Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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IOB Review - Riding the wave of sustainable commodity sourcing. Review of the Sustainable Trade Initiative IDH 2008-2013
Omta, S.W.F. ; Elzakker, B. van; Schoenmakers, W.W.M.E. - \ 2014
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (IOB review, [ISSN 1566-7391] no. 397) - ISBN 9789053284643 - 120
duurzame ontwikkeling - internationale handel - goederenmarkten - publiek-private samenwerking - particuliere ondernemingen - certificering - kennis van boeren - agrarische handel - sustainable development - international trade - commodity markets - public-private cooperation - private firms - certification - farmers' knowledge - agricultural trade
The Sustainable Trade Initiative IDH (Initiatief Duurzame Handel) was set up in 2008 as a multi-stakeholder initiative of private companies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), trade unions and the Dutch government with the aim of improving smallholder production systems, market integration and enhancing sustainable sourcing from developing countries. The activities undertaken by IDH focused on improving and transforming the supply chain performance of internationally traded commodities (such as coffee, tea, cotton, cocoa, timber, palm oil and fish). They rely on promoting good agricultural practice, farmers’ training and certification as key activities.
Governance of global organic agro-food networks from Africa
Glin, L.C. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570245 - 200
biologische landbouw - basisproducten - netwerken - samenwerking - milieubeleid - goederenmarkten - beleid - afrika - organic farming - commodities - networks - cooperation - environmental policy - commodity markets - policy - africa

The increasing global concerns with regard to agro-food risks and the subsequent consumerist turn in the global food economy challenges the conventional chemical-intensive agricultural production. In fact, the post-war dominant agro-industrial development fostered the intensive use of chemical inputs, corporate concentration, and standardization of products for mass consumption (Goodman et al. 1987; Raynolds et al. 2007). This prompted a rapid agricultural development, which contributed to overall growth, reducing poverty and food insecurity (Koning and Mol, 2009). Despite the success so far achieved, this Fordist regime generated several externalities on natural ecosystems and human and animal health. In addition, the further modernization of production techniques (for instance the genetically modified organisms) combined with globalization processes extended the scope and character of agro-food risks, which became global and cross-border. The global organization of the food system crystallized the ‘globalization’ of food related risks through the growing time and distance compression and the subsequent intensification of commodity flows and exchanges globally. Thus, to be effectively handled, these risks must be addressed from a global perspective; hence within supra nation-state institutions. In parallel, the concerns about the impacts of chemical use in agriculture also expanded over time to include others, such as animal welfare, food safety, energy use, landscape, biodiversity and climate change (Oosterveer and Sonnenfeld, 2012). However, state-led international regimes (WTO and environmental regimes) failed to adequately address modern agro-food related risks, particularly sustainability issues (including environmental, social, ethical, and animal welfare). However, globalization processes also facilitated networking processes and alliance and coalition buildings between various stakeholders within and across regions, aiming for sustainable food provision; hence the double phenomenon of ‘globalization of agro-food risks’ and the ‘reflexive globalization of alternative agro-food’. Thus, several non-state regimes, i.e. market- and civil society-led mechanisms emerged around standards and labeling schemes to respond to these issues while restructuring agro-food production and trade towards more sustainability and rebuilding consumer trust in food. Organic agro-food production and trade is of particular importance among these non-state regimes as this constitutes a major innovation towards the greening of the (global) agro-food economy and the fastest growing food sector worldwide with around 170% increase from 2002 to 2011 (Sahota, 2013).

In Africa, organic agriculture emerged as response to the environmental and health burden of conventional farming techniques and the growing demand for organic products from the North as a result of the emergence of new consumption patterns. Owing to globalization, agricultural products flows and exchanges between Africa and the other regions of the globe, particularly the Europe Union, have been intensified. The Europe Union is a major destination of most agricultural product exports from Africa. Thus, more demand in sustainable agro-foods in global and EU markets affects agricultural production systems in Africa towards more sustainability. In all, given the particular importance of agricultural exports for national and household economies, the fragility of natural resources and the vulnerability of livelihoods Africa is witnessing the double phenomenon of ‘globalization of agro-food risks’ and the ‘reflexive globalization of alternative agro-food’. In this respect, it may be expected

that the introduction of organic agriculture in Africa could help address the pressing challenges of income generation for smallholder farmers, poverty alleviation, and resilience of production systems and natural resources (land, water, forests, etc.).

