Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Physiological responses of rice to increased day and night temperatures
Shi, Wanju - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P.C. Struik, co-promotor(en): X. Yin; K.S.V. Jagadisch. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437110 - 202
crops - rice - oryza sativa - plant physiology - temperature - crop yield - grain - agronomy - gewassen - rijst - oryza sativa - plantenfysiologie - temperatuur - gewasopbrengst - graan - agronomie

A more rapid increase in night-time temperature compared with day-time temperature and the increased frequency of heat waves associated with climate change present a serious threat to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production and food security. This thesis aims to understand the impact of high night-time temperature (HNT) and high day-time temperature (HDT) on rice grain yield and grain quality and to examine adaptation strategies to cope with high-temperature stresses.

Grain yield and quality of a susceptible indica genotype (Gharib) and all tested hybrids, when exposed to HNT in the field, were significantly reduced across seasons, with less average reduction in the dry season than in the wet season, indicating that other environmental factors under field conditions may contribute to impacts of HNT on yield. Among the different yield components, a reduced number of spikelets m−2 significantly contributed to yield loss under HNT followed by the consistently lower single-grain weight across all genotypes, while the impact of the decrease in percentage seed-set was less and season-specific. Lower grain yield and poorer grain quality in susceptible cultivar Gharib were associated with a significant reduction in non-structural carbohydrate translocation after flowering, resulting in reduced grain-filling duration. Increased total nitrogen application did not alleviate the negative impact of HNT. The proposed model approach showed that there were significant differences among cultivars in their changes in source-sink relationships in response to HNT. Given that rice grain yield and quality are challenged by a rise in HDT and HNT, in particular at flowering and during grain filling, differential impacts of HNT and HDT during these critical stages were observed. For the single-grain growth during grain filling, HDT either independently or in combination with HNT exerted greater influences than HNT on the grain filling dynamics, activities of starch metabolism enzymes, temporal starch accumulation patterns, and the process of chalk formation. During flowering, HDT increased spikelet sterility in tested hybrids and hybrids were less tolerant to high temperatures than high-yielding inbred varieties. Moreover, in contrast with HNT, HDT played a dominant role in determining spikelet fertility. Novel observations with a series of snapshots of dynamic fertilization processes demonstrated that disturbances in the pre-fertilization phase were the primary causes for heat-induced spikelet sterility, indicating the effectiveness of employing the early-morning flowering trait for mitigating the impact of heat stress at flowering on rice.

Feeding Dar es Salaam: a symbiotic food system perspective
Wegerif, Marc C.A. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.S.C. Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): P.G.M. Hebinck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432061 - 291
agricultural society - rural society - farmers' markets - food products - agricultural products - supermarkets - rice - grain - tanzania - east africa - agrarische samenleving - plattelandssamenleving - boerenmarkten - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - supermarkten - rijst - graan - tanzania - oost-afrika

This thesis is a sociological analysis of the agri-food system that feeds most of the over four and a half million residents of the fast-growing city of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. It is based on qualitative research that has generated a picture of the food system that supplies the important foods for the majority of residents of the city. The research took an actor orientated approach and started from urban eaters and then followed the food back through retailers, processors and transporters to the primary producers. Methodological lessons are derived from this process in particular the elaboration of the ‘ride-along’ as a research method. Foods followed include maize, rice, potatoes, green vegetables, eggs and milk. Other foods such as beef and chicken have also been touched on especially in relation to marketing and slaughtering operations.

Instead of dismissing what has been found as ‘informal’ or trying to fit it into structuralist paradigms, from orthodox economic or political economy perspectives, I have applied a grounded theory approach in seeking to understand the core ordering principles and rationality of this system that has shown a remarkable resilience over many years. Of particular interest, especially when looking at the functioning of market places and how new actors enter into the food system, is that more important to the food system than competition are various forms of collaboration.

This study comes at a time when global food production and distribution is dominated by powerful transnational corporations through an agro-industrial food system that is widely critiqued for its negative environmental and social impacts. Many argue that this industrial food system is unsustainable, yet its expansion can seem inevitable and alternatives are seen by many as incapable of feeding the world’s growing and increasingly urban population. ‘Value chain’ interventions have become popular among ‘development’ practitioners and policy makers seeking to integrate more producers into the global industrial food system rather than challenging that food system.

