Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences
Erkus, O. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michiel Kleerebezem, co-promotor(en): Eddy Smid. - Wageningen UR : Wageningen - ISBN 9789462570108 - 215
goudse kaas - lactococcus lactis - microbiële diversiteit - gouda cheese - lactococcus lactis - microbial diversity
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese. Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-slopping) to initiate the fermentation with the activity of the indigenous microbiota present in the inoculum. In industrial production, these inocula with indigenous microbiota are replaced with the starter cultures that contain lower numbers of LAB species for better controlled fermentation process and consistent final product quality. Cheese manufacturing is still performed in both artisanal ways and with the use of starter cultures. Gouda cheese starter cultures constitute several strains from the subspecies of Lactococcus lactisand Leuconostocs mesenteroidesin different combinations. The mixed and undefined type of starter culture may harbour variable number of strains that contribute unique functionalities to the cheese manufacturing process. Therefore, understanding, controlling and predicting the cheese manufacturing processes require the determination of strain level diversity in the starter culture, their collective and specific metabolic complement, and their activity throughout the cheese manufacturing process, including the interactions between the strains. The first two studies that are covered in this thesis describes the development of a high resolution AFLP fingerprinting tool allowing the discrimination of closely related strains in the starter culture and the subsequent analysis of the microbial community of Gouda cheese starter with this implemented technique and with metagenomics. Furthermore, the thesis includes the development of another tool to selectively amplify DNA only from live fraction of the microbial community in cheese using propidium monoazide (PMA), which is required to study community dynamics with culture independent approaches. The last study in the thesis describes the effects of the variation in propagation regime on the community composition of a mixed starter culture and connects the composition change to the functionalities that impact on flavour development during cheese manufacturing. Overall, the approaches presented in this thesis are intended to eventually enable accurate prediction and control of the cheese manufacturing process using (un)defined starter cultures, but may also allow rational design and development of new starter cultures.
Slow food : boeren-Goudse oplegkaas, glocalisatie van echte oude kaas
Immink, V.M. ; Heijden, C.H.T.M. van der; Litjens, M.E.G. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 212) - 62
goudse kaas - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - regio's - gouda cheese - food marketing - regions
The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese
Alewijn, M. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.T.M. Wouters, co-promotor(en): E.L. Sliwinski. - Wageningen : - ISBN 9789085043812 - 136
goudse kaas - geurstoffen en smaakstoffen - vetten - vetzuren - lactonen - esters - ketonen - kaasrijping - gouda cheese - flavour compounds - fats - fatty acids - lactones - esters - ketones - cheese ripening
Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones, esters, alcohols and aldehydes can be formed from milk fat, compounds that all contribute their own special character to the final cheese flavour. The formation mechanisms that lead to these compounds are not completely understood, and therefore cheese flavour formation is not under full control.
Cheese from ultrafiltered milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity
Buijsse, C.A.P. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): P. Walstra; A. Noomen. - S.l. : Buijsse - ISBN 9789054859741 - 163
kazen - goudse kaas - ultrafiltratie - wei-eiwit - chymosine - stremsel - synerese - cheeses - gouda cheese - ultrafiltration - whey protein - chymosin - rennet - syneresis
The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk and the degree of syneresis of the curd. In UF-cheese manufacture (from 5x concentrated UF-retentates, concentrated further by syneresis) approximately one-third of the whey protein fraction was enclosed.
Despite this yield increase, UF-cheese production trials in the last decennia have not been successful: the yield increase is limited and counteracted by retarded ripening. It was concluded that the latter is partly due to reduced chymosin activity in UF-cheese, as compared to traditional cheese. The lower chymosin activity was due to a reduced chymosin dosage to UF-retentates (because clotting occurs much faster at higher casein contents), and to enzyme inhibition.
The activity of chymosin in the first stage of cheese ripening was studied in cheese models, as well as in (semi-)hard Gouda type (UF-)cheese, with varying chymosin and whey protein contents. The chymosin activity was derived indirectly from the rate of release of degradation products from casein, or directly by application of a newly developed method that enables the direct estimation of the chymosin activity in gels, curd and cheese. Results of both methods corresponded very well.
Chymosin appeared to be inhibited in its activity by a component of the whey protein fraction. Because of this inhibition, the chymosin to casein ratio should be higher in whey protein-containing UF-cheese than in traditionally manufactured cheese. A higher chymosin activity in (UF-)cheese can be achieved by increasing the dosage of chymosin to the milk or retentate, as the enclosure in cheese is proportional to this dosage. The transfer of chymosin into cheese is mainly due to adsorption of chymosin onto casein, which is enhanced at lower pH. The enclosure of chymosin in cheese can thus also be increased by increasing the rate of acidification during cheese manufacture. Increasing the chymosin dosage to UF-milk and/or the rate of acidification would require drastic modifications of the manufacturing process.