Broadly, this thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of the governance arrangements of transnational organic commodity networks from Africa to inform policy makers, development organizations, civil society and business actors as well as scientists and academia about the underlying rationalities and processes, the challenges and prospects of organic agriculture in the continent. More specifically, this research aims to understand the governing (f)actors, i.e. rationalities and processes that steered the development of organic commodity networks from Africa and to highlight whether and how these processes transform civil society-business-state relationships. In this respect, the following research questions are addressed: (1) how did different rationalities and stakeholders initiate and co-structure the development and further transformation of organic commodity networks from Africa across time and space? (2) how is trust (re)created to establish and mediate relationships between the different stakeholders and material substances involved in the production, processing and marketing nodes across the organic commodity networks? (3) how and to what extent have governance arrangements within the organic commodity networks subsequently reshaped civil society-business-state relationships?

For this purpose we adopted a qualitative and holistic methodology by employing the (global) commodity network perspective (See Chapter 2). The commodity network approach is rooted in the (global) commodity chain tradition of investigation and analysis of the links between production, processing, and distribution of commodities. The commodity network perspective aims to provide a more holistic analysis of actors, institutions, and their interrelations. Governance in this lens refers to how social and political as well as economic actors ideologically and materially construct, maintain, transform, and sustain commodity networks (Raynolds, 2004). Purposively, three cases are selected and investigated in this thesis: the organic cotton from Benin, the organic cocoa from Ghana, and the organic sesame from Burkina-Faso.

Prior to these case studies, Chapter 3 provides an overview of organic agriculture in Africa. The trends in certified organic production as well as the history and development of organic agriculture in the continent are presented. The organic sector in Africa is relatively young and dynamic with some nuances and differentiations across sub-regions in terms of orientation, driving forces and leading stakeholders. Overall, the organic sector in Africa relies mainly on NGO networks, private stakeholders and development funds while government support is lacking. However, there are some recent experiences of engagement from state agencies, mostly through public-private partnerships and other hybrid arrangements. Chapter 3 also presents some features of trade and regulation of organic commodities in Africa and highlights the major challenges that face the development of organic agriculture on the continent.

Chapter 4 addresses the case of the organic cotton network from Benin by responding specifically to the question how the organic cotton production–consumption network is governed locally and internationally. The findings reveal that beyond the traditional producer versus buyer dualism, intermediate stakeholders, namely transnational and local environmental NGO networks, are instrumental in the construction, maintenance and transformation of the organic cotton network. It is also apparent that farmers’ leaders play an important role in mediating and (re)building trust among organic farmers, though they exert insufficient vertical power in the organic cotton network to control it. International conferences and events provided important occasions for establishing linkages between organic cotton promoters and businesses, and they strengthened the organic movement. The findings favour widening the concept of Global Value Chain beyond economics by acknowledging and including environmental rationalities and the representatives of their interests, not as external elements, but rather as co-governing or co-structuring factors (or actors) of sustainable value chains.

Chapter 5 presents the case study on the organic cocoa network from Ghana and addresses particularly the question how the state responded to and engaged with civil society actors in the evolving organic cocoa network and to what extent state involvement reshaped state-business-civil society relationships. While most of the literature argues that globalization and liberalization processes weakened the state’s position as key player in the development and management of agro-food networks, the case of the (organic) cocoa sector in Ghana is often depicted as an exception because of the strong position the state still occupies in it. The chapter demonstrates that although the state is still a major player in the contemporary (organic) cocoa network some hybrid governance arrangements, involving state, transnational and national NGO-networks, and businesses, are emerging. It came out that the tendency toward sustainability in the global cocoa industry with its increased attention for transversal critical matters (eradication of child labor, health safety, good farming practices) offers a fertile ground for newcomers (civil society and business actors) and the hybridization of the governance arrangements of the organic cocoa network. The organic cocoa network also prompted a double process of ‘dis- and re-embedding’ at the local level that helped shape and strengthen the organic cocoa network.

