Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Sustainable development of agriculture: contribution of farm-level assessment tools
    Olde, Evelien de - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): I.J.M. de Boer, co-promotor(en): E.A.M. Bokkers; F.W. Oudshoorn. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430685 - 152
    sustainable agriculture - sustainability - sustainability indicators - sustainability criteria - assessment - tools - reliability - validity - farming systems - duurzame landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - duurzaamheidscriteria - beoordeling - gereedschappen - betrouwbaarheid - geldigheid - bedrijfssystemen

    Current environmental, economic and social challenges urge agriculture to change to more sustainable modes of production. Insight in the impact of a system or a potential innovation on sustainability could support decision makers in identifying actions towards sustainable development. Over the past decade, therefore, a large number of tools have been developed to assess sustainability performance at farm level. Several concerns, however, have been raised whether assessment results provide reliable and valid conclusions about the sustainability performance of farms, and whether these conclusions can be implemented in practice. To evaluate the contribution of farm-level assessment tools to sustainable development of agriculture, this thesis analyzed current approaches to assessing sustainability. One of these approaches is the sustainability assessment tool RISE 2.0, which was used to assess the sustainability performance of 37 organic farms in Denmark. Analysis of the assessment results showed the impact of decisions, made during the development of a tool (e.g. selection of themes, indicators, reference values, scoring and aggregation method), on the assessment results. This emphasizes the importance of transparency in sustainability assessment tools to understand assessment results and identify actions to improve. Subsequently, a comparison of sustainability assessment tools in practice was made to gain insight into practical requirements, procedures and relevance perceived by farmers. Of 48 indicator-based sustainability assessment tools, only four tools (RISE, SAFA, PG and IDEA) complied to the selection criteria and were applied to assess the sustainability performance of five Danish farms. Characteristics including data requirements, assessment time, complexity, transparency and output accuracy varied between tools. Critical factors in farmers’ perception of tool relevance were context specificity, user-friendliness, complexity of the tool, language use, and a match between value judgements of tool developers and farmers. Farmers, moreover, indicated that implementing conclusions derived from sustainability assessments is challenging given the complex organization of agricultural systems. A more in-depth analysis of the four tools revealed a high diversity in selected indicators, themes, reference values, and scoring and aggregation methods. This results in different conclusions on the sustainability performance of farms, which does not only cause confusion but also affects the trust in, and reliability and implementation of, sustainability assessments. Variability in tools is caused by different perspectives on how to assess sustainability and is related to differences in context, priorities and value judgements of tool developers. These differences also play a role in the prioritization of criteria for indicator selection. To explore whether sustainability experts agreed on which criteria are most important in the selection of indicators and indicators sets for sustainability assessments, two ranking surveys were carried out. Both surveys showed a lack of consensus amongst experts about how best to measure agricultural sustainability. This thesis revealed variability in approaches to assess sustainability at farm level. This makes current assessment tools less suitable for functions that require a high reliability and validity, such as certification. Instead, current assessment tools present a useful starting point for discussion, reflection and learning on sustainable development of farming. To enhance the contribution of tools towards sustainable development of agriculture, more attention should be paid to increasing reliability and validity of tools, and improving transparency, harmonization, participation and implementation of assessments.

    Molecular design, synthesis and evaluation of chemical biology tools
    Hoogenboom, Jorin - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Zuilhof, co-promotor(en): Tom Wennekes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430388 - 206
    chemical biology - biology - tools - synthesis - organic chemistry - molecules - design - chemische biologie - biologie - gereedschappen - synthese - organische scheikunde - moleculen - ontwerp

    Chapter 1 provides a perspective of synthetic organic chemistry as a discipline involved in the design, synthesis and evaluation of complex molecules. The reader is introduced with a brief history of synthetic organic chemistry, all the while dealing with different aspects of synthetic organic chemistry. These aspects include design, synthesis and evaluation of complex molecules, which are described with representative examples. For instance, chapter 1 described different strategies to design antibiotics like penicillin. Furthermore, efforts at the interface of chemistry and biology has led to the emerging of a new subdisciplines such as chemical biology. Although this discipline is relatively new, the scientific community has witnessed many breakthrough discoveries and some of these discoveries are highlighted in this chapter. After the general introduction presented in chapter 1, the following chapters of this thesis focus on the design, synthesis and evaluation of small molecular probes towards the study of proteins and glycans in plant and mammalian cells. Most of these probes are complex glycomimetic small molecules that in many instances are prepared with a nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition as a key step.