What I have found, and present in this thesis, is a ‘symbiotic food system’ made up of multitudes of small-scale and interdependent actors that produce the food and get it to urban eaters at a city feeding scale. They do this without any vertically - or horizontally -integrated corporate structures nor with government planning and organization of the food system. This food system responds well to the needs of urban eaters, especially those in poverty, and to the interests and circumstances of small scale food producers. It is a food system that outperforms value chain interventions in returns to producers and value to eaters and has social, economic and environmental advantages when compared to the agro-industrial and corporate dominated system. This challenges assumptions that corporate food chains are necessary, or desirable, to feed cities sustainably. The symbiotic food system that feeds Dar es Salaam is not perfect, but it is working and I believe worthy of further research and interventions to create a more enabling environment for such foods systems to flourish in Tanzania and elsewhere.

Evaluatie tijdelijke regeling bijdragen onderwerken graanresten : Onderdeel onderzoek naar alternatieven
Visser, A.J. ; Spruijt, J. ; Timmer, R.D. ; Schotman, A.G.M. ; Dekking, A.J.G. ; Groten, J.A.M. ; Buij, R. ; Melman, T.C.P. - \ 2016
Wageningen Plant Research (Wageningen Plant Research rapport 720) - 43 p.
graangewassen - graan - oogstresten - plantenresten - grain crops - grain - crop residues - plant residues
Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth: Many models are better than one
Martre, P. ; Wallach, D. ; Asseng, S. ; Ewert, F. ; Jones, J.W. ; Rötter, R.P. ; Boote, K.J. ; Ruane, A.C. ; Thorburn, P. ; Cammarano, D. ; Hatfield, J.L. ; Rosenzweig, C. ; Aggarwal, P.K. ; Angula, C. ; Basso, B. ; Bertuzzi, P. ; Biernath, C. ; Brisson, N. ; Challinor, A. ; Doltra, J. ; Gayler, S. ; Goldberg, R.A. ; Grant, R.F. ; Heng, L. ; Hooker, J. ; Hunt, L.A. ; Ingwersen, J. ; Izaurralde, C. ; Kersebaum, K.C. ; Mueller, C. ; Kumar, S. ; Nendel, C. ; O'Leary, G.J. ; Olesen, J.E. ; Osborne, T.M. ; Palosuo, T. ; Priesack, E. ; Ripoche, D. ; Semenov, M.A. ; Shcherbak, I. ; Steduto, P. ; Stöckle, C.O. ; Stratonovitch, P. ; Streck, T. ; Supit, I. ; Tao, Fulu ; Travasso, M. ; Waha, K. ; White, J.W. ; Wolf, J. - \ 2015
Global Change Biology 21 (2015)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 911 - 925.
climate-change - crop production - impacts - yield - simulations - calibration - australia - billion - europe - grain
Crop models of crop growth are increasingly used to quantify the impact of global changes due to climate or crop management. Therefore, accuracy of simulation results is a major concern. Studies with ensembles of crop models can give valuable information about model accuracy and uncertainty, but such studies are difficult to organize and have only recently begun. We report on the largest ensemble study to date, of 27 wheat models tested in four contrasting locations for their accuracy in simulating multiple crop growth and yield variables. The relative error averaged over models was 24-38% for the different end-of-season variables including grain yield (GY) and grain protein concentration (GPC). There was little relation between error of a model for GY or GPC and error for in-season variables. Thus, most models did not arrive at accurate simulations of GY and GPC by accurately simulating preceding growth dynamics. Ensemble simulations, taking either the mean (e-mean) or median (e-median) of simulated values, gave better estimates than any individual model when all variables were considered. Compared to individual models, e-median ranked first in simulating measured GY and third in GPC. The error of e-mean and e-median declined with an increasing number of ensemble members, with little decrease beyond 10 models. We conclude that multimodel ensembles can be used to create new estimators with improved accuracy and consistency in simulating growth dynamics. We argue that these results are applicable to other crop species, and hypothesize that they apply more generally to ecological system models.