Chapter 6 addresses the case study on the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso. Specifically, this chapter examines the structure and development of this network to explain the declining trend in organic sesame export and addresses the question whether the organic sesame network is structurally (re)shaped as a conventional mainstream market or whether it still presents a real alternative to conventional sesame production and trade. For this purpose, the chapter elaborates on the concept of conventionalization of ‘alternative’ food economies from governance perspective. It is found that over the last decade organic sesame is increasingly incorporated into mainstream market channels. But contrary to the well-known case of conventionalization in California, where organic agriculture grew into mainstream agro-food arrangements, this study illustrates a case where organic sesame agriculture shrank into mainstream agro-food arrangements. In fact, the organic sesame trading system is strongly affected by fierce price competition and volatility in the conventional sesame sector and the free market behavior of conventional sesame traders. This makes the organic sesame network vulnerable and permeable to the international commercial pressure from the mainstream conventional sesame market. The weak coherence in the organic sesame chain resulted in failures to vertically mediate information, balance power relationships in and across sesame chains, build trust, and limit price volatility and speculation, resulting in a shrinking organic sesame market. For developing a viable alternative to conventional sesame trading, relations between production and trading nodes in the organic networks need to be strengthened through public-private partnerships, combined with other public and legal reinforcement.

Chapter 7 elaborates on the major findings from the case studies to draw conclusions on the governing (f)actors, i.e. the rationalities and processes that steer the initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks from Africa. By doing so, this chapter also responds to the research questions of the thesis. From the empirical findings, it came out that various rationalities, stakeholders, processes, values and practices from different spheres (political, environmental, social, and economic) interfere to co-structure and shape the development and life of the commodity network. Several networking processes, different in their scope and importance, are instrumental in the construction, (re)shaping, and (re)configuration of the organic commodity networks. These networking processes include: (1) mobilization of personal social networks and interpersonal social ties; (2) mediation of material and natural resources; (3) market networking and relations and (4) transnational events and gatherings. However, this does not suggest that the governance arrangements and dynamics are linear or similar across the three cases. In fact, it stands out that the degree and relative engagement of each category of stakeholders and rationality evolved over time and differs from one case to another. As Coe et al. (2008: 271) argue unraveling the complexities of the global economy, with its fundamental geographical unevenness and huge inequalities, poses immense conceptual and empirical difficulties. The commodity network perspective applied in this thesis helped to conceptualize and capture the diverse, fluid, and dynamic processes involved in the governance of organic commodities from Africa. The research methodology based on a multi-case study and a qualitative approach unraveled the multifaceted factors, rationalities, processes, and realities of the governance arrangements and dynamics of the organic commodity networks from Africa.

Trust appears to be a major determinant of connectivity and networking among individuals, organizations, places, and material objects involved in the organic commodity networks from local to global level and vice versa. Three trust building mechanisms are identified including trust in persons, trust in organizations/institutions, and trust in things. In organic commodity networks practices these forms of trust often intermingle. However, this trust is sometimes challenged because of opportunism, information and power asymmetry, and suspicion between producer groups and traders, potentially resulting in severe consequences for the success of organic commodity networks. In this case, a mediation process (often led by farmer leaders or a third-party, in general a development organization) may be necessary to rebuild trust and reconnect the ties between these categories. Otherwise, this situation may ultimately lead to mistrust and distrust in, and put at risk the viability of the organic commodity network.