    In chapter 2, a novel nitrone is presented for the nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition reaction. This reaction is a powerful tool in synthetic organic chemistry for the synthesis of a wide range of complex molecules. The versatile nature of the reaction is illustrated by the synthesis of several classes of natural product such as vitamins and alkaloids – all complex molecules containing multiple neighboring chiral centers – through the nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition. However, most nitrones that show good regio- and stereoselectivity are limited in their synthetic versatility, as subsequent synthetic modification of the cycloaddition products are limited. The nitrone described in chapter 2 is a novel masked aldehyde-containing nitrone. This nitrone is prepared by a simple and scalable procedure and can be combined with a diverse set of olefins and other dipolarophiles to afford a broad range of cycloadducts. These cycloadducts can be considered as a masked form of amino-aldehydes, which makes them interesting from a synthetic point of view as illustrated by several postcycloaddition modifications.

    The nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition is also utilized in chapter 3 for the synthesis of glycomimetic building blocks. Glycomimetics such as iminosugars and pipecolic acids are found in nature and possess a variety of biological activities. The potential of glycomimetics have led to the development of drugs for the treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Gaucher disease and HIV. Chapter 3 describes how glycomimetic building blocks can be obtained through a nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition, providing different bicyclic isoxazolidines. These cycloadducts are synthetically versatile, as we report a set of reactions that allow selective modification at each functional position. Accordingly, these versatile bicyclic isoxazolidines enable the synthesis of different glycomimetic building blocks. For example, we were able to make a library of pipecolic acid derivatives – a popular drug-motif – via a one-pot Staudinger/aza-Wittig/Ugi three-component reaction.

    The bicyclic isoxazolidines, discussed in chapter 3, are also reported in chapter 4. This chapter describes the development of a synthetic route towards an activity-based probe (ABP) to study the enzymatic activity of neuraminidases. Neuraminidases are a class of enzymes found in a range of organisms including mammals. The importance of neuraminidases is illustrated by the existence of a neuraminidase-related genetic disease, sialidosis. With no cure for this fatal disease being very limited, there is keen interest in the discovery of novel mechanisms to restore neuraminidase activity. The poor enzyme-activity of a different enzyme-related disease, Gaucher disease, could be improved through the identification of a small molecule that stabilizes and/or promotes the folding of the active enzyme. The validation of this small molecule was aided greatly by the development of a sensitive ABP targeting this disease specific enzyme. Accordingly, the development of a neuramidase-ABP would provide a diagnostic tool to study the activity of neuramidases and ultimately help identify small molecules that could increase the activity of mutant-neuraminidase molecules by stabilizing and/or promoting the folding of this enzyme. The synthesis of a carbocyclic neuraminidase ABP was the goal of chapter 4 and was approached by starting with the nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition as the key-step. This reaction provided a bicyclic cycloadduct that was used for the development of a synthetic route, which led to a high yielding and practical synthesis of an advance intermediate possessing the majority of the stereochemistry of the required carbocyclic neuraminidase ABP.

    Chapter 5 describes the synthesis and evaluation of chemical tools to study phoshatidyl ethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBPs). This family of proteins is found in a variety of organisms including mammals and plants. This family includes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a signaling protein that acts as a vital flowering hormone in plants. No small molecule inhibitors for FT are known, but an inhibitor called locostatin has been reported to bind in the highly conserved ligand binding site of a structurally related protein. Based on this conservation and overall structurally similarity with FT it was hypothesized that locostatin or derivatives thereof could covalently bind in the ligand binding pocket of FT and hence affect flowering. Chapter 5 reports on the synthesis of novel locostatin-based chemical PEBP probes, followed by evaluation for their ability and selectivity towards FT and a mammalian PEBP.

