Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Late Holocene Landscape Collapse of a Trans-Himalayan Dryland: Human Impact and Aridification
    Menges, Johanna ; Hovius, Niels ; Andermann, Christoff ; Dietze, Michael ; Swoboda, Charlie ; Cook, Kristen L. ; Adhikari, Basanta R. ; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea ; Bonnet, Stephane ; Reimann, Tony ; Koutsodendris, Andreas ; Sachse, Dirk - \ 2019
    Geophysical Research Letters 46 (2019)23. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 13814 - 13824.
    geomorphology - human activity - late Holocene - paleoclimate - Tibetan plateau

    Soil degradation is a severe and growing threat to ecosystem services globally. Soil loss is often nonlinear, involving a rapid deterioration from a stable eco-geomorphic state once a tipping point is reached. Soil loss thresholds have been studied at plot scale, but for landscapes, quantitative constraints on the necessary and sufficient conditions for tipping points are rare. Here, we document a landscape-wide eco-geomorphic tipping point at the edge of the Tibetan Plateau and quantify its drivers and erosional consequences. We show that in the upper Kali Gandaki valley, Nepal, soil formation prevailed under wetter conditions during much of the Holocene. Our data suggest that after a period of human pressure and declining vegetation cover, a 20% reduction of relative humidity and precipitation below 200 mm/year halted soil formation after 1.6 ka and promoted widespread gullying and rapid soil loss, with irreversible consequences for ecosystem services.

    Dunes, above and beyond : The interactions between ecological and geomorphological processes during early dune development
    Puijenbroek, Marinka E.B. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. Berendse, co-promotor(en): J. Limpens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432146 - 183
    dunes - geomorphology - ecology - vegetation - duneland plants - beaches - duinen - geomorfologie - ecologie - vegetatie - duinplanten - stranden

    Coastal dunes occur along the sandy shores of most continents where they serve as coastal defence against flooding, provide areas for recreation, store drinking water and harbour unique biodiversity. Coastal dunes and the services they provide are threatened by climate-induced sea-level rise. This threat may be mitigated by the spontaneous formation of new dunes, for example in combination with mega-nourishments aimed at increasing beach width. Coastal dunes form by the interaction between vegetation, wind and wave action. Persistent dune development begins with the establishment of vegetation on the beach: the vegetation traps the wind-blown sand, forming an embryo dune. Over time an embryo dune can develop into a bigger foredune, increasing coastal safety. The formation and development of embryo dunes into foredunes depend on the vegetation establishment on the beach, dune growth over summer and dune erosion during winter. Although vegetation succession and geomorphological processes are each well described, the interaction between ecological and geomorphological processes during embryo dune development are not well known. The thesis aimed at further exploring these interactions, using a combination of experiments and high-resolution dune monitoring to study the mechanisms underlying early dune development and their implications for mega-nourishment design.

    To explore whether soil salinity, salt spray or storms determine the vegetation limit of dune building plant species on the beach, we performed a field transplantation experiment and a glasshouse experiment with two dune building grasses Ammophila arenaria and Elytrigia juncea. In the field growth of grasses transplanted into four vegetation zones from sea to dune was monitored for over a year and the response of these species to salt spray and soil salinity was tested in a glasshouse experiment. In the field, the vegetation zones were associated with differences in summer soil salinity: zones with both species present were significantly less saline than zones with only E. juncea or the zones without any vegetation. However, in our experiments the transplanted A. arenaria performed equal or better than E. juncea in all vegetation zones, suggesting soil salinity did not limit species performance at the studied site. Both species showed severe winter mortality. In the glasshouse experiment, A. arenaria biomass decreased linearly with soil salinity, presumably as a result of osmotic stress. Elytrigia juncea showed a nonlinear response to soil salinity with an optimum at 0.75% soil salinity and a decrease in biomass at higher salt concentrations. Our findings suggest that soil salinity stress either takes place in winter during storm inundation, or that development of vegetated dunes is less sensitive to soil salinity than hitherto expected.

