Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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From basalts to badlands : modelling long-term landscape response to lava damming of an upland catchment in western Turkey
Gorp, W. van - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl; Arnaud Temme. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570481 - 182
landschap - geologie - landinrichting - evolutie - modelleren - stroomgebieden - tektoniek - vulkanische lava - pleistoceen - turkije - landscape - geology - land development - evolution - modeling - watersheds - tectonics - volcanic lava - pleistocene - turkey

Combining field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling can be useful to investigate the relative role of different drivers (tectonics, climate, local base level) on long term catchment evolution. In this thesis, field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling are combined to unravel the long-term (300 ka) response to lava damming events of evolution of the Geren Catchment, a tributary of the upper Gediz river near Kula, Western Turkey. This catchment was considered suitable for such a study because its high preservationof remnant landscape surfaces and fluvial terraces which could be dated, while its base level evolution could be reconstructed by identifying and dating lava flows.

In Chapter 2, landscape evolution modelling of an idealized catchment revealed long-term (15 ka) catchment response to natural damming. Evolution of a high erodible and low erodible landscape was simulated using landscape evolution model (LEM) LAPSUS (LandscApe procesS modelling at mUlti dimensions and Scales). The natural dam was given four different erodibilities, to mimic both the potentially more erodible landslide dams and resistant lava dams. In a low erodible landscape damming led to persistent preservation of the sediment wedge formed behind the dam, while in a high erodible landscape, damming additionally led to knickpoint persistence, hampered incision of the main river and stream rerouting. The highest erodible dam was almost removed after 15 ka, while its sediment wedge was still partly present. Comparison of results with natural dam events from literature showed that modelled response characteristics are observed in actual situations and that simulations on Quaternary timescales are useful.

In Chapter 3, field reconstruction resulted in a young lava flow being age constrained to the late Holocene (3.0 – 2.6 ka), by luminescence dating of fluvial sands below and on top of the flow. This lava flow dammed the Gediz river at two locations. the upstream lake was silted, while the downstream lake was not. Dams were breached catastrophically and possibly in a cascading event. The Gediz created an epigenetic gorge and its current river bed is still not at its pre-lava flow level. Results are summarized in a conceptual diagram. Furthermore, field reconstruction and 40Ar/39Ar dating revealed multiple lava dam events which have infrequently raised and lowered the base level of the Geren Catchment in the middle to late Pleistocene (311 – 175 ka). Sediment-capped palaeosurfaces in the Geren suggest change from an active fluvial system to a more lacustrine environment in the middle Pleistocene, followed by fluvial reactivation and stepped incision in the late Pleistocene.

A second landscape evolution modelling study was conducted in Chapter 4, on a 300 ka timescale, with a larger catchment. Four scenarios have been applied on a reconstructed paleodem of the Geren Catchment. In the first scenario, the palaeodem was given constant rainfall for 300 ka. In the second scenario, three short (1 ka) damming events were added at its catchment outlet. In the third scenario, the palaeodem endured gradual base level lowering at its outlet, based on the known incision rate of its base level, the Gediz river. In the fourth scenario, base level lowering and damming events were combined. Results were interpreted by evaluating 1 ka-averaged net erosion, catchment sediment storage, longitudinal profile development and spatial differences in net erosion and sediment storage. Results showed that the net erosion signal of the catchment is complex in all cases. However, average net erosion and its variability increased due to constant base level lowering. Additionally, alternating phases of high and low variability occurred in net erosion, where high variability coincided with a strong decrease in total catchment sediment storage. Adding damming events to the gradual base level lowering scenario generated similar average net erosion as the base level lowering scenario, however its temporal pattern showed significantly different alternation of high and low variability periods. Furthermore, dampened upstream erosion was observed. Over time, this dampening migrates upstream indicating a long-term legacy of short term dam events.