    Chemical tools were also used to study plants in chapter 6, although different aspects of plants were investigated. This chapter describes the direct molecular imaging of carbohydrates (glycans) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Glycans play a crucial but not fully understood role in plant health and development. The formation of glycans is not genetically encoded, which makes it impossible to image them in vivo using genetically encoded fluorescent tags and related molecular biology approaches. A solution to this problem is the use of tailor-made glycans that are metabolically incorporated in plants via the roots, which may then be visualized with copper-catalyzed click labeling. However, this labelling-technique is toxic to plants and future applications would benefit from bio-orthoganol copper-free labeling techniques. Chapter 6 shows, for the first time in metabolic labeling and imaging of plant glycans, the potential of two copper-free click chemistry methods. These methods are bio-orthogonal and lead to more uniform labeling. Furthermore, this chapter also describes the metabolic incorporation of five novel monosaccharide probes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and their imaging after (copper-free) fluorescent labeling.

    Finally, chapter 7 contains a general discussion, critically summarizing the body of this thesis along with additional ideas and recommendations for further research.

    Sustainability assessment tools for organic greenhouse horticulture
    Foresi, Lucia ; Schmutz, U. ; Anton, Assumpcio ; Vieweger, Anja ; Bavec, Martina ; Meier, Matthias ; Shadid, Muhammad ; Pena, Nancy ; Petrasek, Richard ; Stajnko, Denis ; Vukamaniĉ, T. ; Landert, Jan ; Weißhaidinger, Rainier ; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2016
    [Netherlands] : BioGreenhouse - ISBN 9789462575370 - 50
    greenhouse horticulture - organic farming - tools - life cycle assessment - sustainability - ecological assessment - glastuinbouw - biologische landbouw - gereedschappen - levenscyclusanalyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecologische beoordeling
    This booklet describes different tools currently employed for sustainability evaluation, according to the field of expertise and experience of the authors. Each method serves a different purpose and covers different aspects of sustainability (environmental, economic, social or all together). This body of work will attempt to show the complexity of assessing sustainability in a comprehensive way, by giving a short background and describing the main features of each tool, and supplying the reader with a practical example of application whenever possible.
    McGraze : Concept model for modern continuous stocking
    Klein Koerkamp, Pim ; Li, Peiyun ; Oostdam, Marieke ; El-Din Sherif, Mohie ; Stienezen, M.W.J. ; Philipsen, A.P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 31
    dairy farms - grasslands - grazing - pastures - weather - management - stocking density - tools - dairy farming - melkveebedrijven - graslanden - begrazing - weiden - weer - bedrijfsvoering - bezettingsdichtheid - gereedschappen - melkveehouderij
    This report analysed the modern continuous stocking system for dairy farms in the Netherlands. This system has to deal with a minimum grass height of 8 or 10cm (depending on the season) in order to obtain maximum grass production. A model should predict the available herbage mass under changing weather conditions and therefore the available fresh grass and the related amount of additional feed needed for the cows. A concept model, called McGraze, is developed for farmers in order to manage modern continuous stocking (Figure 1). McGraze consists of a grass production section and a stoking related section. The grass production section is based on an existing grass production model called LINGRA, which resulted from a literature review to be the most accurate model to predict grass production. LINGRA needs some minor changes in order to fit into McGraze. The stocking related section is key to the final hours of stocking and the related additional feeding, which are the outputs of McGraze. All values used to predict the outputs are a result of a literature study on grass height, grass quality, grass intake and the effect of stocking on grass growth.
    New tools in modulating Maillard reaction from model systems to food
    Troise, A.D. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Vincenzo Fogliano, co-promotor(en): Claire Berton-Carabin; P. Vitaglione. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575455 - 129
    maillard-reactie - maillard-reactieproducten - modulatie - controle - inkapselen - olijfolie - melk - emulsies - modellen - voedsel - gereedschappen - maillard reaction - maillard reaction products - modulation - control - encapsulation - olive oil - milk - emulsions - models - food - tools
    New tools in modulating Maillard reaction from model systems to food