    To understand the boundary conditions for embryo dune development over a longer time period we explored the effects of beach morphology, meteorological conditions and sand nourishment on early dune development using a 30 year time series of aerial photographs and beach profile monitoring data. We concluded that 1) beach morphology is highly influential in determining the potential for new dune development, with wide beaches enabling development of larger embryo dune fields, 2) sand nourishments stimulate early dune development by increasing beach width, and 3) weather conditions and non-interrupted sequences of years without high-intensity storms determine whether progressive dune development will take place.

    Dune development is the result of the interaction between vegetation development and sedimentation and erosion processes. To disentangle the effects of vegetation characteristics and that of dune size we monitored a natural dune field of 8 hectares for one year using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a camera. By constructing a digital surface model and a geometrical corrected image (an orthomosaic) for each flight campaign we calculated changes in dune volume over summer and winter and related these changes to vegetation, dune size and degree of shelter. The dune growth over summer was mainly determined by dune size, whereas dune growth over winter was determined by vegetation characteristics. Degree of shelter determined whether dune growth was limited by storm erosion (exposed dunes) or sand supply (sheltered dunes). These results suggest that vegetation characteristic may be particularly important for resisting storm erosion and speeding up recovery after erosion.

    Embryo dunes have been hypothesised to facilitate development of species rich green beach vegetation in the sheltered location between the embryo dunes and the primary foredunes. To test this hypothesis we explored the relative impacts of abiotic soil conditions as affected by the geomorphological setting on the species richness and species turn-over of green beach vegetation. To this end we characterised the geomorphology and measured abiotic conditions and species composition of green beach vegetation along transects from beach to foredune. We found that the geomorphological setting influenced plant species composition indirectly by affecting soil salinity and rate of sand burial. We found that plant species richness declined less at sheltered conditions, where there was a build-up of organic matter and no sand burial. Our results further suggest a non-linear relationship between embryo dune volume and number of green beach species: embryo dunes can be a source of shelter, thus stimulating green beach development, but can also compete for space, reducing green beach development. The net effect of embryo dunes most likely depends on the sediment budget of the beach and storm intensity.

    Mega-nourishments are single large sand nourishments that are applied locally, and are expected to exist for about 20 years, providing opportunities for the development of embryo dunes and rare pioneer plant communities (green beach vegetation). We explored this potential by comparing growth and development of dune building species on natural beaches with the results of plant transplantation and monitoring data of two mega-nourishments: the low-elevated Hondsbossche Duinen and the high-elevated Sandmotor. Our results suggest that establishment of dune building species on high-elevated mega-nourishment proceed slower than on natural beaches due to dispersal limitation. Once vegetation has established however, embryo dune development on high-elevated mega-nourishments may proceed faster than natural beaches due to low salinity and protection against storm erosion. Development of dune-building vegetation on the low-elevated mega-nourishment Hondsbossche Duinen showed the same rate and pattern as that on a natural beach. The potential for embryo dune development on mega-nourishments is far bigger than the potential for green beach development, since green beach vegetation develops under a narrower range of abiotic conditions. Such abiotic conditions can develop behind the shelter of embryo dunes or foredunes at low beach elevations.

    In conclusion this thesis shows that, 1) the potential of embryo dune development depends on a large beach width and low storm erosion which determines the vegetation limit. 2) Embryo dune growth over summer is mainly determined by existing dune volume and sand supply. 3) Heavy storms limit embryo dune development during winter, although dune erosion can be mitigated by vegetation composition. 4) On accreting beaches which continuously provide area for the development of new embryo dunes green beach vegetation can develop. 5) The design of a mega-nourishment determines the potential for the development of embryo dunes and green beach vegetation. Our findings provide insights in the interaction between ecological and geomorphological processes that determine embryo dune development. This knowledge can help to obtain better predictions of embryo dune development under the threat of sea-level rise.

    Modeling the biogeomorphic evolution of coastal dunes in response to climate change
    Keijsers, J.G.S. ; Groot, A.V. de; Riksen, M.J.P.M. - \ 2016
    aeolian transport - cellular automata - climate change - coastal dunes - dune building - dune cellular model - foredune - geomorphology - sea level rise - wave dissipation
    Research data belonging to the article on "Modeling the biogeomorphic evolution of coastal dunes in response to climate change". Data consist of input and output of model runs.