It also appears that the governance of organic commodity networks opened up the way for (further) collaboration and partnerships between civil society organizations, private enterprises and public agencies. In fact, throughout the processes of initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks the relationships between the three key players (State, Businesses, and CSOs) have been reshaped as result of ongoing across sesame chains, build trust, and limit price volatility and speculation, resulting in a shrinking organic sesame market. For developing a viable alternative to conventional sesame trading, relations between production and trading nodes in the organic networks need to be strengthened through public-private partnerships, combined with other public and legal reinforcement.

Chapter 7 elaborates on the major findings from the case studies to draw conclusions on the governing (f)actors, i.e. the rationalities and processes that steer the initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks from Africa. By doing so, this chapter also responds to the research questions of the thesis. From the empirical findings, it came out that various rationalities, stakeholders, processes, values and practices from different spheres (political, environmental, social, and economic) interfere to co-structure and shape the development and life of the commodity network. Several networking processes, different in their scope and importance, are instrumental in the construction, (re)shaping, and (re)configuration of the organic commodity networks. These networking processes include: (1) mobilization of personal social networks and interpersonal social ties; (2) mediation of material and natural resources; (3) market networking and relations and (4) transnational events and gatherings. However, this does not suggest that the governance arrangements and dynamics are linear or similar across the three cases. In fact, it stands out that the degree and relative engagement of each category of stakeholders and rationality evolved over time and differs from one case to another. As Coe et al. (2008: 271) argue unraveling the complexities of the global economy, with its fundamental geographical unevenness and huge inequalities, poses immense conceptual and empirical difficulties. The commodity network perspective applied in this thesis helped to conceptualize and capture the diverse, fluid, and dynamic processes involved in the governance of organic commodities from Africa. The research methodology based on a multi-case study and a qualitative approach unraveled the multifaceted factors, rationalities, processes, and realities of the governance arrangements and dynamics of the organic commodity networks from Africa.

Trust appears to be a major determinant of connectivity and networking among individuals, organizations, places, and material objects involved in the organic commodity networks from local to global level and vice versa. Three trust building mechanisms are identified including trust in persons, trust in organizations/institutions, and trust in things. In organic commodity networks practices these forms of trust often intermingle. However, this trust is sometimes challenged because of opportunism, information and power asymmetry, and suspicion between producer groups and traders, potentially resulting in severe consequences for the success of organic commodity networks. In this case, a mediation process (often led by farmer leaders or a third-party, in general a development organization) may be necessary to rebuild trust and reconnect the ties between these categories. Otherwise, this situation may ultimately lead to mistrust and distrust in, and put at risk the viability of the organic commodity network.

It also appears that the governance of organic commodity networks opened up the way for (further) collaboration and partnerships between civil society organizations, private enterprises and public agencies. In fact, throughout the processes of initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks the relationships between the three key players (State, Businesses, and CSOs) have been reshaped as result of ongoing .