    The Maillard reaction (MR) supervises the final quality of foods and occupies a prominent place in food science. The first stable compounds, the Amadori rearrangement products (APs) and Heyns rearrangement products (HPs), represent the key molecules from which a myriad of reactions takes place and each of them contributes to the formation of Maillard reaction end-products (MRPs) or advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

    Several papers have dealt with the control of the MR in foods ranging from the thermal loading reduction, to the use of alternative process technologies, reactants impact or enzymes, as well as to the monitoring of the end-products formation by multiresponse modeling. The strategies used up to now aim at common goals: the reduction of potentially toxic compounds and the promotion of desired molecules formation as well as flavor, aroma, color and texture attributes. In other words the ultimate target is the promotion of food quality by tuning the MR.

    This thesis introduces four alternative strategies that are able to control the final extent of the MR in foods.

    The possibility to segregate reactants by encapsulating some minor components and thus delaying the MR was highlighted in Chapter 2. The encapsulation of sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, PUFA and iron inside hydrophobic capsules was used as a possible example: the core material release over the time delayed the reaction rates.

    The results obtained through the treatment with the enzyme fructosamine oxidase (Faox) I and II which is able to deglycate free Amadori products and capitalize the local unfolding of lysine peptide bound residues were reported in Chapter 3. Data showed that Faox can reduce the formation ofNε-(Carboxymethyl)-L-lysine and bound hydroxymethylfurfural in model system and in low lactose milk.

    The effects obtained with the addition of spray-dried olive oil mill wastewaters in milk was illustrated in Chapter 4. This ingredient acts as a source of phenylethanoids, which can trap a-hydroxycarbonyls and a-dicarbonyls and can form adducts with amino groups after the oxidation of phenolic rings into quinone. The use of this functional ingredient before milk thermal treatment resulted in a reduction of off-flavor, reactive carbonyls species and bound MRPs.

    The possibilities offered by the location of MR reactants in microemulsion was investigated in Chapter 5. The oil/water partition coefficient of amino acids played a key role in the formation of Amadori compounds. The anchoring effect of tricaprylin and Tween 20 toward aliphatic amino acids in microemulsion systems was evaluated and compared to a control aqueous solution of amino acids and glucose. Results confirmed the hypothesis: the higher the partition coefficient the lower the formation of aliphatic amino acids Amadori compounds.

    All of the four proposed strategies involved location and interaction of reagents, reactants, intermediates and final products. As a result each strategy depicted a specific route for the control of the final extent of the MR. Many steps are still necessary to scale up these methodologies into the food production chain, however new ways for obtaining foods of superior quality have been paved.