Field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling were combined in Chapter 5, to be able to reconstruct and understand actual Geren catchment response to identified base level evolution over a 300 ka period. In all simulations, rainfall and vegetation are varied over time based on arboral pollen. Because exact significance and duration of dam events were not known, three scenarios of landscape evolution in the Geren Catchment were investigated: i) uplift driven gradual base level lowering, ii) gradual base level lowering and short damming events and iii) gradual base level lowering and long damming events. Output was evaluated for erosion-aggradation evolution in trunk gullies at two different distances from the catchment outlet. Climate influences erosion – aggradation activity in the upstream reach, although internal feedbacks influence timing and magnitude. Scenario i shows the most correlation with the climate signal, although its correlation is weak. Lava damming events leave an aggradation signal in the downstream reach, while complex and lagged response to these dams obscure correlations with climate and leave a legacy of the past in current landscape evolution. Catchment response of the long dam scenario correspond best with field reconstruction and dating. The combination of climate and base level explains a significant part of the landscape evolution history of the Geren Catchment.

In Chapter 6, a reflection and synthesis of Chapters 2-5 is presented. Indications for response to tectonics, climate and damming events are discussed separately for both field and modelling results. It is concluded that (lava) damming events of Pleistocene age can hamper, but also enhance incision on a 300 ka timescale. Furthermore, they can still have effect on current and future catchment evolution. However, catchment response to this evolution is complex and catchment specific and model results do not exactly reproduce its catchment history. An aggregated landscape evolution model output such as stream bed elevation change can be useful for comparison with fluvial terrace sequences. Combining field reconstruction and modelling suggests that the 300 ka incision history of the Geren is best explained if the catchment endured prolonged dam events. The combination of field reconstruction, dating and landscape evolution modelling therefore can enhance our understanding of long-term evolution of a specific landscape and increases knowledge on long term impact of past events on current catchment complexities and it is suggested to embed this research approach more structurally in long-term landscape reconstructions.

Ecological Systems: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology
Leemans, R. - \ 2013
New York : Springer - ISBN 9781461457558 - 309
ecologie - levenswetenschappen - ecosystemen - biogeowetenschappen - geochemie - stedelijke ecologie - geologie - ecology - life sciences - ecosystems - biogeosciences - geochemistry - urban ecology - geology

Earth is home to an estimated 8 million animal species, 600,000 fungi, 300,000 plants, and an undetermined number of microbial species. Of these animal, fungal, and plant species, an estimated 75% have yet to be identified. Moreover, the interactions between these species and their physical environment are known to an even lesser degree. At the same time, the earth’s biota faces the prospect of climate change, which may manifest slowly or extremely rapidly, as well as a human population set to grow by two billion by 2045 from the current seven billion. Given these major ecological changes, we cannot wait for a complete biota data set before assessing, planning, and acting to preserve the ecological balance of the earth. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the scientific and engineering basis of the systems ecology of the earth in 15 detailed, peer-reviewed entries written for a broad audience of undergraduate and graduate students as well as practicing professionals in government, academia, and industry. The methodology presented aims at identifying key interactions and environmental effects, and enabling a systems-level understanding even with our present state of factual knowledge.

Features authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Covers topics ranging from atmospheric biogeochemistry to invasive species, ecosystem services, and urban ecology

Provides an ecological systems perspective on the vital question of how to cope with climate change and the global human population explosion

Includes a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each contribution

Soil and Terrain Database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia)
Dijkshoorn, J.A. ; Nachtergaele, F.O. ; Huting, J.R.M. - \ 2013
geology - soil classification
The Soil and Terrain database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). A SOTER database was compiled based on the digital soil map of Tunisia. The primary soil and terrain data for Tunisia has been selected from available survey reports and publications. A SRTM-DEM was used to adjust some unit boundaries in the GIS file. SOTER forms a part of the ongoing activities of ISRIC, FAO and UNEP to update the world's baseline information on natural resources.The project involved collaboration with national soil institutes from the countries in the region as well as individual experts.
