekerheid - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - germplasm - agricultural development - climate adaptation - wild relatives - ex situ conservation - food security - cum laude
    Cum laude graduation
    Among the factors hindering the conservation of crop genetic resources is a lack of essential information regarding this diversity. Questions include: (a) what is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?, (b) where can genetic diversity be found that can be useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these vulnerabilities?, (c) is this genetic diversity available in the present and in the long term?, and (d) what steps are needed to improve the ability for researchers to access genetic resources critical for present and future crop improvement? This thesis aims to contribute to the knowledge required to answer these questions through an exploration of the need for, potential of, challenges and constraints regarding, and necessary steps to enhance the conservation and use of crop genetic diversity.
    Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone
    Mokuwa, G.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Edwin Nuijten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574328 - 267
    oryza glaberrima - oryza sativa - hybride rassen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - zaden - voedselzekerheid - familiebedrijven, landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - west-afrika - sierra leone - oryza glaberrima - oryza sativa - hybrid varieties - plant genetic resources - seeds - food security - family farms - farm management - west africa - sierra leone

    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa.


    Mokuwa, G. A. (2015) Management of rice seed during insurgency: a case study in Sierra Leone. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, 267 pp.

    In large parts of West Africa small scale farmers rely upon the cultivation of upland rice under low input conditions in a great diversity of micro-environments. It has been suggested that formal research should consider the context within which farmers address their food security issues. But these contexts need further clarification for poor and marginalized farm households facing many challenges, including dislocations associated with political and social unrest, and civil war. The research presented in this thesis builds on earlier findings concerning farmer management of rice genetic resources under farmer low-resource conditions. It starts with a regional focus, drawing on methods from the social and biological sciences, concerning the human, environmental and technical factors shaping the character and composition of rice varieties grown by small-scale farmers in coastal West Africa (seven countries from Senegal to Togo) and then focuses on specific in-depth field studies undertaken in Sierra Leone.

    Findings show that farmer rice genetic resources were persistently and enduringly adapted to local agro-ecologies via strong selection processes and local adaptation strategies, and that these adaptive processes were largely unaffected by the temporary contingencies of civil war. It is also shown that even under extreme (war-time) conditions success indicators in farmers’ local seed channels remain robust. Farmers continue to select and adapt their seed types to local contingencies, and war served as yet one more stimulus to further adaptation. This persistent human selective activity continues to make a significant contribution to the food security of poor and marginalized farm households in the region.

    The major finding of this thesis is that selection for robustness among varieties of the local staple, rice, helped to protect Sierra Leonean farmers against some of the worst effects of war-induced food insecurity. In this sense, therefore, war may have served to strengthen and prolong farmer preferences for robustness, but it was not the cause of this preference. The marked diversity farmers maintain in their rice varieties is understood to be part of a longer-term risk-spreading strategy that also facilitates successful and often serendipitous variety innovations. In a world facing major climatic changes this local capacity for seed selection and innovation ought to be a valued resource for technological change. The present study provides a starting point for thinking about the improved effectiveness of institutional innovation strategies for farmer participatory innovation activities.

    On the sustainable use and conservation of plant genetic resources in Europe. Report from Work Package 5 “Engaging the user Community” of the
    Frese, L. ; Palmé, A. ; Kik, C. - \ 2014
    NordGen - 34
    duurzame landbouw - plantenveredeling - landrassen - rassen (planten) - geografische verdeling - genetische diversiteit - gewassen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - wilde verwanten - europa - sustainable agriculture - plant breeding - landraces - varieties - geographical distribution - genetic diversity - crops - plant genetic resources - wild relatives - europe
    PGR Secure project , a collaborative project funded under the EU Seventh Framework Programme, THEME KBBE.2010.1.1-03, 'Characterization of biodiversity resources for wild crop relatives to improve crops by breeding', Grant agreement no. 266394."
    Conserving the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potatoes
    Cadima Fuentes, X. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): Ronald van den Berg; Rob van Treuren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571686 - 229
    solanum - bolivia - wilde verwanten - gewassen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - conservering - ex-situ conservering - in-situ conservering - genenbanken - biosystematiek - genetische diversiteit - verzamelmissies - solanum - bolivia - wild relatives - crops - plant genetic resources - conservation - ex situ conservation - in situ conservation - gene banks - biosystematics - genetic diversity - collecting missions

    Abstract thesis Ximena Cadima Fuentes (to be defended on 8 Dec 2014):

    Conserving the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potatoes

    The wild relatives of potatoes (Solanum sect. Petota) form the genetic reservoir for the improvement of the cultivated potato. Bolivia harbours 39 wild taxa of these wild potatoes, 21 of which are endemic species. This study aimed to evaluate to what level the current ex situ and in situ management efforts have conserved the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potato species, and what recommendations can be formulated for improvement.