    Reproduction train : hulpmiddel bij inseminatie van zeugen
    Ellen, H.H. ; Classens, P.J.A.M. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research
    inseminatie - zeugen - inseminatieplaats - dekstallen - medische materialen - gereedschappen - insemination - sows - deposition site - service crates - medical materials - tools
    De Reproduction Train is bedacht door een groep zeugenhouders en samen met hen ontwikkeld bij MS Schippers. Het is een ‘trein’ die op de boxen in de dekstal gemonteerd wordt. Op deze trein kunnen alle materialen die nodig zijn voor het insemineren van de zeugen geplaatst worden, zoals pipetten, koelbox, inseminatie gel, papier enzovoorts. Op deze manier zijn de materialen makkelijk te vervoeren door de stal en heeft men ze dicht bij de hand.
    Tool voor verdeling rivierwater
    Hellegers, P.J.G.J. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 8 (2011)augustus. - p. 8 - 8.
    waterbeheer - waterbeschikbaarheid - watervoorziening - landgebruik - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - gereedschappen - gegevens verzamelen - multimedia - afrika - water management - water availability - water supply - land use - decision support systems - tools - data collection - multimedia - africa
    In het stroomgebied van de Inkomati-rivier in zuidelijk Afrika, maken partijen uit drie landen aanspraak op het rivierwater. LEI, Alterra en adviesbureau WaterWatch ontwikkelden met lokale partners een tool die betrokkenen laat zien wat ander landgebruik betekent voor de beschikbaarheid van dat water.
    Tools for climate change adaptation in water management - inventory and assessment of methods and tools
    Ludwig, F. ; Swart, R. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789490070342 - 80
    klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - waterbeheer - gereedschappen - methodologie - nederland - climatic change - climate adaptation - water management - tools - methodology - netherlands
    This report summarizes an inventory of methods and tools for assessing climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation options, focusing on the water sector. Two questions are central: What are the opportunities for international applications of Dutch methods and tools? And: Which methods and tools available abroad are suitable for application in The Netherlands?
    Evaluation "Toolbox Value Creation" (WP-101)
    Beulens, A.J.M. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Korver, S. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der; Mommaas, H. - \ 2010
    [S.l.] : TransForum - 4
    ketenmanagement - informatiemanagement - agro-industriële ketens - innovaties - verandering - gereedschappen - modellen - supply chain management - information management - agro-industrial chains - innovations - change - tools - models
    Evaluation of a TransForum project based on a limited capacity and a straightforward idea: innovations in a production network are enhanced by adopting a perspective that combines 1) a whole-chain multiinput, multi-output perspective on all processes, 2) a dynamic problem delineation allowing for the inclusion of non-obvious stakeholders, 3) inclusion of People, Planet and Profit considerations as distinct variables in a combined model. The QChain tool is straightforward and easily usable. A freeware version is available in the public domain and further developments, with interested parties is possible. The process model around it has only partly been tested in the pilot project, but looks promising.
    Toolbox Value Creation Handbook : Charting People, Planet and Profit in Value Chains
    Chatenier, E. du; Kassahun, A. ; Hofstede, G.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen [etc.] : Wageningen UR etc. - 35
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - gereedschappen - informatiemanagement - sustainability - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - tools - information management
    To create a sustainable society companies need new data and information regarding e.g. environmental and societal impacts of new products or processes are necessary, but these are often missing. Information systems can play an important role here and many tools are already developed. It became clear that one crucial tool was lacking: One that (a) integrates People, Planet, and Profit value (b) focuses on the whole production chains and (c) allows flexible data input. A new tool, QChain, was born. QChain is meant for anybody who works on sustainability issues, aiming to create a sustainable production chain. In practice this will often be policy makers, champions, consultants and network coordinators that work on a sustainability problem or valorisation issues. The tool is especially useful in organizations that feel the need or want to create the need to not only focus on profit, but also reckon with people and planet value – their licence to produce. QChain is a drawing tool that supports shared value creation for sustainable production chains.