    Pupping habitat ofd grey seals in the Dutch Wadden Sea
    Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Groot, A.V. de; Aarts, G.M. ; Dijkman, E.M. ; Kirkwood, R.J. - \ 2015
    Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES C009/15) - 104
    halichoerus grypus - habitats - whelping - birth - vegetation - geomorphology - wadden sea - halichoerus grypus - habitats - jongen werpen - geboorte - vegetatie - geomorfologie - waddenzee
    Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus grypus) started recolonising Dutch coastal haul-outs in the 1950s, after practically 500 years of rarity in the Dutch coastal zone which was caused mainly by human hunting. The first pup-birth was recorded in 1985 at the Wadden Sea sandbank of Engelschhoek. Sandbanks in the Wadden Sea may form and recede in periods of decades, but may change abruptly as a result of a single storm. These rapidly evolving places are not the perfect breeding habitat for grey seals, which exhibit long-term fidelity to breeding sites and only reluctantly shift. Little is known of the geomorphology of the currently utilised pupping sites, nor the implications of change in structure on future occupation and selection of new sites.
    Alterra en de kunst van het kronkelen
    Kleis, R. ; Makaske, A. ; Maas, H.A. - \ 2015
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)1. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 9 - 9.
    waterlopen - herstelbeheer - geomorfologie - natuurlandschap - ecologisch herstel - waterstroming - waterbeheer - streams - restoration management - geomorphology - natural landscape - ecological restoration - water flow - water management
    Een groot deel van onze beken heeft op dit moment een verre van natuurlijk verloop. Om wateroverlast tegen te gaan zijn in de vorige eeuw veel van oudsher kronkelige beken rechtgetrokken. Rechte beken voeren het water sneller af. Maar tegenwoordig is dat niet meer gewenst. Die snelle afvoer leidt tot verdroging en rechtgetrokken beken bieden weinig kansen voor een diversiteit in flora en fauna. Met beekherstel probeert men dat tij te keren. Bart Makaske en Gilbert Maas van Alterra schreven een boek over hoe je beken het beste laat kronkelen.
    Handboek geomorfologisch beekherstel : leidraad voor een stapsgewijze en integrale ontwerpaanpak
    Makaske, B. ; Maas, G.J. - \ 2015
    Amersfoort : Stichting Toegepast Onderzoek Waterbeheer (Rapport / STOWA 2015-02) - ISBN 9789057736612 - 188
    geomorfologie - waterlopen - herstel - hydraulica - landschapsbouw - natuurtechniek - geomorphology - streams - rehabilitation - hydraulics - landscaping - ecological engineering
    Om de verschillende aspecten van beekherstel te belichten staat in dit deel de geologische en morfologische processen van beken centraal. Aanleiding voor dit boek is dat in veel beekherstelprojecten de beekbedding een nieuwe vorm krijgt. In de praktijk bestaan er veel vragen over het ontwerp en de vormgeving van deze nieuwe beddingen. Het gaat hierbij om de vraag wat het ‘juiste’ ontwerp is en wat de te verwachten afvoerdynamiek is van de herstelde beek. In dit handboek worden theorie en praktijk gecombineerd. U vindt een praktisch stappenplan voor het ontwerpproces, maar ook een theoretisch kader. Ook worden enkele praktijkvoorbeelden gegeven.
    Ontwikkeling van eilandstaarten : geomorfologie, waterhuishouding en vegetatie
    Groot, A.V. de; Oost, A.P. ; Veeneklaas, R.M. ; Lammerts, E.J. ; Duin, W.E. van; Wesenbeeck, B.K. van; Dijkman, E.M. ; Koppenaal, E.C. - \ 2015
    Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren (Deltares rapport 1208549.01) - 109
    geomorfologie - geologische sedimentatie - natuurgebieden - kweldergronden - duingebieden - hydrologie - vegetatietypen - nederlandse waddeneilanden - geomorphology - geological sedimentation - natural areas - salt marsh soils - duneland - hydrology - vegetation types - dutch wadden islands
    In deze rapportage worden de oostelijke, buitendijkse delen van de Nederlandse Waddeneilanden behandeld, de zgn. eilandstaarten. Wanneer deze volledig ontwikkeld zijn bestaat ze uit wadplaten, kwelders en duinen. Dit rapport behandelt de geomorfologie, waterhuishouding en vegetatie van eilandstaarten. De ontwikkeling van eilandstaarten is mede van belang voor de functie die ze hebben in de waterveiligheid.