Developing the role of perennial forages for crop-livestock farms: a strategic multi-disciplinary approach
Llewellyn, R. ; Robertson, M.J. ; Hayes, R.C. ; Ferris, D. ; Descheemaeker, K.K.E. ; Revell, C. - \ 2014
Crop and Pasture Science 65 (2014)10. - ISSN 1836-0947 - p. 945 - 955.
subtropical grasses - potential scale - stocking rate - systems - pasture - australia - persistence - grain - adoption - lucerne
Developing new and improved grazing systems for crop–livestock farms where crop production is the major driver of farm management decisions presents a unique research and development challenge. In southern Australia, a substantial proportion of animal production from grazing comes from regions and farms where cropping is the major enterprise. In this paper, we describe a multi-disciplinary farming-systems research approach (EverCrop) aimed at improving farm profitability, risk management and environmental impacts through the development and integration of new grazing options with an emphasis on perennial species. It has been used to analyse and target new opportunities for farmers to benefit from perennial species across dry Mediterranean-type and temperate regions of southern Australia. It integrates field experimentation, on-farm trialling, farmer participatory research, soil–plant–climate biophysical modelling, whole-farm bioeconomic analysis and evaluations of adoptability. Multi-functional roles for summer-active grasses with winter cropping, integration of forage shrubs and establishment of new mixes of perennial grasses in crop rotations to improve farming system performance are identified, along with an analysis of factors likely to affect rate of uptake by farmers.
Household-level effects of China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program under price and policy shifts
Komarek, A.M. ; Shi Xiaoping, ; Heerink, N.B.M. - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 40 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 36 - 44.
conservation set-aside - western china - ecosystem services - green program - grain - impact - agriculture - livelihoods - payments - food
This study examined how agricultural households involved in China's Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) could respond to expected changes in environmental and livestock policies and changing commodity prices. We calibrated a farm household model using 2009 survey data collected in northeast Gansu Province, China, and examined the responses of four different household groups. Household groups were distinguished based on the resources they possessed for either cropping, livestock husbandry or off-farm employment. We also calculated the opportunity cost of converting sloping land from grain crop production to perennial grass production and included the net value of the replacement crop in these calculations. Our model simulations indicated that subsistence-oriented households were most likely to participate in the SLCP, and that SLCP payment reductions could have large negative income effects for this group. Reductions in SLCP payments increased income inequality among households in the study area. Migration- and cropping-oriented households have fewer incentives to participate in the SLCP. With rising commodity prices, SLCP payments need to rise to avoid that subsistence-oriented households reconvert their land from perennial grasses to annual grain crops. Local government policies related to livestock production are being devised in Gansu as a method to lift incomes, and these policies could also have positive environmental benefits by increasing grass production on sloping land. The introduction of these livestock promotion policies had modest income effects but did not alter the area grown with grasses under the SLCP.
Oven-drying reduces ruminal starch degradation in maize kernels
Ali, M. ; Cone, J.W. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2014
Animal Feed Science and Technology 193 (2014). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 44 - 50.
physicochemical properties - microwave irradiation - gas-production - rumen fluid - corn-silage - digestibility - grain - degradability - moisture - protein
The degradation of starch largely determines the feeding value of maize (Zea mays L.) for dairy cows. Normally, maize kernels are dried and ground before chemical analysis and determining degradation characteristics, whereas cows eat and digest fresh material. Drying the moist maize kernels (consisting mainly of starch) at high temperatures can influence their physical properties and thus their degradation dynamics in the rumen. We compared the in vitro degradability of dried maize kernels with that of fresh kernels after incubation in rumen fluid. Maize kernels were obtained from genotypes diverse in starch structure, composition and type of endosperm. These genotypes were grown in greenhouses at different temperatures during starch accumulation, and harvested at different maturity stages, in two experiments. Starch content was assessed using the amyloglucosidase method. Fermentation in rumen fluid was measured using an in vitro gas production technique. Starch degradation of the kernels was calculated after 6, 12 and 20 h of incubation in rumen fluid. Oven-drying influenced (P <0.0001) the in vitro degradation of starch in maize kernels at the different incubation times, with more starch being degraded in the fresh than in the oven-dried maize kernels, although the differences were small (11–15%). There was a consistent interaction (P <0.009 to 0.0002) between oven-drying and genotype, with the high-amylose genotype showing larger effects of oven-drying than the other genotypes. The vitreous genotype showed a lower starch degradation than the non-vitreous type. At earlier maturity stages, the difference between oven-dried and fresh kernels was larger than at later maturity stages. The temperature during grain filling affected (P <0.0001) starch degradation but did not affect the difference between fresh and oven-dried samples. Oven-drying reduced the in vitro rumen starch degradation of maize kernels regardless of growing conditions, genotype and maturity stage, but its effect depends on genotype and maturity.