Landschappen van Nederland, geologie, bodem en landgebruik
Jongmans, A.G. ; Berg, M.W. van den; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Peek, G.J.W.C. ; Berg van Saparoea, R.M. van den - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862139 - 925
bodem - landschap - landschapselementen - geomorfologie - geologie - klimaat - landgebruik - nederland - soil - landscape - landscape elements - geomorphology - geology - climate - land use - netherlands
Landschappen van Nederland is samengevat in zes delen: Bodem en Landschap, Tektoniek en Klimaat, Ijs en Wind, Rivieren, Veen en als laatste Kust en Zee. Per type: landschap wordt beschreven welke klimatologische en tektonische aspecten hebben bijgedragen aan de totstandkoming. Daarnaast wordt uitvoering aandacht besteed aan de rol van de mens in de vorming van de landschappen. De zes delen zijn samengebracht in twee volumes.
Descriptions of the European environmental zones and strata
Metzger, M.J. ; Shkaruba, A.D. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Bunce, R.G.H. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra report 2281) - 152
klimaatzones - bodem - vegetatie - geologie - zonering - classificatie - europa - climatic zones - soil - vegetation - geology - zoning - classification - europe
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability
Ma, X. - \ 2011
University of Twente. Promotor(en): M. Molenaar, co-promotor(en): M.J. Kraak; P.J.M. van Oosterom; Arnold Bregt. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789061643234 - 184
geologie - datacommunicatie - gegevensbeheer - gegevensstructuren - gegevensanalyse - ontologieën - geology - data communication - data management - data structures - data analysis - ontologies
Natuurpotentie Willinks Weust
Delft, S.P.J. van; Brouwer, F. ; Werff, M.M. van der; Kemmers, R.H. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Resultaten van een ecopedologisch onderzoek ) - 138
bodemchemie - bodemkarteringen - geologie - ecohydrologie - natuurgebieden - achterhoek - soil chemistry - soil surveys - geology - ecohydrology - natural areas
Dienst Landelijk Gebied (DLG) heeft van de provincie Gelderland in het kader van NBL (natuur buiten landinrichting) opdracht gekregen voor de inrichting van een aantal percelen nabij de steengroeve ten oosten van Winterwijk. Het gebied is bekend onder de naam Willinks Weust. Alvorens kan worden ingericht is een ecohydrologisch en biochemisch onderzoek noodzakelijk. Het gebied is echter ook sterk verdroogd door diepe ontwateringsloten, met name in het erosiedal en op de overgang naar het plateau. Ook de steengroeve aan de noordkant van het gebied heeft in een overgangzone een verdrogende invloed. Inrichting van de percelen en herstel van de hydrologie bieden goede mogelijkheden de natuurwaarden in het gebied te herstellen en versterken.
Landschap in breder perspectief? Avonturen met scholieren en aardrijkskundeonderwijs
Bontje, L.E. - \ 2010
Topos : periodiek over landschapsarchitectuur, ruimtelijke planning en sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse 2010 (2010)20. - ISSN 1572-302X - p. 82 - 83.
landschap - voortgezet onderwijs - geografie - geologie - landscape - secondary education - geography - geology
"Kom op Stef!" roept Riwesh. "Nee, Nikos gaat winnen", voorspelt Laura. Stef en Nikos staan fanatiek met een lepeltje in een glas met water en sediment te roeren. "Wie kan ons vertellen waarom Nikos gewonnen heeft?!. En terwijl de leerlingen redelijk snel beredeneren dat in Stef's zwaarder sediment moet zitten dan in dat van Nikos, beleef ik een klein gloriemomentje in mijn nog korte loopbaan als Aardrijkskundedocente. Het leuke aan onderwijs is, dat er direct resultaat van je werk te zien is...