    Toolbox value creation final report (WP-101)
    Hofstede, G.J. ; Chatenier, E. du; Kassahun, A. - \ 2010
    [S.l.] : TransForum - 5
    innovaties - landbouwproductie - landbouw - netwerken - modellen - gereedschappen - verandering - innovations - agricultural production - agriculture - networks - models - tools - change
    This document contains the deliverables of TransForum project WP-101, Toolbox Value Creation. Its contents allow users to use a summary analysis toolbox made for charting and improving value chains in the areas of People, Planet and Profit. Features of the toolbox are: Guidance in organizing a quick scan and change process. Create summary graphic overview of the materials balance of a production network. Model People and Planet and Profit separately but in conjunction. Allow flexible inclusion or omission of actors, processes and products. Analyze value of improvements.
    Reflexive Monitoring in Action. A guide for monitoring system innovation projects
    Mierlo, B.C. van; Regeer, B. ; Amstel, M. van; Arkesteijn, M.C.M. ; Beekman, V. ; Bunders, J.F.G. ; Cock Buning, T. de; Elzen, B. ; Hoes, A.C. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2010
    Wageningen/Amsterdam : Communication and Innovation Studies, WUR; Athena Institute, VU - ISBN 9789085855996 - 104
    innovaties - monitoring - richtlijnen (guidelines) - gereedschappen - ontwikkeling - duurzame ontwikkeling - innovations - monitoring - guidelines - tools - development - sustainable development
    “Researchers at Wageningen University and the VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands, have been working together on a type of monitoring that they have called reflexive monitoring in action (RMA). RMA has been developed especially for projects that aim to contribute to the sustainable development of a sector or region by working on system innovation. Sustainable development demands simultaneous changes at many levels of society and in multiple domains: ecological, economic, political and scientific. It requires choices to be made that are radically different from the usual practices, habits, interrelationships and institutional structures. But that is precisely why it is not easy. System innovation projects therefore benefit from a type of monitoring that encourages the ‘reflexivity’ of the project itself, its ability to affect and interact with the environment within which it operates. If a project wants to realise the far-reaching ambitions of system innovation, then reflection and learning must be tightly interwoven within it. And that learning should focus on structural changes. RMA can contribute to this. In the guide, -aiming at supporting the work of project managers, monitors and clients-, the authors present the characteristics and the value of Reflexive Monitoring in Action, together with practical guidelines that will help put that monitoring into practice. At the end of the guide the authors provide detailed descriptions of seven monitoring tools.”
    Calculation rules for the DSS (WINDSPEED)
    Wal, J.T. van der; Quirijns, F.J. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Jongbloed, R.H. - \ 2010
    Den Helder : IMARES (IMARES report no. C058/10) - 42
    windmolens - parken - noordzee - mariene parken - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - ruimtelijke modellen - nutfunctie - natuurbescherming - gereedschappen - menselijke activiteit - windenergie - windmills - parks - north sea - marine parks - decision support systems - spatial models - utility functions - nature conservation - tools - human activity - wind power
    The WindSpeed project aims to develop a roadmap defining a realistic target and a development pathway up to 2030 for offshore wind energy in the Central and Southern North Sea. To achieve this roadmap spatial data on where these activities occur and if possible with what intensity is needed. This data can then be used as building material to feed into the DSS or Decision Support System that is also part of the project plan. This GIS-based tool will show a spatial representation of offshore wind energy potential in relation to non-wind sea functions and environmental aspects. The tool will also facilitate the quantification of trade-offs between electricity generation costs from offshore wind and constraints due to non-wind sea functions and nature conservation.
    The Livelihoods concept integrated into the DPSIR analytical tool
    Schrevel, A. ; Kumar, R. - \ 2010
    [Wageningen] : Alterra [etc.] - 17
    wetlands - agriculture - tools - environment - wetlands - landbouw - gereedschappen - milieu
    DPSIR stands for Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact, and Responses. DPSIR is an analytical tool used to understand the causes of environmental change and the subsequent socio-economic impacts in order to formulate the most adequate responses (R). It is a linear cause-effect model. It assumes natural and human-made factors of change (Drivers) that cause Pressures, which in turn lead to a change in the State of the environment. Changes in State lead to socio-economic Impacts and this triggers Reponses, either by governments or other players. The DPSIR analytical tool was originally proposed by the European Environmental Agency and adopted by many national and European institutions, EEA, and Eurostat among others