Comparison of various methods to evaluate fracture phenomena in food materials
Luyten, H. ; Vliet, T. van; Walstra, P. - \ 1992
Journal of Texture Studies 23 (1992)3. - ISSN 0022-4901 - p. 245 - 266.
gouda cheese - compression - gels
The usage, including eating, of foods and intermediate products normally involves large deformations. Fracture and/or yielding then become the salient features. Several methods to study the behaviour food materials at large deformations are discussed. It is shown that it is possible to measure real material properties, independent of the method and the size and shape of the test-piece used. Results for Gouda cheese and potato starch gels are given
Orienterend onderzoek naar de mate waarin leeftijd, vet-, en zoutgehalte van Goudse en Edammer blokkazen afkomstig van verschillende leveranciers voldoen aan de door de afnemende instellingen gestelde eisen
Venema, D.P. ; Elenbaas, H. ; Herstel, H. - \ 1988
Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 88.22) - 9
edammer kaas - goudse kaas - kaaskwaliteit - edam cheese - gouda cheese - cheese quality
The rheological and fracture properties of Gouda cheese
Luyten, H. - \ 1988
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): P. Walstra; T. van Vliet. - Wageningen : Luyten - 223
edammer kaas - goudse kaas - dierlijke producten - textuur - malsheid - vloeistofmechanica - reologie - visco-elasticiteit - edam cheese - gouda cheese - animal products - texture - tenderness - fluid mechanics - rheology - viscoelasticity - cum laude
The rheological and fracture behaviour of Gouda cheese was studied. Methods for determining these properties of visco-elastic materials are described. Application of the theory of fracture mechanics, after modification and expansion, to visco-elastic materials with a low or no yield stress is discussed. For such materials, of which Gouda cheese is an example, the flow properties greatly affect the fracture behaviour.
From the effect of variation in composition (fat, water, NaCl and Ca content, pH) and maturation on the behaviour of Gouda cheese, it may be concluded that this cheese may be considered as a composite material. Fat particles act as a filler in a swollen protein matrix. The amount of fat and the rigidity of the fat particles affect the rigidity of the cheese. Factors like pH, water and NaCl content, that change the properties of the protein matrix, clearly affect the -rheological and fracture behaviour, e.g. the rigidity and the shortness, of the cheese. The trends of these changes on the protein matrix are similar to those on rennet and acid skimmilk gels under various conditions .
As an example of the importance of the experimental results for cheese manufacturing, the relation between the pH of cheese and eye or slit formation was studied.
|Groei van lactobacillen in Goudse kaas
Stadhouders, J. ; Kleter, G. ; Lammers, W.L. ; Tuinte, J.H. - \ 1983
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 16 (1983). - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 20 - 23.
dierlijke producten - kazen - edammer kaas - goudse kaas - kwaliteit - animal products - cheeses - edam cheese - gouda cheese - quality
Besmettingsbronnen van rauwe melk op de boerderij, waardoor kaas uit rauwe melk bereid kwalitatief nadelig wordt beinvloed. Ook worden maatregelen besproken om deze besmetting, alsook de nabesmetting met lactobacillen in de apparatuur, te beperken
Migratie van natamycine in Goudse en Edammer kaas, behandeld met "loog-natamycine" in het pekelbad
Ruig, W.G. de - \ 1980
Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 80.67 (80.G.21)) - 2
kazen - edammer kaas - goudse kaas - natamycine - migratie - rijpingsfase - voedselconserveermiddelen - cheeses - edam cheese - gouda cheese - natamycin - migration - ripening stage - food preservatives
Bij DHV-Campina wordt kaas behandeld met natamycine door aan het pekelbad natamycine toe te voegen. Om uitzakken te voorkomen wordt de natamycine vooraf in loog gesuspendeerd, waardoor een veel fijnere deeltjesgrootte verkregen wordt. Tijdens het rijpingsproces wordt de kaas niet met een (natamycine bevattende) kaasplastic behandeld. De tot nu toe bekende migratiegegevens zijn niet zonder meer toepasbaar op deze nieuwe technologie. Er zijn daarom een aantal Goudse en Edammer kazen onderzocht op het gehalte aan natamycine en de indringdiepte. De analyseresultaten zijn vermeld in Tabel 1 voor de Goudse en in Tabel 2 voor de Edammer kazen. Het hoogste gehalte dat gevonden is bedraagt 1,13 mg/dm2, de grootste indringing tot in een laag van 2,25 tot 3,75 mm vanaf de buitenkant.
|Franse literatuur over Nederlandse kaasmaakmethoden, met name Goudse kaas : Geen ingewikkelde literatuur, praktijkniveau boerenkaas maken
Anonymous, - \ 1979
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 4304)
bibliografieën - kazen - edammer kaas - goudse kaas - nederland - bibliographies - cheeses - edam cheese - gouda cheese - netherlands
The amino acid content of Edam cheese and its relation to flavour
Ali, L.A.M. - \ 1960
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Mulder. - Wageningen : Veenman - 64
edammer kaas - goudse kaas - kazen - dierlijke producten - eiwitgehalte - edam cheese - gouda cheese - cheeses - animal products - protein content
A comparison between the quantities of the free amino acids occurring in Edam cheeses of different properties, and the amino acid composition of casein showed these patterns to be usually comparable. Various factors, such as pH and moisture content of the cheese, pasteurized or raw milk, and aseptically drawn or infected milk, hardly affected the amino acid pattern of the cheeses.Free amino acids (e.g. glutaminic acid) were found to contribute to the basic taste of Edam cheese. The intensity of this basic taste depended not only on the degree of protein degradation, but also on the presence or absence of other breakdown products, and on the consistency of the cheese.There are however other important and more piquant flavour components since great differences often occurred in the taste of cheeses with the same amino acid pattern.
Eenige proeven over den invloed van den ree͏̈elen zuurheidsgraad op de rijping van Edammer kaas
Sirks, H.A. - \ 1943
's-Gravenhage : [s.n.] (Verslagen van landbouwkundige onderzoekingen no. 49,6) - 43
edammer kaas - goudse kaas - edam cheese - gouda cheese