    Vegetation and sedimentation on coastal foredunes
    Keijsers, J.G.S. ; Groot, A.V. de; Riksen, M.J.P.M. - \ 2015
    Geomorphology 228 (2015). - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 723 - 734.
    prince-edward-island - sand transport - ammophila-breviligulata - dutch coast - air-flow - dunes - wind - dynamics - geomorphology - morphology
    On a timescale of years to decades, vegetated foredunes may show various modes of morphological development. Vegetation is one of the factors that determine the sedimentation pattern and thus morphology on the foredune. In turn, the vegetation pattern may be controlled by the sedimentation pattern. Although these effects have been quantified for short timescales, there is relatively little information on the interaction between vegetation and sedimentation for timescales of over a year. For the island of Ameland, the Netherlands, elevation measurements and aerial photographs between 2002 and 2012 were used to derive changes in elevation and vegetation patterns on a year-to-year basis. This was done for a range of stable to accreting foredunes. Sedimentation increases from the beach to a maximum halfway up the seaward slope of the foredune, and then decreases again when going landward. This trend is further modified by the vegetation's spatial pattern. On a timescale of years, there is no correlation between the density of vegetation cover and the amount of accretion. However, by accounting for the gradual depletion of the sand load over the foredune, a relationship can be defined between vegetation cover and its trapping efficiency. Foredune vegetation spreads mainly by lateral expansion of existing patches. No strong effect was found of the sedimentation balance on the expansion of vegetation. It is suggested that other growth-limiting factors are of similar importance, masking any possible dependency of vegetation growth on sand accretion.
    Stroomdalgrasland, kort en laagdynamisch
    Sykora, K.V. ; Rotthier, S.L.F. - \ 2014
    De Levende Natuur 115 (2014)3. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 134 - 139.
    vegetatietypen - habitats - graslanden - geomorfologie - rivierengebied - begrazing - natuurbeheer - vegetation types - habitats - grasslands - geomorphology - rivierengebied - grazing - nature management
    Stroomdalgrasland was vóór 1960 algemeen, is sindsdien dramatisch achteruitgegaan en is vrijwel verdwenen. Na Plan Ooievaar en de invoering van het wildernisbeheer is langs de grote rivieren veel veranderd. De nadruk kwam in veel terreinen te liggen op 'vergroting van de dynamiek' en 'spontane begrazing'. Wat betekent dit voor stroomdalgrasland en wat is hiervoor het optimale beheer?
    Verjonging van half-natuurlijke kwelders en schorren
    Wesenbeeck, B.K. van; Esselink, P. ; Oost, A.P. ; Duin, W.E. van; Groot, A.V. de; Veeneklaas, R.M. ; Balke, T. ; Geer, P. van; Calderon, A.C. ; Smale, A. - \ 2014
    Driebergen : VBNE (Rapport / VBNE 2014/OBN196-DK) - 77
    vegetatietypen - kweldergronden - natura 2000 - geomorfologie - waterbeheer - ontpoldering - zuidwest-nederland - wadden - vegetation types - salt marsh soils - natura 2000 - geomorphology - water management - depoldering - south-west netherlands - tidal flats
    In dit rapport staan de Nederlandse kwelders en schorren centraal. Nederland heeft een bijzondere verantwoordelijkheid voor handhaving van de kwantiteit en kwaliteit van de drie betreffende habitattypen ‘eenjarige pioniervegetatie van slik- en zandgebieden met Zeekraal (Salicornia spp.) en andere zoutminnende soorten’ (H1310), meerjarige pioniervegetatie met Slijkgrassen (Spartina spp.) (H1320), en Atlantische kwelders en schorren (H1330). Dit rapport beperkt zich tot de vastelandkwelders. Deze kwelders zijn in grote mate menselijk beïnvloed en kunnen daarom het beste als halfnatuurlijk worden omschreven.
