Strong families and declining fertility : a comparative study of family relations and reproductive careers in Soviet Ukraine
Hilevych, Yuliya - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hilde Bras; Theo Engelen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579385 - 191
families - demography - family environment - family size - sociology of the family - contraception - ukraine - gezinnen - demografie - gezinsmilieu - gezinsgrootte - gezinssociologie - contraceptie - oekraïne
This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine and other European republics of the Soviet Union, and some even define the period after the 1960s as the start of a latent depopulation in this part of Europe. However, this fertility decline that had already begun to manifest itself in the early 1920s gained speed within only a few generations as those who were born in families of six siblings in the 1920s and 1930s had only two children themselves in the 1950s, the 1960s and the 1970s.
Previous research has discussed these demographic changes on a macro-level for the Soviet and post-Soviet periods by typically linking these changes to the processes of modernisation and transformation. However, this singular focus on structural changes ignores the fact that relationships between people also adjust to politico-economic changes according to the social and family values that al- ready exist in society. As a result, old and new social (in)equalities, both outside and within the household, (re-) emerge alongside the politico-economic modernisation, which, in tandem, contribute to the formation of different demographic realities on a micro-level and different fertility trends on a macro-level. In this respect, social relationships should be seen as playing an intermediary role in the interplay between the formation of interpersonal inequalities and the politico- economic reality. Because they surround our everyday lives and choices, social relationships form a coherent social structure that helps us to interpret, to under- stand and to adjust to everyday reality, including state legal regulations, political ideology, and economic crises. The primary aim of this dissertation is to study the effects of family relationships and their continuities on changes in reproductive behaviour through a comparative regional perspective in Ukraine during the post-war fertility decline.The role of social relationships in reproductive behaviour is particularly important in the specific context of Ukraine as well as in the broader context of Eastern Europe, where family relationships have provided welfare in critical situations, such as childbearing, childcare and elderly care, both in the past and today. Sim- ilar to Southern Europe, the prevalence of strong family ties in Eastern Europe is also often connected to the high fertility rates in the pre-transitional context and to the rapid fertility decline to the lowest-low level in the 1990s and 2000s. The lowest-low fertility phenomenon is often referred to as a paradox of strong family and low fertility. Moreover, in the context of Ukraine, where regional dif- ferences remain pronounced in many aspects of social life, regional variations in fertility could also be linked to local family values. Considering this, the main research questions that I address in this dissertation are the following: (1) How did family and social relationships influence individual reproductive careers in Soviet Ukraine from around the 1950s to the 1970s? (2) How can local family systems and their associated power dynamics and social interdependencies help to understand fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine? Focusing on these post-war decades is also relevant for our understanding of historical and contemporary fertility decline in this part of Europe because these three decades were significant for the beginning of the Cold War, general liberalisation of the regime and the introduction of some family policies that are still enacted today.
On the theoretical level, I frame the empirical analysis of family and social influences on individual reproductive careers in a broader framework of local con- tinuities in family relationships and values, the so-called family systems. In this respect, individual reproductive careers are studied as processual characteristics of reproductive behaviour and long life experiences and include such life events as marriage, entrance into parenthood, abortion and birth control, and transition to second birth. By social influences I understand the ‘process by which attitudes, values or behaviour of an individual are determined by the attitudes, values or behaviour of others with whom he or she interacts’ (Bernardi, 2003, p. 535). I examine different patterns of social relationships, such as those between spouses, generations, siblings and peers. Based on the social influences stemming from family and social relationships, I try to characterise different power relationships and other social interdependencies underlying these relationships, which I then connect to the context of local family systems.
On the methodological level, this study is based on the analysis of various qual- itative methods, such as in-depth biographical interviews, life history calendars (LHC) and family photographs. The interviews were collected in two Ukrainian borderland cities: Lviv in western Ukraine and Kharkiv in eastern Ukraine. These sites allowed me to compare how family relationships were historically organised in Ukraine and how they actually shaped the informants’ reproductive decisions. This study also uses archival demographic data and secondary ethnographic materials as supplementary sources.
