A comparison of microsatellites and SNPs in parental assignment in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): The power of exclusion
Trong, T.Q. ; Bers, N.E.M. van; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Dibbits, B.W. ; Komen, J. - \ 2013
Aquaculture 388-391 (2013). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 14 - 23.
genotyping errors - computer-program - empirical-evaluation - natural-populations - markers - wild - inference - paternity - sibship - salmon
In this study, parental assignment was studied in the 10th generation of a pedigreed selected Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) population (GIFT) and their offspring, by comparing two types of molecular markers, microsatellites and SNPs, using an exclusion-based (Vitassign) and a likelihood-based (Cervus) method. For the experiment, G10 parents were divided in 4 groups (cohorts) and allowed to produce offspring by natural group mating. In total 173 offspring were tested against 238 parents, using either 12 microsatellites (PIC = 0.639; exclusion power 68.0%) or 122 SNPs (PIC = 0.341; exclusion power 99.9%). In this study, more than half of the candidate parents were either full- or half-sibs with other parents. Furthermore, 13.8% of the parents died before being sampled for DNA. When offspring were assigned to parents in the same cohort, using Vitassign, for microsatellites, allowing up to 2 mismatches, 37.6% offspring got unique assignments, 45.1% got multiple assignments, and 17.3% were not assigned; for SNPs with up to 15 mismatches allowed, 83.8% offspring got unique assignments while 13.9% got multiple assignments. Only 2.3% were not assigned. Using Cervus, for microsatellites, the mean ‘strict’ (> 95% CF) assignment rate across the 4 cohorts was 18%, the ‘relax’ (80–95% CF) assignment rate was 43%, and 39% were not assigned; for SNPs, 39% ‘strict’ assignments were obtained (mean across 4 cohorts); the remaining offspring were not assigned. In general assignment rates were higher when cohort offspring were assigned to all parents combined, irrespective of method (Vitassign or Cervus) or marker used. However, consistency of assignments between microsatellites and SNPs was low: 28% with Vitassign and 16% with Cervus. Consistency of assignments between Cervus and Vitassign was high with SNPs (65%), but was low with microsatellites (31%). We conclude that missing parents and relatedness among candidate parents resulted in low assignment rates. Furthermore, low exclusion power of the microsatellite set resulted in low assignment rates and multiple parent pair assignments irrespective of method used. Exclusion methods and likelihood-based methods can be equally good for parental assignments, providing that good marker sets with high exclusion power are available.
Discrimination of hybrid classes using cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci: methodological challenges and solutions in Daphnia
Thielsch, A. ; Volker, E. ; Kraus, R.H.S. ; Schwenk, K. - \ 2012
Molecular Ecology Resources 12 (2012)4. - ISSN 1755-098X - p. 697 - 705.
interspecific hybridization - population-structure - longispina complex - genotyping errors - european daphnia - clonal structure - evolution - markers - individuals - cucullata
Microsatellite markers are important tools in population, conservation and forensic studies and are frequently used for species delineation, the detection of hybridization and introgression. Therefore, marker sets that amplify variable DNA regions in two species are required; however, cross-species amplification is often difficult, as genotyping errors such as null alleles may occur. To estimate the level of potential misidentifications based on genotyping errors, we compared the occurrence of parental alleles in laboratory and natural Daphnia hybrids (Daphnia longispina group). We tested a set of 12 microsatellite loci with regard to their suitability for unambiguous species and hybrid class identification using F1 hybrids bred in the laboratory. Further, a large set of 44 natural populations of D. cucullata, D. galeata and D. longispina (1715 individuals) as well as their interspecific hybrids were genotyped to validate the discriminatory power of different marker combinations. Species delineation using microsatellite multilocus genotypes produced reliable results for all three studied species using assignment tests. Daphnia galeata × cucullata hybrid detection was limited due to three loci exhibiting D. cucullata-specific null alleles, which most likely are caused by differences in primer-binding sites of parental species. Overall, discriminatory power in hybrid detection was improved when a subset of markers was identified that amplifies equally well in both species.
Low effective population size and evidence for inbreeding in an overexploited flatfish, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.)
Hoarau, G. ; Boon, E. ; Jongma, D.N. ; Ferber, S. ; Palsson, J. ; Veer, H.W. van der; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Stam, W.T. ; Olsen, J.L. - \ 2005
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 272 (2005). - ISSN 0962-8452 - p. 497 - 503.
north-sea plaice - heterozygote deficiencies - genotyping errors - marine fish - microsatellites - maturation - diversity - teleostei - frequency - migration
Overexploitation and subsequent collapse of major worldwide fisheries has made it clear that marine stocks are not inexhaustible. Unfortunately, the perception remains that marine fishes are resilient to large population reductions, as even a commercially ‘collapsed’ stock will still consist of millions of individuals. Coupled with this notion is the idea that fisheries can, therefore, have little effect on the genetic diversity of stocks. We used DNA from archived otoliths collected between 1924 and 1972 together with 2002 juvenile's tissue to estimate effective population size (Ne) in plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Ne was estimated at 20¿000 in the North Sea and 2000 in Iceland. These values are five orders of magnitude smaller than the estimated census size for the two locations. Populations examined between 1924 and 1960 were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, whereas populations examined after approximately 1970 were not. Extensive testing was performed to rule out genotyping artefacts and Wahlund effects. The significant heterozygote deficiencies found from 1970 onward were attributed to inbreeding. The emergence of inbreeding between 1950 and 1970 coincides with the increase in fishing mortality after World War II. Although the biological mechanisms remain speculative, our demonstration of inbreeding signals the need for understanding the social and mating behaviour in commercially important fishes.