Global Histories, Imperial Commodities, Local Interactions
Curry Machado, J.M. - \ 2013
Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan (Cambridge imperial and post-colonial studies series ) - ISBN 9781137283597 - 304
internationale handel - geschiedenis - goederenmarkten - basisproducten - international trade - history - commodity markets - commodities
The history of the modern world can be described through the history of the commodities that were produced, traded and consumed, on an increasingly global scale. The papers presented in this book show how in this process borders were transgressed, local agents combined with metropolitan representatives, power relations were contested and frontiers expanded. Including cases from Asia, Africa and the Americas, as well as a number of global commodities (sugar, tobacco, rubber, cotton, cassava, tea and beer), this collection presents a sample of the range of innovative research taking place today into commodity history. Together they cover the last two centuries, in which commodities have led the consolidation of a globalised economy and society – forging this out of distinctive local experiences of cultivation and production, and regional circuits of trade.
Seas of Change: A report on scaling inclusive agri-food markets
Woodhill, A.J. ; Guijt, W.J. ; Wegner, L. ; Blomne Sopov, M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation - ISBN 9789461736024 - 64
ontwikkeling - innovaties - landbouw - voedselproductie - goederenmarkten - ontwikkelingslanden - landbouwindustrie - armoede - development - innovations - agriculture - food production - commodity markets - developing countries - agribusiness - poverty
Can agri-food companies do it all? Develop new markets, secure supply, protect reputations, ensure profits and reduce poverty, create jobs and guarantee food supplies? Company strategies now commonly refer to ‘creating shared value’ and ‘inclusive business’. But with growing pressure on resources, a billion hungry people and some four billion people at the base of the economic pyramid by 2050, are we making progress fast enough? What options are there with real promise? And, how can all stakeholders collaborate better to bring change at scale? This report gives the outcomes of the ‘From Islands of Success to Seas of Change’ initiative on scaling inclusive agri-food markets. It combines background research, interviews and case studies with the insights of 100 leaders from business, government, NGOs, research, and farmer organizations who attended the Seas of Change workshop in April 2012. The case for scaling inclusive agrifood markets is explained and ten key challenges are explored. This leads to lessons for key stakeholders and a follow-up agenda for improved targeting of inclusive investments.
Economics of the gum arabic value chain in Senegal
Mujawamariya, G. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger; M.F.C. D'Haase. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733689 - 246
ontwikkelingseconomie - waardeketenanalyse - arabische gom - ontwikkelingslanden - handel - economische analyse - goederenmarkten - senegal - west-afrika - development economics - value chain analysis - gum arabic - developing countries - trade - economic analysis - commodity markets - senegal - west africa

A Gum arabic has an important international market due to its use in various industries. Senegal is a small producing country whose exports are low probably due to problems of developing internal markets resulting from the lack of price incentives. The study’s main aim is to link the market side to the collection side in order to investigate factors influencing the performance of the supply chain of gum arabic. The study is conducted in the Sylvopastoral zone and Eastern Region of Senegal where Acacia senegal trees are found and gum arabic is commercially exploited.

The main findings of the study are that, productivity-enhancing methods have to be adopted; market incentives are fundamental for the continuation of collection; traders in the gum markets are not necessarily exploitative; quality as required by the user may not be directly linked to the visible quality attributes in the field; and that the transition from communal organisation of collection to efficient private collection systems depends mainly on the assessment of economic benefits and costs. However, the importance attached to environmental and social considerations has to be recognised especially in the drylands where gum arabic is collected.