The empirical findings of this dissertation discuss different transitions of individual reproductive careers, namely marriage, entrance into parenthood, birth control and abortion, and transitions to second and later births, all of which I discuss in the context of family and peer relationships. In Soviet Ukraine, the transition to marriage was characterised by strong parental control over men’s and women’s pre-marital practices and sometimes also marital decisions. This strong parental control before marriage was not without consequences, as it seems to have created an imaginary dependency of children on their parents not only be- fore but also after marriage, which I associate with the persistence of paternalistic intergenerational values in family relationships in the two localities.
Similarly, the entrance into parenthood was also surrounded by frequent parental assistance, particularly when a couple tried to postpone their entrance into par- enthood. This pattern was also reinforced by the social learning from peers among the Kharkiv informants and social contagion from siblings(in-law) among the Lviv informants. That said, the actual decision to give birth was connected to the ex- pectations of help with childcare in the future. In this respect, I observed that if after the marriage a couple resided separately from their parents, they would also take greater responsibility for childcare, and grandparental support became an additional and temporary option, as it often was in Lviv. However, when spouses resided with either set of parents, they also tended to rely more on the parents in terms of childcare, which I more often observed in Kharkiv and less in Lviv.
These differences in dynamics of spousal and intergenerational relationships between the two localities became even more pronounced around abortion and birth control decisions and their practices after first birth. Spousal cooperation in birth control decision-making played an important role in how women exercised their agency in these decisions and which birth control methods the couple used and how effectively they used them. In couples where spouses communicated about birth control and abortion decisions, the women had fewer abortions, as was often the case in Lviv. These women did not feel the need to exercise their agency, as the husbands took over the responsibility of both birth control and abortion. When abortion was practiced as a routine method to limit family size, spouses did not communicate about birth control and abortion, as was the case in Kharkiv. In this situation, birth control was the husband’s responsibility and abortion was the wife’s. These women sought abortions to fulfil their own goals and, at the same time, to maintain the dominant patriarchal order in marital relationships as they understood it.
These differences in spousal cooperation with regard to birth control seem to have had direct implications for the transition to second and later births in the two localities. In Lviv, spouses continued to negotiate the timing of second and third births and the childcare arrangements, while still mainly relying on each other in these matters. In doing so, the Lviv informants often adopted a traditional male-breadwinning model, which allowed spouses to share the costs of childcare: husbands were responsible for material costs and wives for the emotional and instrumental costs. However, some women resumed working part-time or worked on jobs with more flexible working schedules after their child’s birth, and then spouses divided the material and instrumental costs of childcare more equally and without a traditional gender bias. In either case, the accumulated costs of childcare were often shared between spouses. This strategy often allowed couples to combine childcare after their first and second/third child, which seems to have been reinforcing for many couples in Lviv to adopt a shorter birth spacing strategy. In Kharkiv, in contrast, the timing of second and later births and childcare were mainly the women’s responsibility. Some continued to rely on grandparental support even after starting to reside separately. However, this support was not always available due to different factors such as the few possibilities for multi- generational co-residence or parental health issues. When women received little intergenerational and spousal support, they tended to delay transition to second birth until they felt more secure. Additionally, women in Kharkiv seem to have learned from each other’s experiences about the benefits of this strategy. As such, the adoption of the waiting strategy seems to have resulted in a more prolonged interval between first and second births, sometimes ten to fifteen years, which in other studies is defined as postponement as opposed to spacing. However, those women who did not meet the deadline for parenthood because they were still feeling too insecure to proceed with another birth never had a second child.