Mid-Holocene water-level changes in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta (western Netherlands): implications for the reconstruction of relative mean sea-level rise, palaeoriver-gradients and coastal evolution
Plassche, O. van de; Makaske, B. ; Hoek, W.Z. ; Konert, M. ; Plicht, J. van der - \ 2010
Netherlands journal of geosciences 89 (2010)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 3 - 20.
eolische afzettingen - geologie - waterstand - holoceen - zuid-holland - rivierengebied - aeolian deposits - geology - water level - holocene - radiocarbon age calibration - southern north-sea - cal bp - movements - area - bc
We present a revised relative mean sea-level (MSL) curve for the Rhine-Meuse delta, western Netherlands, for the period 7900-5300 cal yr BP. The revision is based on a series of new and previously unpublished local groundwater-level index data from buried Late Glacial aeolian dunes in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta, and reinterpretation of existing data. The new index data consist of (AMS and conventional) radiocarbon dates of samples, collected from the base of peat formed on dune slopes, near Vlaardingen (21 index points), Hillegersberg (one index point), and Hardinxveld-Giessendam (10 index points). The Vlaardingen data represent the coast-nearest Rhine-Meuse delta local water-level record, which therefore is highly indicative for sea-level change. Pollen and macrofossil analysis, and dating of paired samples was carried out to assess the reliability of the groundwater-level index data. The revision of the MSL curve involves: (1) a significant (0 to >1 m) upward adjustment for the period 7900-7300 cal yr BP; (2) a downward adjustment of =0.25 m for the period 6650-5300 cal yr BP. The new data indirectly support the reliability of the part of the curve for the period 7300-6650 cal yr BP. A longitudinally fairly uniform river gradient of 2.5-3.0 cm/km in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta during the period 6650-5600 cal yr BP can be inferred from the data sets. A significant river gradient extended further towards the coastline than previously thought and it may be that also the revised MSL curve reflects river-gradient effects. An increased floodbasin effect (stronger intra-coastal tidal damping) seems to have developed in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta in de period 7500-6600 cal yr BP, and was probably a complex response to a major avulsion of the Rhine.
Knowledge for a sustaineble future of the Wadden: intergrated research agenda of the Wadden-Academy-KNAW
Kabat, P. ; Bazelmans, J. ; Dijk, J. van; Herman, P.M.J. ; Speelman, H. ; Deen, N.R.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. - \ 2009
Leewarden : KNAW - ISBN 9789490289157 - 145
natuurbescherming - landgebruiksplanning - geologie - ondergrond - geomorfologie - ecologie - wadden - waddenzee - nature conservation - land use planning - geology - subsoil - geomorphology - ecology - tidal flats - wadden sea
The Wadden Academy is a new entity of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) which was officially founded on 30 July 2008 by decision of the Dutch government and as a reflection of the recommendations of the Meijer Committee. This publication is the integrated research agenda of the Wadden Academy. Wadden Sea research has for many years been dominated by the natural sciences. Socio-economic research and, to a lesser extent, historical research is grossly under-represented in terms of volume and importance. The Wadden Sea Area should figure more prominently on the research agenda of economists, historians, sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists and cultural scientists. They can identify those who feel involved in the Wadden Sea Area and in what way, how this involvement is justified in history, what interests are at stake, what reference images of the landscapes are used and how this will affect the future of the area. A key task for the Wadden Academy is to study changes which are taking place over different space and time scales and are the result of the interaction between the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere and humankind and society. In the approach adopted by the Wadden Academy, great value is attached to knowledge of the region’s long past and present
IMBOD : synchronisatie van de gegevens over bodem en ondergrond
Vries, F. de; Boorder, N.J. de; Brouwer, F. ; Groot, J.J. ; Kiden, P. ; Leeters, E.E.J.M. ; Maring, L. ; Mol, G. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1960) - 53
bodemkarteringen - bodemmorfologische kenmerken - bodemsamenstelling - bodemprofielen - ondergrond - geologie - databanken - informatiesystemen - vergelijkingen - kaarten - bodemkwaliteit - soil surveys - soil morphological features - soil composition - soil profiles - subsoil - geology - databases - information systems - comparisons - maps - soil quality
In de BIS-database van Alterra en de DINO-database van TNO is veel informatie opgeslagen over de bodem en de ondergrond van Nederland. Deze databases zijn jaren geleden ontstaan vanuit verschillende achtergronden. Daardoor komen er verschillen voor bij de indelingen en terminologie voor de gegevens. Dit rapport bevat concrete voorstellen om de gegevens in beide databestanden beter op elkaar af te stemmen
'Gouden gronden' in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden
Sonneveld, M.P.W. - \ 2009
Geografie 2009 (2009)oktober. - ISSN 0926-3837 - p. 32 - 34.