Biocontrol and population dynamics of Fusarium spp. on wheat stubble in Argentina
Palazzini, J.M. ; Groenenboom-de Haas, B.H. de; Torres, A.M. ; Köhl, J. ; Chulze, S.N. - \ 2013
Plant Pathology 62 (2013)4. - ISSN 0032-0862 - p. 859 - 866.
head blight - clonostachys-rosea - botrytis-cinerea - biological-control - gibberella-zeae - quantitative detection - gliocladium-roseum - fumonisin content - crop residues - grain
The biocontrol effect of Clonostachys rosea (strains 016 and 1457) on Fusarium graminearum, F. avenaceum, F. verticillioides, F. langsethiae, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, F. culmorum and Microdochium nivale was evaluated on naturally infected wheat stalks exposed to field conditions for 180 days. Experiments were conducted at two locations in Argentina, Marcos Juarez and Río Cuarto. Antagonists were applied as conidial suspensions at two inoculum levels. Pathogens were quantified by TaqMan real-time qPCR. During the first year at Marcos Juarez, biocontrol was observed in one antagonist treatment for F. graminearum after 90 days (73% reduction) but after 180 days, the pathogen decreased to undetectable levels. During the second year, biocontrol was observed in three antagonist treatments for F. graminearum and F. avenaceum (68·3% and 98·9% DNA reduction, respectively, after 90 days). Fusarium verticillioides was not controlled at Marcos Juarez. At Río Cuarto, biocontrol effects were observed in several treatments at different intervals, with a mean DNA reduction of 88·7% for F. graminearum and F. avenaceum, and 100% reduction for F. verticillioides in two treatments after 180 days. Populations of F. avenaceum and F. verticillioides were stable; meanwhile, F. graminearum population levels varied during the first 90 days, and low levels were observed after 180 days. The other pathogens were not detected. The study showed that wheat stalks were important reservoirs for F. avenaceum and F. verticillioides populations but less favourable for F. graminearum survival. Clonostachys rosea (strain 1457) showed potential to reduce the Fusarium spp. on wheat stalks
Meer graan geeft lager bouwplansaldo: Grote opbrengstverhogingen nodig om saldodaling te compenseren
Spruijt, J. ; Dijk, W. van; Runia, W.T. - \ 2013
Akker magazine 2013 (2013)1. - ISSN 1875-9688 - p. 28 - 29.
rotaties - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - akkerbouw - aardappelen - graan - opbrengsten - rendement - rotations - farm management - arable farming - potatoes - grain - yields - returns
Verlaging van de teeltfrequentie van aardappelen ten gunste van graan zou in theorie een hogere opbrengst moeten opleveren door het ruimere bouwplan en de hogere aanvoer van organische stof. Uit onderzoek blijkt echter dat verruiming van het bouwplan met meer graan leidt tot een daling van het bouwplansaldo. Om die saldodaling te compenseren, zouden opbrengstverhogingen nodig zijn die niet realistisch lijken.
Response to: Comments on the paper "A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties
Voet, H. van der; Perry, J.N. ; Amzal, B. ; Paoletti, C. - \ 2012
BMC Biotechnology 12 (2012). - ISSN 1472-6750
safety - grain - corn - l.
van der Voet et al. (2011) describe statistical methodology that the European Food Safety Authority expects an applicant to adopt when making a GM crop regulatory submission. Key to their proposed methodology is the inclusion of reference varieties in the
Does crumb morphology affect water migration and crispness retention in crispy breads?
Hirte, A. ; Primo-Martin, C. ; Meinders, M.B.J. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Cereal Science 56 (2012)2. - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 289 - 295.
crust formation - image-analysis - baking - permeability - sorption - scale - model - grain
Crispness of bread is rapidly lost because of water migration inside the crumb towards the crust. How crumb properties determine this process independent of crust properties has not been examined before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and explain the influence of crumb morphology on the overall crispness retention. Crispness retention was determined by analyzing the acoustic emission of breads differing in either crust or crumb morphology. When crumb morphology is coarse with a lower number of large connections between the air cells, the effective diffusion coefficient is reduced. This effective diffusion coefficient of crumb, which equals approximately half the value of air, was estimated using X-ray micro-computer tomography images of crumb pieces. If the crumb has a lower effective diffusion coefficient, bread with similar crust properties has significantly longer crispness retention. Despite this, our data show that variations in properties of crust, which has 30 times higher permeability than crumb, have a larger impact on crispness retention than variations in properties of crumb.