Overall, my findings illustrate that the ways in which family relationships were organised over the life course formulated different responses in the two local- ities to the emerging socio-economic conditions. Subsequently, these differences in responses were reflected in regional reproductive strategies. I suggest that these differences in responses have to do with the intrafamilial dependencies in the two localities: more couple-oriented (horizontal intrafamilial interdependen- cies) in Lviv and generations-oriented (vertical intrafamilial interdependencies) in Kharkiv. I also observe continuity in these two social interdependencies with the historical family systems and the intrafamilial (in)equalities produced within them in the past, namely a mix of nuclear-stem family system in Lviv and a joint family system in Kharkiv. In the early life, strong intergenerational connections characterising both family systems seem to have promoted early and universal entrance into marriage and parenthood in the past and during the Soviet time. Additionally, the Soviet family policy adopted many of these paternalistic and pronatalist values on the level of legal regulations, which meant that this re-productive ideology was reinforced within and outside the family. In later life, however, the intrafamily interdependencies start to differ in the two contexts, and this aspect is crucial to understand regional patterns in fertility decline. During the Soviet time, even though socio-economic constraints created more or less sim- ilar structural uncertainties in the both localities, these structural factors did not equally challenge intrafamilial interdependencies between spouse and generations. Subsequently, these local intrafamilial interdependencies resulted in different re- productive strategies on the micro-level and in their reflection on the macro-level fertility trends.
Altogether, these findings provide a fruitful ground for formulating future hy- potheses to be tested on larger and representative population samples. They also formulate important clues for policy makers by suggesting that a more relativist perspective that incorporates intrafamilial social inequalities and communication strategies is needed to regulate the issues of fertility decline and subsequently the process of population ageing, the latter of which may soon become a vital issue in this part of the world as well.
Family systems and fertility : fertility behaviour in Europe from a network perspective
Moenkediek, Bastian - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hilde Bras; J. de Kok. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577978 - 278
demography - families - human fertility - network analysis - europe - demografie - gezinnen - menselijke vruchtbaarheid - netwerkanalyse - europa
Local institutions and rural development : evidence from Liberia
Beekman, G. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Lonneke Nillesen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575080 - 200
plattelandsontwikkeling - gezinnen - netwerken - lokale netwerken - sociale netwerken - instellingen - micro-economische analyse - micro-economie - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - liberia - west-afrika - rural development - families - networks - local area networks - social networks - institutions - microeconomic analysis - microeconomics - economic development - agricultural development - liberia - west africa
Local institutions and rural development: Evidence from Liberia
This thesis focusses on the role of local (informal) institutions for development, based on data from Liberia. I show that dense family networks can be an obstacle for economic decision making, due to strict income sharing obligations that often belong to them. I also demonstrate the importance of local governance quality: corrupt village leaders negatively affect daily investment decisions by villagers. Finally, I evaluate the impact of a rural development project that aims to strengthen food security and social cohesion between villagers. The results indicate that the impact is marginal at most, and local institutions again do play a role.
Institutions are difficult to change, as they are rooted in an historical context. However, policy makers could support the emergence of alternative institutions. Either way, a deeper understanding of the far-going impact of local institutions is important: this research contributes to that.
Families on the balance: eating behaviour and weight status of adolescents and their families
Snoek, H.M. - \ 2010
Radboud University Nijmegen. Promotor(en): R.C.M.E. Engels; J.M.A.M. Janssens; T. van Strien. - Den Haag : Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen - ISBN 9789090249452 - 238
voedingsgewoonten - eten - dwangmatig eten - mentale stress - emoties - gedrag - adolescenten - gezinnen - feeding habits - eating - compulsive eating - mental stress - emotions - behaviour - adolescents - families
This dissertation focusses on three eating styles: Emotional eating which is the tendency to eat in response to emotional (dis)stress, external eating which is the tendency to eat in response to food cues, and restrained eating which is the tendency to restrict food intake in order to loose weight or prevent weight gain.