bodem - geologie - landschap - bodem-landschap relaties - historische geografie - friese wouden - soil - geology - landscape - soil-landscape relationships - historical geography
De overheid heeft in 2004 twintig Nationale Landschappen aangewezen. Samen vertellen ze een prachtig verhaal over de ontstaanswijze van Nederland. De bodem, vaak onzichtbare drager van het landschap, verdient daarbij meer aandacht dan ze tot nu toe krijgt
Groeven en graven : nieuw leven voor voormalige zandgroeven in Zuid-Limburg
Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2009
land use planning - landscape - sand pits - rehabilitation - recreation - geology - zuid-limburg
De Bosatlas van Ondergronds Nederland
Vries, F. de; Camarasa, M. - \ 2009
Groningen : Noordhoff - ISBN 9789001122454 - 96
geologie - grondwater - archeologie - energie - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - geomorfologie - infrastructuur - landgebruik - nederland - natuur - geology - groundwater - archaeology - energy - natural resources - geomorphology - infrastructure - land use - netherlands - nature
De ondergrond van Nederland is bijzonder. Geen enkel land met zo’n slappe ondergrond is tegelijk zo dichtbevolkt. En vrijwel geen ander land in Europa beschikt over een gasvoorraad met zo’n enorme omvang. Maar liefst 400.000 keer boorden geologen een gaatje in de Nederlandse bodem, meestal tot een meter of tien diep, een enkele keer zelfs zes kilometer. Alle kennis die dat opleverde, is in deze atlas overzichtelijk weergegeven in beelden en kaarten. Acht hoofdstukken geven een kleurrijk beeld van alles wat normaal gesproken onzichtbaar blijft: bodem- en gesteentelagen vol aardgas, grondwater, voedingsstoffen, bodemenergie, metselzand, Romeinse resten, metrotunnels en elektriciteitskabels. Ook nemen we de lezer mee op een reis door de tijd, die Nederland 300 miljoen jaar geleden begon in een Surinaams tropenbos, om via een Afrikaanse zoutvlakte en een Mediterrane binnenzee te eindigen aan de voet van een reusachtige gletsjer. Deze nieuwe Bosatlas ontcijfert de kilometersdikke bodemlagen die zich gaandeweg onder onze voeten ophoopten.
Bodemkundig-geologische inventarisatie van de gemeente Winterswijk
Bosch, M. van den; Brouwer, F. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1797) - 38
bodemkarteringen - geologie - nederland - kaarten - achterhoek - gelderland - soil surveys - geology - netherlands - maps
Voor het uitvoeren van maatregelen op het gebied van Nationaal Landschap, Euregio, EHS, waterbeheer en natuurontwikkeling wil de gemeente Winterswijk op perceelsniveau inzicht hebben in de kwaliteit van de bodem. Daartoe heeft de gemeente opdracht gegeven alle bestaande bodeminformatie samen te voegen tot een gedetailleerde en geïntegreerde bodemkaart en geologische kaart. Negen bodemkaarten uit het archief van Alterra en ca. 3200 geologische boringen uit het archief van het Geologisch Veldlaboratorium Winterswijk zijn hiervoor verwerkt. De benodigde informatie is zowel analoog als digitaal aan de gemeente verstrekt.