Voedselprijzen en speculatie op agrarische termijnmarkten : literatuurstudie en interviews
Meijerink, G.W. ; Shutes, K. ; Herder, Anniek ; Gelder, J.W. - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld, Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086155675 - 105
basisproducten - landbouwproducten - agrarische handel - internationale handel - goederenmarkten - landbouwprijzen - termijnhandel - voedsel - speculatie - voedselprijzen - commodities - agricultural products - agricultural trade - international trade - commodity markets - agricultural prices - futures trading - food - speculation - food prices
Het LEI heeft informatie over kapitaalstromen op financiële termijnmarkten voor agrarische goederen bij elkaar gebracht. Daarnaast heeft het een literatuuronderzoek gedaan waarbij zowel kwantitatieve (21) als kwalitatieve (19) studies en opiniestukken zijn meegenomen. Het LEI heeft de literatuur zowel inhoudelijk samengevat als beoordeeld op kwaliteit. Daarnaast heeft het LEI op basis van beschikbare bronnen een overzicht gegeven van de mogelijke effecten van het beperken van derivatenhandel door middel van positielimieten. Profundo heeft een aantal pensioenfondsen en andere vermogensbeheerders (zoals banken) geïnterviewd om inzicht te krijgen over hun beleid en hun visie over financiële derivaten markten en voedselprijzen.
Towards markets of choice : the commodity exchange and warehouse receipt system
Nijhoff, G.H. ; Edwards, F. ; Goggin, I. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Market, chains and sustainable development strategy & policy paper 22) - 12
goederenmarkten - markten - risicobeheersing - zambia - zuidelijk afrika - afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - commodity markets - markets - risk management - zambia - southern africa - africa - least developed countries
Riding the wave: high prices, big business? : the role of multinationals in the international grain markets
Meijerink, G.W. ; Danse, M.G. - \ 2009
Wageningen : LEI (Report / LEI Wageningen UR : Research area 3, Consumers and supply chains ) - 85
agrarische economie - goederenmarkten - graan - wereldmarkten - internationale handel - agrarische handel - multinationale corporaties - landbouwprijzen - binnenlandse handel - afrika - speculatie - agricultural economics - commodity markets - grain - world markets - international trade - agricultural trade - multinational corporations - agricultural prices - domestic trade - africa - speculation
In 2007-2008, world market prices for grains and inputs such as fertiliser have risen sharply. At the same time, international trade is increasingly dominated by only a few large agribusiness firms. Civil society organisations are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of these two trends. This report provides an overview of the international trade of grains, the role of multinationals that trade in international grains, and the linkage of international and domestic grain markets in Africa. This research also provides an analysis of the role of multinationals and speculation on grain prices
ENDURE Foresight Study : Crop protection in Europe 2030
Boonekamp, P.M. ; Ende, J.E. van den - \ 2009
Gewasbescherming 40 (2009)3. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 132 - 133.
tuinbouw - groenteteelt - pesticiden - goederenmarkten - gewasbescherming - energiebesparing - horticulture - vegetable growing - pesticides - commodity markets - plant protection - energy saving
Bijdrage aan de KNPV-voorjaarsvergadering
Why are current world food prices so high? : a memo
Banse, M.A.H. ; Nowicki, P.L. ; Meijl, H. van - \ 2008
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : International policy ) - 27
agrarische economie - wereldmarkten - landbouwprijzen - voedselprijzen - voedselproductie - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - landbouwbeleid - marktprijzen - consumentenprijzen - goederenmarkten - basisproducten - aanbod - vraag - economische groei - populatiegroei - gewasproductie - marktstructuur - economische aspecten - biobased economy - agricultural economics - world markets - agricultural prices - food prices - food production - natural resources - agricultural policy - market prices - consumer prices - commodity markets - commodities - supply - demand - economic growth - population growth - crop production - market structure - economic aspects - biobased economy
World agricultural prices are very volatile which is due to traditional characteristics of agricultural markets such as inelastic (short run) supply and demand curves. A combination of record low global inventory levels, weather induced supply side shocks, surging outside investor influence, record oil prices and structural changes in demand for grains and oilseeds due to biofuels have created the high prices. The question is whether it is a coincidence that the past and current high price levels coincide with high oil prices or whether other reasons for the current price peak are more important.
The Ivorian pineapple : social action within the international pineapple commodity network
Willems, S. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045076 - 192