    Tools for a coherent risk assessment for pesticides
    Arts, G.H.P. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Belgers, J.D.M. ; Rhenen-Kersten, C.H. van; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2008
    ecosystemen - waterorganismen - pesticiden - effecten - populaties - risicoschatting - gereedschappen - modellen - kaderrichtlijn water - mesocosmossen - ecosystems - aquatic organisms - pesticides - effects - populations - risk assessment - tools - models - water framework directive - mesocosms
    Risk assessment for pesticides within the context of 91/414/EEC has its main focus on relatively small water bodies in the direct vicinity of agricultural fields. It considers mainly short-term exposure and follows a tiered approach. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) has its main focus on larger water bodies, where risks prevail due to long-term exposure to low concentrations of pesticides. Current knowledge of long-term risks is only limited. There is an urgent need for a harmonized coherent risk assessment framework. Instruments and tools are necessary to predict effects on different spatial and temporal scales
    Vermindering fysieke belasting tijdens fusthandling in de bloembollensector = Reducing physical load during crate handling in bulb cultivation
    Roelofs, P.F.M.M. ; Diepen, M. van; Looije, A.A.J. ; Wildschut, J. - \ 2006
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 22) - 39
    bloembollen - arbeid (werk) - arbeidsomstandigheden - ergonomie - optillen - gereedschappen - kratten - pallets - fysieke belasting - ornamental bulbs - labour - working conditions - ergonomics - lifting - tools - crates - pallets - physical pressure
    Een inventarisatie is gemaakt van hulpmiddelen die de fysieke belasting als gevolg van fusthandling in de bloembollen- en bolbloementeelt kan verminderen. Op praktijkbedrijven zijn de invloed op de fysieke belasting en de inzetbaarheid op verschillende plaatsen in het productieproces beoordeeld. Ook zijn jaarkosten berekend en te verwachten arbeidsbesparingen bepaald
    Wanneer is goed veilig?
    Niemeijer, C.M. ; Oosterbaan, A. - \ 2004
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 1 (2004)6. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 26 - 27.
    bosbouw - bosbomen - bosbouwkundige handelingen - onderhoud - gereedschappen - openbaar groen - bosopstanden - forestry - forest trees - forestry practices - maintenance - tools - public green areas - forest stands
    In de jaren negentig bleek de bosbouw- en groenvoorzieningsector een van de onveiligste sectoren te zijn in Nederland. Verbetering van de werkomstandigheden was dus hard nodig. Hierbij is de beschikbaarheid van goedgekeurde apparatuur en middelen een belangrijk aandachtspunt. Logo's (als kwaliteitsaanduiding) kunnen de aspirant-koper helpen om iets goeds te kopen
    Proces en gebruik van strategische managementtools bij het Koeien & Kansen-project
    Kuiper, D. ; Kuipers, A. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Agro Management Tools (Rapport project klimop 5) - 17
    koeien - dierhouderij - bedrijfsvoering - gereedschappen - mineralen - cows - animal husbandry - management - tools - minerals
    Veldtest automatische bemonstering van drijfmest
    Hoeksma, P. ; Starmans, D.A.J. - \ 2000
    Landbouwmechanisatie 51 (2000)1. - ISSN 0023-7795 - p. 40 - 41.
    boerderij uitrusting - monstertrekkers - stalmest - drijfmest - mineralen - boekhouding - landbouwwerktuigen - gereedschappen - samenstelling - experimenteel veldonderzoek - farm equipment - samplers - farmyard manure - slurries - minerals - accounting - farm machinery - tools - composition - field experimentation
    Test van de monsterapparatuur van Eijkelkamp en VMA
    PR test melkmeters voor ICAR
    Soede, H.J. - \ 1998
    Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden. Praktijkonderzoek 11 (1998)2. - ISSN 1386-8470 - p. 29 - 30.
    melkmachines - componenten - landbouwwerktuigen - boerderij uitrusting - gereedschappen - onderhoud - service - milking machines - components - farm machinery - farm equipment - tools - maintenance - servicing
    Het PR heeft in de loop der jaren de werking van een aantal elektronische melkmeters onderzocht. Het PR verzorgt de laboratoriumtest waarin de werking onder verschillende omstandigheden wordt bekeken. Het NRS voert de praktijktest uit waarbij de werking onder praktijkomstandigheden wordt beoordeeld. Als de meter de testen goed heeft doorstaan, wordt een voorlopige goedkeuring door het Internationaal Comité Animal Recording (ICAR) verleend.
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