IMBOD deelactiviteit 5 : inhoudelijke afstemming
Maring, L. ; Vries, F. de; Brouwer, F. ; Groot, H. ; Kiden, P. ; Leeters, E.E.J.M. ; Mol, G. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1817) - 63
bodem - geologie - databanken - informatiesystemen - nederland - bodemkwaliteit - soil - geology - databases - information systems - netherlands - soil quality
In het IMBOD project worden de mogelijkheden onderzocht voor de integratie van de gegevens in de DINO-database van TNO en de BIS-database van Alterra, zodat de informatie in de toekomst via één loket verstrekt kan worden. Dit rapport geeft een beschrijving van de overeenkomsten en verschillen van de gegevens in beide databestanden en het bevat adviezen voor een betere afstemming
Neogene stratigraphy of the Langenboom locality (Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands)
Wijnker, T.G. ; Bor, T.J. ; Wesselingh, F.P. ; Munsterman, D.K. ; Brinkhuis, H. ; Burger, A.W. ; Vonhof, H.B. ; Post, K. ; Hoedemakers, K. ; Janse, A.C. ; Taverne, N. - \ 2008
Netherlands journal of geosciences 87 (2008)2. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 165 - 180.
geologie - tektoniek - paleozoölogie - noord-brabant - geology - tectonics - palaeozoology - north-sea basin - dinoflagellate cyst - bering strait - upper miocene - pliocene - belgium - pleistocene - age
The locality of Langenboom (eastern Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands), also known as Mill, is famous for its Neogene molluscs, shark teeth, teleost remains, birds and marine mammals. The stratigraphic context of the fossils, which have been collected from sand suppletions, was hitherto poorly understood. Here we report on a section which has been sampled by divers in the adjacent flooded sandpit 'De Kuilen' from which the Langenboom sands have been extracted. The studied section covers part of the marine Miocene Breda Formation and Pliocene Oosterhout Formation, and is topped by fluvial Quaternary deposits of presumably the Beegden Formation. The Breda Formation (15 - 18 m below lake surface) in this section is, based on organic walled dinoflagellate cysts, of an early-middle Tortonian age. The Oosterhout Formation (7 - 15 m below lake surface) comprises two depositional sequences, the lower of which (12 - 15 m below lake surface) presumably is the source of most Langenboom fossils. Combined dinoflagellate cyst and benthic mollusc indicators point to an early Zanclean - early Piacenzian age for this lower cycle. Its basal transgressive lag and (to lesser extent) top comprise reworked Tortonian taxa as well. Dinoflagellate cysts and a single benthic mollusc point to a Piacenzian age for the upper Oosterhout Formation sequence (7 - 12 m below lake surface).
Geoarchaeological prospection of a Medieval manor in the Dutch polders using an electromagnetic induction sensor in combination with soil augerings
Simpson, D. ; Lehouck, A. ; Meirvenne, M. ; Bourgeois, J. ; Thoen, E. ; Vervloet, J. - \ 2008
Geoarchaeology: an international journal 23 (2008)2. - ISSN 0883-6353 - p. 305 - 319.
archeologie - geologie - globale plaatsbepalingssystemen - historische geografie - archaeology - geology - global positioning systems - historical geography - geophysical survey - features
In archaeological prospection, geophysical sensors are increasingly being used to locate buried remains within their natural context. To cover a large area in sufficient detail, an electromagnetic induction sensor can be very useful, measuring simultaneously the electrical conductivity and the magnetic susceptibility of the soil (e.g., Geonics EM38DD). In this study, an 8 ha field containing a Medieval manor was mapped in a submeter resolution, using a mobile sensor configuration equipped with a GPS. As different soil features can yield analogous responses, the interpretation of geophysical maps can be ambiguous. Therefore, soil auger observations were laid out along two perpendicular transects to provide vertical profiles across the sensor measurements. This information greatly enhanced the interpretation of the anomalies obtained by the sensor. Both natural and anthropogenic features were delineated, which clearly presented a moated site along a former tidal channel. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The Age and Origin of the Gelderse IJssel
Makaske, B. ; Maas, G.J. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van - \ 2008
Netherlands journal of geosciences 87 (2008)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 323 - 337.