    Modelling centennial sediment waves in an eroding landscape – catchment complexity
    Schoorl, J.M. ; Temme, A.J.A.M. ; Veldkamp, A. - \ 2014
    Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 39 (2014)11. - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 1526 - 1537.
    self-organized criticality - soil redistribution - late pleistocene - fluvial systems - dem resolution - evolution - geomorphology - climate - level - basin
    Sediment flux dynamics in fluvial systems have often been related to changes in external drivers of topography, climate or land cover. It is well known that these dynamics are non-linear. Recently, model simulations of fluvial activity and landscape evolution have suggested that self-organization in landscapes can also cause internal complexity in the sedimentary record. In this contribution one particular case of self-organization is explored in the Sabinal field study area, Spain, where several dynamic zones of sedimentation and incision are observed along the current river bed. Whether these zones can be caused by internal complexity was tested with landscape evolution model (LEM) LAPSUS (Landscape Process Modelling at Multi-dimensions and Scales). During various 500¿year simulations, zones of sedimentation appear to move upstream and downstream in eroding river channels (‘waves’). These waves are visualized and characterized for a range of model settings under constant external forcing, and the self-organizing process behind their occurrence is analysed. Results indicate that this process is not necessarily related to simplifications in the model and is more generic than the process of bed-armouring that has recently been recognized as a cause for complexity in LEM simulations. We conclude that autogenic sediment waves are the result of the spatial propagation in time of feedbacks in local transport limited (deposition) and detachment limited (erosion) conditions
    Geoparken in Nederland : een quickscan van beleidsmatige mogelijkheden en beperkingen
    Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2537) - 35
    geomorfologie - cultuurlandschap - landschapsbeheer - monumenten - inventarisaties - hondsrug - geomorphology - cultural landscape - landscape management - monuments - inventories - hondsrug
    Geoparken zijn gebieden waar (internationaal) bijzondere aardkundige waarden voorkomen. Deze waarden worden ingezet voor de versterking van de regionale economie en identiteit. Alterra heeft voor de overheid een quickscan uitgevoerd naar de mogelijke kansen en risico’s van de aanwijzing van Geoparken in Nederland. Aan de hand van het voorbeeld op de Hondsrug. De belangrijkste conclusies zijn (1) dat Geoparken als resultaat van bottom-up processen in de regio passen bij het adagium ‘natuur die midden in de samenleving staat’ en (2) dat het aan het Rijk is om nader te bepalen of zij het proces van kandidaatstelling en aanwijzing van Geoparken aan regionale actoren over laat, of zelf ook een actieve rol speelt.
    Op zoek naar het Griensvenneke
    Delft, B. van; Minderhout, L. - \ 2013
    Dungense Historiën : onafhankelijk Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis van Den Dungen 7 (2013)22. - p. 5 - 16.
    historische ecologie - vegetatietypen - geomorfologie - ouderdom van de bodem - noord-brabant - historical ecology - vegetation types - geomorphology - age of soil - noord-brabant
    Uit de bestudering van kaartmateriaal, toponiemen en archiefmateriaal zijn sterke aanwijzingen naar voren gekomen dat langs de Spekstraat in Den Dungen een ven gelegen moet hebben (Van Minderhout et al. 2011). Ook wordt de plaats genoemd in relatie tot turfwinning. Tot in de late Middeleeuwen was dit een heidegebied met een ven. Vermoedelijk is het ven tijdens of na het ontginnen van de heide in de 14e en 15e eeuw dichtgegroeid of dichtgewaaid. Bij een eerste verkenning met een grondboor door een van ons konden geen aanwijzingen gevonden worden voor het voorkomen van een venbodem.