Anomalies in moisture transport during broccoli drying monitored by MRI?
Jin, X. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van; Gerkema, E. ; Vergeldt, F.J. ; As, H. van; Straten, G. van; Boom, R.M. ; Sman, R.G.M. van der - \ 2012
Faraday Discussions 158 (2012). - ISSN 1359-6640 - p. 65 - 75.
viscoelastic behavior - cooking - model - nmr - simulation - carrot - grain - food - meat
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers unique opportunities to monitor moisture transport during drying or heating of food, which can render unexpected insights. Here, we report about MRI observations made during the drying of broccoli stalks indicating anomalous drying behaviour. In fresh broccoli samples the moisture content in the core of the sample increases during drying, which conflicts with Fickian diffusion. We have put the hypothesis that this increase of moisture is due to the stress diffusion induced by the elastic impermeable skin. Pre-treatments that change skin and bulk elastic properties of broccoli show that our hypothesis of stress-diffusion is plausible.
A genomics and multi-platform metabolomics approach to identify new traits of rice quality in traditional and improved varieties
Callingacion, M.N. ; Boualaphanh, C. ; Daygon, V.D. ; Anacleto, R. ; Sackville Hamilton, R. ; Biais, B. ; Deborde, C. ; Maucourt, M. ; Moing, A. ; Mumm, R. ; Vos, C.H. de; Erban, A. ; Kopka, J. ; Hansen, T.H. ; Laursen, K.H. ; Schjoerring, J.K. ; Hall, R.D. ; Fitzgerald, M.A. - \ 2012
Metabolomics 8 (2012)5. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 771 - 783.
plant metabolomics - metabolite - components - nutrition - issues - bread - grain - acid - bran
Using a novel approach combining four complementary metabolomic and mineral platforms with genome-wide genotyping at 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, we have investigated the extent of biochemical and genetic diversity in three commercially-relevant waxy rice cultivars important to food production in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). Following cultivation with different nitrogen fertiliser regimes, multiple metabolomic data sets, including minerals, were produced and analysed using multivariate statistical methods to reveal the degree of similarity between the genotypes and to identify discriminatory compounds supported by multiple technology platforms. Results revealed little effect of nitrogen supply on metabolites related to quality, despite known yield differences. All platforms revealed unique metabolic signatures for each variety and many discriminatory compounds could be identified as being relevant to consumers in terms of nutritional value and taste or flavour. For each platform, metabolomic diversity was highly associated with genetic distance between the varieties. This study demonstrates that multiple metabolomic platforms have potential as phenotyping tools to assist breeders in their quest to combine key yield and quality characteristics. This better enables rice improvement programs to meet different consumer and farmer needs, and to address food security in rice-consuming countries.
Use of new generation single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping for rapid development of near-isogenic lines in rice
Boualaphanh, C. ; Daygon, V.D. ; Calingacion, M.N. ; Sanitchon, J. ; Jothityangkoon, D. ; Mumm, R. ; Hall, R.D. ; Fitgerald, M.A. - \ 2011
Crop Science 51 (2011)5. - ISSN 0011-183X - p. 2067 - 2073.
oryza-sativa l. - fragrance - metabolomics - populations - phenotypes - varieties - tomato - marker - grain - gene
Studies aimed at determining gene function or identity are greatly facilitated by introgression lines and phenotyping tools. However, developing introgression lines can take six to eight generations to reach the desired level of background purity and homozygosity. The objective of this study was to use new generation genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, along with a molecular marker for the allele of interest, and a relevant phenotyping tool, to develop research populations with just four generations of backcrossing. Two populations were created for future research on aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L.): one derived from two indica parents and the other from one indica and one tropical japonica parent. The same recurrent parent was used for both populations. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of BC4F2 progeny selected previously on the basis of either a marker for fragrance or the presence of the fragrant compound and on the basis of morphological similarity to the recurrent parent showed that donor introgression ranged from
Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Recent trends and policies
Qu, F. ; Kuyvenhoven, A. ; Shi, X. ; Heerink, N. - \ 2011
China Economic Review 22 (2011)4. - ISSN 1043-951X - p. 444 - 460.