rurale sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - ananassen - basisproducten - globalisering - goederenmarkten - landbouwproducten - ivoorkust - netwerken - actieonderzoek - sociale relaties - ketenmanagement - rural sociology - rural development - pineapples - commodities - globalization - commodity markets - agricultural products - cote d'ivoire - networks - action research - social relations - supply chain management
Smallholders and markets, towards a conducive environment
Moll, H.A.J. ; Staaij, F. van der; Tilburg, A. van - \ 2001
The Hague : Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Development Cooperation - ISBN 9789053282892 - 104
ontwikkeling - markten - internationale samenwerking - samenwerking - kleine landbouwbedrijven - landbouw - overheidsbeleid - ontwikkelingslanden - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - goederenmarkten - nederland - economische samenwerking - development - cooperation - markets - commodity markets - small farms - agriculture - government policy - international cooperation - netherlands - developing countries - africa south of sahara - economic cooperation
Rural Development in Central America : Markets, Livelihoods and Local Governance
Ruben, R. ; Bastiaensen, J. - \ 1999
New York : St. Martin's Press - ISBN 9780312226596 - 252
plattelandsontwikkeling - markten - goederenmarkten - grondmarkten - arbeidsmarkt - landhervorming - centraal-amerika - ? - rural development - markets - commodity markets - land markets - labour market - capital market - land reform - central america
Rural development is now considered almost synonymous with involvement in market exchange. When market and institutional failures prevail, however, rural communities increasingly rely on local institutional or contractual arrangements to guarantee their livelihoods. This book offers a comprehensive review of the debate on the importance of real markets in the Central American rural development process.
Agricultural marketing and consumer behavior in a changing world. Proceedings European Association of Agricultural Economists Seminar.
Wierenga, B. ; Grunert, K. ; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M. ; Wedel, M. ; Tilburg, A. van - \ 1996
Unknown Publisher - 390
marketing - consumentengedrag - agrarische economie - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - consumentenonderzoeken - voedselconsumptie - marketingkanalen - goederenmarkten - consumer behaviour - agricultural economics - food marketing - consumer surveys - food consumption - marketing channels - commodity markets
De wereldvraag naar zuivelproducten uit de EG en de betekenis voor het afzetbeleid van de Gemeenschap
Meester, G. ; Oskam, A.J. - \ 1984
Den Haag : LEI (LEI-publicatie 1.18) - 59
handel - vraag - overheidsbeleid - internationale handel - wereld - goederenmarkten - melkproducten - zuivelindustrie - europa - trade - demand - government policy - international trade - world - commodity markets - milk products - dairy industry - europe
De publikatie geeft de belangrijkste resultaten weer van een onderzoek naar de vraag door niet-EG-landen naar zuivelprodukten uit de Gemeenschap, waarvan een volledig onderzoeksverslag eerder verscheen onder de naam "Analyse van de wereldvraag naar zuivelprodukten uit de EG". De publikatie is vooral bedoeld om beleidsmakers te informeren over de uitkomsten van het onderzoek en de daaruit te trekken konklusies voor het te voeren afzetbeleid. In het onderzoek is nagegeaan hoe het exportvolume van de EG reageert op een verandering van de exportprijzen. Veel aandacht is er voor de dominante positie van de EG op de wereldzuivelmarkt en de daaruit voortvloeiende konsekwenties voor het uitvoerbeleid. Voorts wordt aan de orde gesteld het onderscheid tussen een afzetbeleid met zo weinig mogelijk lasten voor het EG-budget en een beleid dat zo veel mogelijk bijdraagt aan de welvaart in de Gemeenschap
De afzetstructuur van pootaardappelen
Baris, D.B. ; Graaff, G.C. de - \ 1982
Den Haag : L.E.I. (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut no. 260) - 19
markten - marketing - marktconcurrentie - aanbodsevenwicht - goederenmarkten - pootaardappelen - bedrijfsvoering - nederland - markets - market competition - supply balance - commodity markets - seed potatoes - management - netherlands
Een beknopt verslag van een onderzoek naar de afzetstructuur van pootaardappelen op grond van een enquete in 1979 onder groothandelaren en in 1980 onder telers. Van de afzet van de 4000 telers is 75% vastgelegd bij 800 groothandelaars, waardoor de prijsvorming in hoge mate is vastgelegd. Concentratie bij de tussenhandel is sterk : 20 bedrijven verzorgden 80% van de omzet
De afzetstructuur van consumptieaardappelen
Graaff, G.C. de - \ 1981
Den Haag : L.E.I. (Landbouw-Economisch Instituut. )
handel - goederenmarkten - solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - nederland - trade - commodity markets - potatoes - netherlands
Actuele marktinformatie als uitgangspunt voor het sectorbeleid dat de overheid en het georganiseerde bedrijfsleven voor ogen staat en dat gericht is op een gezonde structurele opbouw van de aardappelsector. Het rapport biedt de betrokken ondernemingen de gelegenheid zich te plaatsen binnen het sectorgebeuren, een belangrijke zaak vanuit marketing oogpunt
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