Ideational Leadership in German Welfare State Reform. How Politicians and Policy Ideas Transform Resilient Institutions
Stiller, S.J. - \ 2010
Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press (Changing Welfare States ) - ISBN 9789089641861 - 255
welvaartsstaat - sociaal welzijn - gezinnen - sociaal beleid - leiderschap - overheidsbeleid - duitsland - weerstand tegen verandering - sociale verandering - welfare state - social welfare - families - social policy - leadership - government policy - germany - resistance to change - social change
editors of the series Gøsta Esping-Andersen, University of Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain Anton Hemerijck, the Netherlands Scientific Council for Government Policy (Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid - wrr) Kees van Kersbergen, Free University Amsterdam, the Netherlands Kimberly Morgan, George Washington University, Washington, USA Romke van der Veen, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Jelle Visser, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Single women, land and livelihood vulnerability in an communal area in Zimbabwe
Paradza, G.G. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (AWLAE series no. 9) - ISBN 9789086861460 - 295
ontwikkelingsstudies - vrouwen - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - huwelijk - gezinnen - gezinsstructuur - gezamenlijk eigendom - gemeenschappelijke weidegronden - eigendom - toegang - toegangsrecht - zimbabwe - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - alleenstaanden - burgerlijke staat - development studies - women - rural women - woman's status - marriage - families - family structure - coownership - common lands - ownership - access - right of access - zimbabwe - africa south of sahara - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - single persons - civil status
Single women, land and livelihood vulnerability in an communal area in Zimbabwe
Paradza, G.G. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): B. O'Laughlin; J. Stewart. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854746 - 307
development studies - women - rural women - woman's status - marriage - families - family structure - coownership - common lands - ownership - common property resources - farming - rural areas - land ownership - access - right of access - zimbabwe - africa south of sahara - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - single persons - civil status - ontwikkelingsstudies - vrouwen - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - huwelijk - gezinnen - gezinsstructuur - gezamenlijk eigendom - gemeenschappelijke weidegronden - eigendom - gemeenschappelijk bezit - landbouw bedrijven - platteland - grondeigendom - toegang - toegangsrecht - zimbabwe - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - alleenstaanden - burgerlijke staat
Changing families and their lifestyles
Moerbeek, H.H.S. ; Niehof, A. ; Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Mansholt publication series vol. 5) - ISBN 9789086860517 - 339
gezinnen - sociale structuur - consumenten - huishoudens - consumentengedrag - vrije tijd - hygiëne - gezondheid - samenleving - sociale verandering - levensstijl - nederland - gezinssociologie - gedrag van huishoudens - families - social structure - consumers - households - consumer behaviour - leisure - hygiene - health - society - social change - lifestyle - netherlands - sociology of the family - household behaviour
Is het gezin op weg naar het einde?
Hoog, C. de - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 25
gezinsstructuur - gezinsleven - gezinnen - sociologie - sociale verandering - samenleving - gezinssociologie - family structure - family life - families - sociology - social change - society - sociology of the family
Household production, health, and happiness : a comparison of the native Dutch and non-western immigrants in the Netherlands
Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Maassen van den Brink; Gerrit Antonides, co-promotor(en): Johan van Ophem. - Wageningen : - ISBN 9789085041474 - 209
huishoudens - gezondheid - welstand - gezinnen - overgewicht - immigranten - nederland - welzijn - households - health - wellness - families - overweight - immigrants - netherlands - well-being
"Entre acá y allá' : vidas transnacionales y desarrollo Peruanos entre Italia y Perú
Tamagno, C. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789058089496 - 380
sociale antropologie - rurale sociologie - migratie - migranten - levensomstandigheden - cultuur - verwantschap - gezinnen - nederzetting - peru - italië - social anthropology - rural sociology - migration - migrants - living conditions - culture - kinship - families - settlement - peru - italy
Opgaan, blinken, verzinken en uit de as herrijzen : gezinnen, gezinssociologie en gezinsbeleid 1946-2003
Hoog, C. de - \ 2003
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 32
gezinnen - sociologie - overheidsbeleid - nederland - families - sociology - government policy - netherlands
|Links en Rechts aandacht voor het gezin : Gezinsbeelden in de partijprogramma's voor de verkiezingen van de Tweede Kamer 2002
Hoog, K. de; Hooghiemstra, E. - \ 2002
Den Haag : Nederlandse Gezinsraad - ISBN 9789070815929 - 48
gezinnen - politiek - programma's - nederland - overheidsbeleid - politieke partijen - verkiezingen - families - politics - programs - government policy - netherlands - political parties - elections
|Kinship structures and enterprising actors: Anthropological essays on development
Andersson, J.A. ; Breusers, M. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789064643873 - 322
antropologie - ontwikkelingsstudies - gezinnen - verwantschap - man-vrouwrelaties - ontwikkelingslanden - platteland - landbouwontwikkeling - anthropology - development studies - families - kinship - gender relations - developing countries - rural areas - agricultural development
|Gezinnen in 2000
Scherhorn, E. ; Hoog, C. de; Westeringh, G. van de - \ 2001
Wageningen : Wageningen University - 12
gezinnen - huishoudens - gezinsleven - plattelandsgemeenschappen - families - households - family life - rural communities
|Het belang van een expliciet gezinsbeleid
Hoog, C. de - \ 2000
Bevolking en Gezin 29 (2000)2. - ISSN 0772-764X - p. 141 - 156.