    Verkenning herstelmogelijkheden duindynamiek Westduinen (Schouwen)
    Valk, L. van der; Arens, S.M. ; Koomen, A.J.M. ; Bakker, M. - \ 2013
    Driebergen : Bosschap, bedrijfschap voor bos en natuur (Rapport / [DKI] nr. 2013/OBN184-DK) - 101
    duingebieden - natuurgebieden - geomorfologie - eolische afzettingen - monitoring - neerslag - grondwaterwinning - herstelbeheer - zeeuwse eilanden - duneland - natural areas - geomorphology - aeolian deposits - monitoring - precipitation - groundwater extraction - restoration management - zeeuwse eilanden
    Op verzoek van OBN deskundigenteam Duin- en Kustlandschap, Provincie Zeeland, en de twee grote duinbeheerders Staatsbosbeheer en Natuurmonumenten op Schouwen is een verkenning uitgevoerd naar de herstelmogelijkheden van duindynamiek in de Meeuwenduinen en de Zeepeduinen (beide onder de noemer Westduinen Schouwen in dit rapport). De herstelmaatregelen zijn opgesteld na bestudering van de verstuivingsgeschiedenis van het gebied, vooral aan de hand van de afname oppervlaktes kaal zand. Ook is de interne opbouw bestudeerd door middel van grondradar en zijn geselecteerde duinafzettingen in de tijd geplaatst door middel van luminescentie dateringen (dit is nieuw voor Nederland).
    Overview of satellite data for long-term monitoring in the Wadden Sea, WaLTER
    Davaasuren, N. ; Stapel, J. ; Dankers, N.M.J.A. - \ 2013
    Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C138/13) - 52
    aquatische ecosystemen - monitoring - geomorfologie - remote sensing - wadden - waddenzee - aquatic ecosystems - monitoring - geomorphology - remote sensing - tidal flats - wadden sea
    One of the aims of the WaLTER project (Wadden Sea Long-Term Ecosystem Research) is to define an integrated monitoring plan for environmental and managerial issues that are relevant to the Wadden Sea area, in relation to issues such as sea-level rise, fisheries, recreation and industrial activities. The monitoring network should provide an effective basis for decision-making, and stimulate valid data interpretation. The participants of the WaLTER project include a number of institutes and organisations that carry out long-term measurements and research in the Wadden Sea area.
    Landschappen van Nederland, geologie, bodem en landgebruik
    Jongmans, A.G. ; Berg, M.W. van den; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Peek, G.J.W.C. ; Berg van Saparoea, R.M. van den - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862139 - 925
    bodem - landschap - landschapselementen - geomorfologie - geologie - klimaat - landgebruik - nederland - soil - landscape - landscape elements - geomorphology - geology - climate - land use - netherlands
    Landschappen van Nederland is samengevat in zes delen: Bodem en Landschap, Tektoniek en Klimaat, Ijs en Wind, Rivieren, Veen en als laatste Kust en Zee. Per type: landschap wordt beschreven welke klimatologische en tektonische aspecten hebben bijgedragen aan de totstandkoming. Daarnaast wordt uitvoering aandacht besteed aan de rol van de mens in de vorming van de landschappen. De zes delen zijn samengebracht in twee volumes.
    Climate-driven fluvial development and valley abandonment at the last glacial-interglacial transition (Oude IJssel-Rhine, Germany)
    Janssens, M.M. ; Kasse, C. ; Bohncke, S.J.P. ; Greaves, H. ; Cohen, K.M. ; Wallinga, J. ; Hoek, W.Z. - \ 2012
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 91 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 37 - 62.
    Complex response - Fluvial geomorphology - Lateglacial lower rhine - River pattern change - Vegetation development

    In the Weichselian, the Lower Rhine in the Dutch-German border region has used three courses, dissecting ice-marginal topography inherited from the Saalian. In the Late Weichselian, the three courses functioned simultaneously, with the central one gaining importance and the outer ones abandoning. This study aims to reconstruct the fluvial development and forcings that culminated in abandonment of the northern branch 'Oude IJssel-Rhine', at the time of the Lateglacial to Holocene transition. The fluvial architecture is studied using a cored transect over the full width of the valley, detailed cross-sections over palaeochannels and geomorphological analysis using digital elevation and borehole data. Biostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating and OSL dating provide a timeframe to reconstruct the temporal fluvial development. In its phase of abandonment, the fluvial evolution of the Oude IJssel-Rhine course is controlled by the ameliorating climate and related vegetation and discharge changes, besides by intrinsic (autogenic) fluvial behaviour such as the competition for discharge with the winning central branch and the vicinity of the Lippe tributary confluence. The rapid climate warming at the start of the Late Glacial resulted in flow contraction as the initial response. Other fluvial geomorphic adjustments followed, with some delay. An aggrading braided or transitional system persisted until the start of the Altered, when channel patterns finally changed to meandering. Floodplain incision occurred at the Allerad - Younger Dryas transition and a multi-channel system developed fed by Rhine discharge. At the start of the Holocene, this system transformed into a small-scale, local meandering system, which was abandoned shortly after the start of the Holocene. The final abandonment of the Oude IJssel-Rhine and Niers-Rhine courses can be attributed to deep incision of the Central Rhine course in the earliest Holocene and is considered to be controlled by flow contraction induced by climate and related vegetation and discharge changes.