geologische sedimentatie - geologie - geschiedenis - rivieren - historische geografie - ijssel - gelderland - geological sedimentation - geology - history - rivers - historical geography - river ijssel - rhine-meuse delta - wetland woods - netherlands - avulsion - deposits - architecture - excavation - stadshagen - woodlands
Historic trading cities are located on the Gelderse IJssel and flourished in the late Middle Ages. Little is known about this river in the early Middle Ages and before, and there is considerable debate on the age and origin of the Gelderse IJssel as a Rhine distributary. A small river draining the surrounding Pleistocene uplands must have been present in the IJssel valley during most of the Holocene, but very diverse opinions exist as to when this local river became connected to the Rhine system (and thereby to a vast hinterland), and whether this was human induced or a natural process. We collected new AMS radiocarbon evidence on the timing of beginning overbank sedimentation along the lower reach of the Gelderse IJssel. Our data indicate onset of overbank sedimentation at about 950 AD in this reach. We attribute this environmental change to the establishment of a connection between the precursor of the IJssel and the Rhine system by avulsion. Analysis of previous conventional radiocarbon dates from the upper IJssel floodplain yields that this avulsion may have started ~600 AD. Our results contradict earlier suppositions, based on interpretation of archaeological data and historical accounts, that the Gelderse IJssel is much older and originated as a canal, dug under supervision of the Roman general Drusus
The Gelderse IJssel is the third major distributary of the Rhine in the Netherlands and diverts on average similar to 15% of the Rhine discharge northward. Historic trading cities are located on the Gelderse IJssel and flourished in the late Middle Ages. Little is known about this river in the early Middle Ages and before, and there is considerable debate on the age and origin of the Gelderse IJssel as a Rhine distributary. A small river draining the surrounding Pleistocene uplands must have been present in the IJssel valley during most of the Holocene, but very diverse opinions exist as to when this local river became connected to the Rhine system (and thereby to a vast hinterland), and whether this was human induced or a natural process. We collected new AMS radiocarbon evidence on the timing of beginning overbank sedimentation along the lower reach of the Gelderse IJssel. Our data indicate onset of overbank sedimentation at about 950 AD in this reach. We attribute this environmental change to the establishment of a connection between the precursor of the IJssel and the Rhine system by avulsion. Analysis of previous conventional radiocarbon dates from the upper IJssel floodplain yields that this avulsion may have started similar to 600 AD. Our results contradict earlier suppositions, based on interpretation of archaeological data and historical accounts, that the Gelderse IJssel is much older and originated as a canal, dug under supervision of the Roman general Drusus.
Waarom verschillen de zeespiegelreconstructies voor Nederland?
Kiden, P. ; Makaske, B. ; Plassche, O. van de - \ 2008
Grondboor en Hamer 62 (2008)3/4. - p. 54 - 61.
paleo-ecologie - geologie - geschiedenis - rivieren - zeespiegelschommelingen - waterstand - palaeoecology - geology - history - rivers - sea level fluctuations - water level
Nederland had op 1 januari 1700 een primeur, namelijk met de (half)uurlijkse peiling van de waterhoogte van het IJ. Midden vorige eeuw werd de 14C dateringsmethode ontwikkeld om met deze nieuw methode de holocene zeespiegelstijging te reconstrueren. De stormramp van 1953 maakte duidelijk dat kennis van zeespiegelveranderingen van groot belang is voor de veilgiheid van Nederland
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