gezinnen - beleid - verwantschap - huishoudens - gezinsleven - sociaal beleid - nederland - families - policy - kinship - households - family life - social policy - netherlands
In dit artikel wordt een beschrijving en een verklaring gegeven van het gezinsbeleid in Nederland
|Personenschade en huishoudelijk werk : De ontwikkeling van GITHA; methode en dataset voor het schatten van schade inzake huishoudelijk werk
Esschert, T. van den - \ 2000
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789067546386 - 45
huishoudens - huishoudkunde - ongevallen - economische impact - arbeid (werk) - gezinnen - computers - modellen - nederland - households - home economics - accidents - economic impact - labour - families - models - netherlands
Between freedom and commitment : the postmodern family discovered. A sociological study of typologies of family and leisure domains in the Netherlands
Kloeze, J.W. te; Hoog, C. de - \ 1999
Loisir et société = Society and leisure 22 (1999)1. - ISSN 0705-3436 - p. 171 - 186.
gezinsleven - vrijetijdsgedrag - houding t.o.v. vrije tijd - sociologie van vrijetijdsbesteding - gezinnen - nederland - family life - leisure behaviour - attitudes to leisure - sociology of leisure - families - netherlands
|The Domestic Domain: Chances, choices and strategies of family households
Pennartz, P. ; Niehof, A. - \ 1999
Aldershot [etc.] : Ashgate - ISBN 9780754610113 - 241
gezinnen - huishoudens - besluitvorming - huishoudbudgetten - arbeidsverdeling - man-vrouwrelaties - huisvesting - kracht - ontwikkelingslanden - wereld - zorg - families - households - decision making - household budgets - division of labour - gender relations - housing - power - Developing Countries - world - care
Leavers, planners and dwellers : the decision to leave the parental home
Baanders, A.N. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. Niehof, co-promotor(en): P.J.J. Pennartz. - S.l. : Baanders - ISBN 9789054859024 - 245
gezinnen - samenstelling - sociologie - huisvesting - ouders - kinderen - dochters - zonen - jongvolwassenen - basisbehoeften - motivatie - besluitvorming - verwijdering - families - composition - sociology - housing - parents - children - daughters - sons - young adults - basic needs - motivation - decision making - removal
Leaving the parental home is one of the most common events in the life course of individuals. It is a normal and natural thing to happen to virtually everyone at some time. However, despite the generality of the event, the transition is not the same for all. Furthermore, the generality of the event says nothing about changes in the patterns in home-leaving behaviour over time. During the past several decades, interesting shifts in the timing and arrangements of the transition have occurred. The question, central to this study, runs: What are the factors that influence the transition from living at home to living independently?