    Measuring and modeling coastal dune development in the Netherlands
    Groot, A.V. de; Vries, S. de; Keijsers, J.G.S. ; Riksen, M.J.P.M. ; Ye, Q. ; Poortinga, A. ; Arens, S.M. ; Bochev-Van der Burgh, L.M. ; Wijnberg, K. ; Schretlen, J.L. ; Thiel de Vries, J.S.M. van - \ 2012
    duingebieden - eolische processen - kustbeheer - versterking - geomorfologie - modellen - nederland - duneland - aeolian processes - coastal management - reinforcement - geomorphology - models - netherlands
    In the past couple of years, new coastal-dune research has sprung up in the Netherlands. In this paper, we give an overview of ongoing projects at Wageningen UR, Deltares, TU Delft and UTwente: how these are connected and what type of questions are addressed. There is an increasing demand for the understanding and prediction of coastal dune dynamics, both on the short (year) and long (100 years) term. We approach this from a variety of angles: scientific and applied, short-term and long-term, data-driven and model-based, biotic and abiotic, process-based and rule-based, and focused on components and integrated. We give examples of results and end with a discussion of the benefits of this integrated approach.
    Connecting aeolian sediment transport with foredune development
    Keijsers, J.G.S. ; Poortinga, A. ; Riksen, M.J.P.M. ; Groot, A.V. de - \ 2012
    duingebieden - eolische processen - kustbeheer - versterking - geomorfologie - nederland - duneland - aeolian processes - coastal management - reinforcement - geomorphology - netherlands
    Foredune volume is an important factor for coastal safety and depends on the balance between erosion through wave attack and sediment input via aeolian transport. Dune erosion can be simulated with good accuracy, but predictions of aeolian sediment transport into the foredunes are still difficult to make. As part of a larger project that aims to model foredune development over decades, the goal of this study is to improve the understanding of the temporal variability in sediment transport at the beach. Measurements of aeolian sediment transport at the beach of barrier island Ameland show that within events, wind velocity and rain are dominant controls. After aggregating wind and precipitation into a single meteorological index, it was found that these controls alone are not sufficient to explain the year-to-year variability in foredune growth rates. In contrast to the volume changes, the variability in the amount of elevation change of the foredune slope can be related to the wind climate and precipitation.
    Mind the gap! Het verschil in tijdschaal tussen extreme regenbuien en landschapsevolutie
    Baartman, J.E.M. - \ 2012
    Bodem 22 (2012)5. - ISSN 0925-1650 - p. 27 - 29.
    erosie - watererosie - geomorfologie - hellingen - modellen - erosion - water erosion - geomorphology - slopes - models
    Erosie en depositie worden in hoge mate bepaald door enkele (heftige) regenbuien, zeker in Mediterrane semi-aride gebieden zoals Spanje. In landschapsevolutie spelen dezelfde processen een belangrijke rol, maar kijken we naar de effecten van die processen over duizenden jaren, bijvoorbeeld de vorming van rivier terrassen. Er zit een groot gat in tijdschaal tussen de regenbuien enerzijds (uren-dagen) en landschapsevolutie anderzijds. Hebben enkele (heftige) regenbuien nog invloed op landschapsevolutie en zo ja, op welke manier? Of is het cumulatieve effect van het grotere aantal kleinere buien uiteindelijk meer bepalend voor hoe het landschap zich ontwikkeld? De afgelopen 5 jaar heb ik me tijdens promotie-onderzoek bezig gehouden met dit thema. Het resultaat, mijn proefschrift, heb ik afgelopen 9 mei succesvol verdedigd aan de Wageningen Universiteit. Een overzicht van mijn onderzoek en de belangrijkste resultaten: 5 jaar in 3 pagina's!
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