land conversion program - conservation set-aside - heihe river-basin - environmental degradation - northwest china - water markets - impacts - green - grain - poverty
In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently become available are used to that end. In addition, we analyse the impact of new policy initiatives to introduce market-based instruments and new institutions to address land degradation and water scarcity problems. We find that the decline in cultivated area has accelerated in the beginning of the new century. Ecological recovery programs, not urbanization and industrialization, are the major factors causing this decline. Ecological recovery programs are also a major force behind the increase in forest land area and the reduction of water erosion. Modest successes can be observed in the protection of wetlands and (until the mid-1980s) for the average quality of cultivated land. On the other hand, degradation of natural grassland and wind erosion have become much more severe in recent decades. In northern China, particularly in the 3-H (Hai and Luan, Huai and Huang) river basins, the availability of water has tightened. Groundwater tables have fallen considerably in the Hai river basin, because farmers increasingly rely on groundwater for irrigation. Evidence on other parts of northern China is mixed. Pollution of surface water is getting worse since the beginning of the 1990s in two major lakes in southern China and until recently in the rivers in northern China. Water quality problems in the larger rivers in southern China are less severe and getting less. These problems are to a large extent caused by agriculture-based non-point source pollution, especially in the major lakes and reservoirs. The sloping land conversion program, water pricing, and the establishment of water user associations and payments for environmental service projects are used as cases to examine the introduction of market-based instruments and new institutions. We argue that less government interference in the implementation of these instruments and institutions is likely to enhance ecological as well the economic benefits. Moreover, supportive measures to improve the functioning of land and labor markets are usually needed to ensure the sustainability of the impact of interventions.
Indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins
Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Dekkers, S. ; Kandhai, M.C. ; Jeurissen, S.M.F. ; Booij, C.J.H. ; Heer, C. de - \ 2010
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 57 (2010)2. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 133 - 139.
deoxynivalenol content - winter-wheat - maize - prediction - grain - crop
The aim of this study was to select the most important indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins in wheat, maize, peanuts and tree nuts. The study was based on a holistic approach and, consequently, potential indicators were evaluated not only from the food production chain but also from other influential sectors. The study comprised a literature review followed by an expert judgement study. The expert study consisted of a series of individual interviews and a workshop. It used a panel of 25 experts from the Netherlands. The selected indicators for the model commodity wheat included relative humidity, temperature, transport and storage conditions, crop rotation, crop variety, tillage practice, and drying of the kernel. For maize, peanuts and tree nuts, the first three indicators were found to be most important. The results of this study will be used in the development of models for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins in wheat, maize, peanuts and tree nuts. Such models may be useful for risk managers from feed and food industry and/or governmental authorities to facilitate pro-active feed and/or food safety management.
Effect of feeding a reduced-starch diet with or without amylase addition on lactation performance in dairy cows
Gencoglu, H. ; Shaver, R.D. ; Steinberg, W. ; Ensink, J. ; Ferraretto, L.F. ; Bertics, S.J. ; Lopes, J.C. ; Akins, M.S. - \ 2010
Journal of Dairy Science 93 (2010)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 723 - 732.