    The current conservation status of Bolivian endemic wild potato species was assessed using both the globally accepted IUCN criteria and a methodology developed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF-Crop Wild Relative Project (CWR Project). These two methods led to different estimates of threat status for some of the species. Spatial analysis allowed to distinguish eight priority areas for in situ conservation of the 21 Bolivian endemic wild potato species. These areas represent a high concentration of endemic species and have a relatively low level of threat, but only one of them has a conservation status. This is a first step to direct the conservation efforts for wild potato species.

    The genetic stability and diversity of material from different species under ex situ management was evaluated using microsatellite markers. The analysis was performed on accessions that went through a process of seed regeneration and multiplication during ex situ conservation. Genetic changes between different generations of ex situ germplasm were observed for the majority, but not all, of the investigated species. Potential causes of these changes include genetic drift and contamination resulting from human error during regeneration. The populations generated under ex situ conditions were also compared with re-collected in situ populations from the same location or area as the original collection. The results showed highly significant differences in all cases. Potential causes for these differences are changes during ex situ maintenance, sampling effects during collecting and in situ genetic change over time.

    The integrated conservation of Bolivian wild potatoes requires a combination of in situ and ex situ activities. The principle recommendation for the in situ conservation is to move from a passive to an active approach, where conservation areas are prioritized, conservation plans are designed according to the type of area (protected area or agro-ecosystem) and local stake holders are involved. To make sure that ex situ material provides a good representation of the in situ genetic variability, regular re-collecting of species with few accessions (and therefore less variability), endangered in situ, and with known or potential favorable traits is necessary. Gene bank management procedures should follow the FAO gene bank standards and this should be monitored by a national body responsible for genetic resources. And finally, periodic monitoring of the genetic integrity should be implemented as part of good practices during regeneration procedures in order to detect possible changes and to help combat human errors.