In the literature, there are mainly two perspectives dominating theoretical thinking about the determinants affecting departure from the parental home: an economic and a cultural one. First, in many previous demographic and economic studies, the search for an explanation of the changes in leaving home focused on the impact of the situational context on the individual's behaviour, i.e. the financial situation and the situation on the housing market, which constitute the young adult's opportunity structure. A second research tradition that has addressed the event of leaving home typically emphasises the normative context and the role of social norms which are believed to regulate the timing and arrangement of important life course transitions. This study aimed to determine more precisely the relative impact of each of these two factors. Furthermore, this study tried to find out whether, beside economic, housing and normative factors, additional aspects play a role in the decision to leave home, thus providing a more complete picture of the variety of factors that should be taken into account. An explorative analysis of written material collected among 300 students provided the necessary data to discover young adults' additional considerations in the matter of leaving home. These considerations appeared to deal with more practical and social-emotional aspects, and were briefly denoted as the Hotel-Mama factor. Apart from that, the qualitative material was used to obtain quantifiable information about the kind of normative expectations that are related to leaving home.
It is well known that since the 1950s remarkable social and economic changes have taken place in Dutch society, which undoubtedly have also affected the circumstances and opportunities of young adults. As one of our hypotheses emphasises the role of the opportunity structure in the decision to leave home, we start this study with a description of the relevant social and cultural changes, and a sociological assessment of the profound impact of these transformations on the social and economic position of young adults in general and on their opportunities to leave the parental home in particular (see chapter 2). This gives a solid base to our hypothesis that changes in home-leaving behaviour are related to economic and housing market opportunities. The presumed effect of the normative context is addressed in chapter 2 as well. Also, the temporal changes in leaving home that took place in the period between 1950 and 1980 and during the 1980s are reflected upon. The discussion results in the further elaboration and formulation of the research questions.
To illustrate how fluctuations in the situational context may be reflected in patterns of leaving home, chapter 4 examines at the aggregate level the shifts in behavioral patterns that occurred in the Netherlands during the 1980s, and relates them to the changing circumstances of this period. Three successive national Housing Demand Surveys (WBOs), conducted at the end of 1981, 1985 and 1989, provided the necessary data. It was concluded that although fluctuations in the situational context were indeed reflected in behavioral patterns, it was also evident that not all young adults react to a specific set of opportunities in the same way. Limited opportunities do not necessarily lead to a postponement of the transition, but in many instances rather to an adjustment of behavioral choices instead.
Both the discussion in chapter 2 and the results of chapter 4 made it clear that, nothwithstanding the useful insights a macro-level approach generates, it may sometimes be difficult or hazardous to draw firm conclusions regarding the effect of specific factors when analysing them on the aggregate level. It was therefore argued that a micro-level should be adopted, in which the decision to leave the parental home and its determinants are studied at the individual level.
In chapter 3, the Theory of Reasoned Action and its modifications are discussed and the theoretical model underlying this study, which is a modified version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour is presented. In order to use this theoretical model, it was necessary to specify the relevant consequences and the normative expectations that are related to leaving home. The qualitative method employed to identify prevailing perceptions on this subject is discussed in chapter 5.
Chapter 6 describes the process of setting up a cross-sectional survey among 1012 young adults of 18-26 years old, and the measurement and construction of relevant variables. The results of the analyses of the survey data are reported in chapters 7 and 8. By comparing the personal situation and subjective considerations of leavers, planners and dwellers, we tried to find evidence that the defined variables affect the decision to leave home as hypothesised (chapter 7). Chapter 8 aims to detect the most important determinants in this decision, either in the first stage (the stage of intention-formation), or in the second stage (in which the intention is effectuated into actual behaviour). The analyses revealed that the normative expectations of the parents play a decisive role in the first stage. Financial considerations are most important in the second stage. Particularly the subjective assessment of one's income situation appeared to be a crucial element. The type of housing young adults aimed at further affected their probability of leaving, with cheap 2 and 3 room accommodation clearly reducing a person's opportunities of finding a place to live and of leaving the parental home, and a quest for a single room or four room housing facilitating the transition. There is no convincing evidence that Hotel-Mama considerations affect the decision to leave home or to stay home.
Chapter 9 concludes this study with a summary overview of the research design and an evaluation of the main findings, followed by a discussion of their implications for policy, theory and research.