ruminal digestion kinetics - neutral detergent fiber - fed varying amounts - high-moisture corn - milk-production - nutrient digestibility - fermentation - soyhulls - grain - site
The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance responses of high-producing dairy cows to a reduced-starch diet compared with a normal-starch diet and to the addition of exogenous amylase to the reduced-starch diet. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (51 +/- 22 DIM and 643 +/- 49 kg of body weight at trial initiation) were randomly assigned to I of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design: a 3-wk covariate adjustment period during which the cows were fed the normal-starch diet, followed by a 12-wk treatment period during which the cows were fed their assigned treatment diets. The normal-starch TMR did not contain exogenous amylase (NS-). The reduced-starch diets, formulated by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls, were fed without (RS-) and with (RS+) exogenous amylase added to the TMR. Starch and NDF concentrations averaged 27.1 and 30.6%, 21.8 and 36.6%, and 20.7 and 36.6% (dry matter basis) for the NS-, RS-, and RS+ diets, respectively. Dry matter intake for cows fed the RS- diet was 2.4 and 3.2 kg/d greater than for cows fed the NS- and RS+ diets, respectively. Intake of NDF ranged from 1.19 to 1.52% of body weight among the treatments, with the RS- diet being 28% greater than the NS- diet and 13% greater than the RS+ diet. Milk yield averaged 50.4 kg/d and was unaffected by treatment. Fat-corrected milk yield was 2.9 kg/d greater for cows fed the RS- diet than for cows fed the NS- diet. Body weight and body condition score measurements were unaffected by treatment. Fat, solids-, and energy-corrected milk feed conversions (kilograms/kilogram of DMI) were 12 to 13% greater for cows fed the RS+ diet than for cows fed the RS-diet. Dry matter and nutrient digestibilities were lowest for cows fed the NS- diet and greatest for cows fed the RS+ diet, and were greater for cows fed the RS+ diet than for cows fed the RS- diet, with the exception of starch digestibility, which was similar. Greater conversion of feed to milk for dairy cows fed reduced-starch diets that include exogenous amylase may offer potential for improving economic performance.
Regionale rantsoenen voor melkvee = Regional feed for dairy cows
Plomp, M. ; Prins, U. ; Schooten, H.A. van; Pinxterhuis, J.B. - \ 2010
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 418) - 37
biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - voersamenstelling - kringlopen - ruwvoer (forage) - graan - melkveevoeding - overijssel - grasklaver - organic farming - dairy farming - feed formulation - cycling - forage - grain - dairy cattle nutrition - grass-clover swards
To close nutrient cycles, farmers in Echt Overijssel! (Truly Overijssel!) want to use more regional feedstuffs and less inputs from further afield. Examples from farmers and calculated rations are given. An average milk production of 7,000 kg per cow per lactation fits best, with well balanced rations consisting of grassclover, grains and possibly some silage maize or grass from nature conservation areas.
Gene expression profiling for food safety assessment: Examples in potato and maize
Dijk, J.P. van; Leifert, C. ; Barros, E. ; Kok, E.J. - \ 2010
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 58 (2010)3. - ISSN 0273-2300 - p. s21 - s25.
transcriptome analysis - varieties - tubers - crops - grain
Since the mid 1990s, microarray analysis has become one of the few tools that can analyze the entire contents of a cell regarding a specific information type. Especially since the development of whole genome microarrays the technique can be considered truly holistic. Most DNA based microarrays are used for the analysis of the total of messenger RNAs (transcriptome) and provide a snap-shot of what’s going on in a cell population at the time of sampling. Within the last few years also full genome plant microarrays have become available for several crop species. With these it has been shown that several growing conditions can be separated based on their transcriptome pattern, such as location, year of harvest and agricultural input system, but also different cultivars of the same crop species, including genetically modified ones. A database comprising expression levels of the transcriptome in many different circumstances with a history of safe use would be a good comparator for evaluation of new agricultural practices or cultivars, genetically modified or otherwise obtained. New techniques as next generation sequencing may overcome issues on throughput time and cost, standard operation procedures and array design for individual crops.
The effect of particle size of wheat bran fractions on bread quality – Evidence for fibre–protein interactions
Noort, M.W.J. ; Haaster, D.J. van; Hemery, Y. ; Schols, H.A. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2010
Journal of Cereal Science 52 (2010)1. - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 59 - 64.
water unextractable solids - loaf volume - phenolic-acid - brown bread - breadmaking - pentosans - phytate - layers - grain
The nature of the adverse effects of wheat bran fractions on bread-making quality was studied. Two fractions of bran, representing different tissue layers and having different compositions, were used. The particle size of the bran fractions was varied by various milling techniques. All fractions were added to white flour and water addition was adjusted to obtain dough with a constant consistency. Both dough-mixing properties and bread-making quality were affected by the addition of bran. The negative influence was enhanced when bran particle size was reduced. The effects on bread quality are strongly correlated to negative effects of bran on gluten network formation. The results show that fibre–gluten interactions are the main cause for the negative effects of fibres, rather than dilution of gluten, piercing of gas cells or particles disturbing the gluten network. Two possible explanations for the enhancement of the adverse effects when reducing the particle size of bran fractions are discussed: 1) increased interaction surface 2) liberation of reactive components due to cell breakage.
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