    ABS Focal Point
    Visser, L. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - bosbomen - genetische diversiteit - internationale verdragen - eu regelingen - nederland - onderzoek - ontwikkeling - animal genetic resources - plant genetic resources - forest trees - genetic diversity - international agreements - eu regulations - netherlands - research - development
    This website of the ABS Focal Point of the Netherlands contains information that is relevant to all public institutes, companies and individuals using genetic resources for research and development. It provides basic guidance for Dutch and foreign users seeking access to genetic resources as well as background information on the relevant international agreements, and explains various terms that are often used.
    Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security
    Khoury, C.K. ; Bjorkman, A.D. ; Dempewolf, H. ; Ramirez-Villegas, J. ; Guarino, L. ; Jarvis, A. ; Rieseberg, L.H. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2014
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)11. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 4001 - 4006.
    voedselzekerheid - soortendiversiteit - diversiteit - voedselvoorziening - gewassen - basisproducten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - food security - species diversity - diversity - food supply - crops - commodities - plant genetic resources - plant genetic-resources - climate-change - ecosystem services - farming systems - biodiversity - productivity - nutrition - policy - world
    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security.
    Doelgroepen inventarisatie Nagoya Protocol
    Brink, M. ; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Visser, L. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : CGN - 42
    genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische bronnen - plant genetic resources - animal genetic resources - genetic resources
    Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS) betreft de regulering van de toegang tot en het gebruik van genetische bronnen, en het delen van de voordelen voortkomend uit dit gebruik tussen leveranciers en gebruikes. Er zijn internationale ABS regels overeengekomen, vastgelegd in de Convention on Biological Diversity, het Nagoya Protocol en de International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Omdat de Europese Unie een Verordening in voorbereiding heeft waarin de plichten van gebruikers en overheden van lidstaten worden geformuleerd, is een inventarisatie gemaakt van gebruikers van genetische bronnen.
    De Es mag niet weg! Onderzoek essenresistentie: nu sector en gebruiker aan zet
    Raats, S. ; Kuik, A.J. van; Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2013
    Boom in business 2013 (2013)7. - ISSN 2211-9884 - p. 22 - 24.
    fraxinus - straatbomen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - rassen (planten) - cultivars - klonen - plantenvermeerdering - boomkwekerijen - resistentie van variëteiten - plantenziekten - chalara fraxinea - fraxinus - street trees - plant genetic resources - varieties - cultivars - clones - propagation - forest nurseries - varietal resistance - plant diseases - chalara fraxinea
    Op de Nederlandse Boominfodag 2012 maakte Jitze Kopinga bekend dat het WUR-CGN (Het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland) een aantal redelijk resistente essenklonen bezit en dat de Wageningen Universiteit deze klonen vrijgeeft voor vermeerdering door kwekers. In november bezocht Kopinga in Vilnius een Europese projectbijeenkomst op het gebied van onderzoek naar essentaksterfte. Alle belangrijke onderzoekers in Europa waren daar aanwezig. Als het aan Kopinga ligt, overleeft de es met verve.'Maar dan moeten de sector en de gebruikers wel inzetten op vertrouwen', aldus de onderzoeker.
    Implementation of access and benefit sharing policies in Sub-Sahara Africa: inventory, analysis and proposals
    Brink, M. - \ 2013
    Ministerie van EL&I - 47
    genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - wetgeving - regelingen - belemmeringen - germplasm uitwisseling - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - Nederland - plant genetic resources - legislation - regulations - disincentives - germplasm exchange - africa south of sahara - Netherlands
    Today, individuals, companies and institutes seeking access to genetic resources have to comply with rules and regulations set by national governments, based to a varying extent on the international agreements mentioned above. As each country is following its own interpretations and procedures, this has led to a complex situation, and sometimes even a feeling that in some countries it is not worth the effort anymore to seek access to genetic resources. Therefore, a project was initiated in 2012 to make an inventory of Access and Benefit-Sharing regulations and their implementation in selected countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, to analyse shortcomings and identify options for improvement, while at the same time establishing a discussion platform between and with policy makers in Sub-Sahara Africa and contributing to trust building between African countries and the Netherlands as the basis for substantial improvements in the exchange of germplasm and the fair and equitable benefit-sharing between the parties involved.
    Seed systems and intellectual property rights: an inventory from five sub Saharan African Countries
    Mahop, M.T. ; Jonge, B. de; Munyi, P. - \ 2013
    Ministerie van EL&I - 79
    kwekersrecht - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - ontwikkelingslanden - wetgeving - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - voedselzekerheid - Nederland - breeders' rights - intellectual property rights - plant genetic resources - developing countries - legislation - africa south of sahara - food security - Netherlands
    Many developing countries are in the process of developing or updating their national Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) systems in order to adhere to international agreements. With respect to the agricultural sector in developing countries, the importance of implementing a Plant Variety Protection (PVP) system that suits national and local needs and conditions is of utmost importance. The challenge for developing countries is to create an IPR system that suits both their commercial, national food security, and smallholder farmers’ interests. This report aims to assist in that endeavour by analysing the current status of IPR legislation and regulations regarding seed in five African countries: Burkina Faso, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda; and the international and regional IPR organisations that encompass them: in particular OAPI and ARIPO. In addition, we investigate the possibilities for, and examples of, a PVP system that creates different levels of protection in order to fit the needs and characteristics of the various seed systems that exist in a given country.
    De tomatenkaart is klaar, wat nu?
    Finkers, H.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2013
    Kennis Online 10 (2013)mei. - p. 3 - 5.
    moleculaire genetica - plantengenetica - dna-sequencing - tomaten - rassen (planten) - plantenveredeling - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genomen - molecular genetics - plant genetics - dna sequencing - tomatoes - varieties - plant breeding - plant genetic resources - genomes
    In 2012 publiceerde Nature de genomische sequentie van de tomaat. Maar daarmee is het werk niet af, zegt Richard Finkers. Hij bepaalde de basenvolgorde van nog eens 150 verwanten van de modeltomaat, om plantenveredelaars in staat te stellen op zoek te gaan naar nieuwe genen in oude rassen.
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