Lineages in Nectriaceae: re-evaluating the generic status of Ilyonectria and allied genera
Lombard, L. ; Merwe, N.A. Van Der; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
Phytopathologia Mediterranea 53 (2014)3. - ISSN 0031-9465 - p. 515 - 532.
black foot disease - cylindrocarpon-destructans - phylogenetic-relationships - multigene analysis - sp nov. - neonectria - rot - hypocreales - radicicola - grapevines
Genera with cylindrocarpon-like asexual morphs are important pathogens of various herbaceous and woody plant hosts globally. Recent multi-gene studies of this generic complex indicated that the genus Ilyonectria is paraphyletic. The present study was therefore initiated to re-evaluate the generic status of Ilyonectria and at the same time address some taxonomic irregularities in the genera Cylindrodendrum and Neonectria. Using multi-gene DNA data and morphological comparisons, the genus Dactylonectria is introduced with 10 new combinations, several of which were previously treated in Ilyonectria. Two new species, D. hordeicola and D. pinicola, are also described. Furthermore, one new combination is provided in the genus Cylindrodendrum, and three new combinations in the genus Neonectria, for species previously treated in the genera Acremonium, Cylindrocarpon, Nectria and Neonectria. The aquatic genus Heliscus is reduced to synonymy under Neonectria.
Diaporthe species associated with Vaccinium, with specific reference to Europe
Lombard, L. ; Leeuwen, G.C.M. van; Guarnaccia, V. ; Polizzi, G. ; Rijswick, P.C.J. van; Rosendahl, K.C.H.M. ; Gabler, J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
Phytopathologia Mediterranea 53 (2014)2. - ISSN 0031-9465 - p. 287 - 299.
phomopsis-vaccinii - maximum-likelihood - south-africa - stem canker - blueberry - grapevines - cranberry - australafricana - inference - diseases
Species of the genus Vaccinium are commercially cultivated in Europe for their berries, which are highly valued for dietary and pharmaceutical properties. Cultivation is severely limited due to a range of fungal diseases, especially those caused by species of Diaporthe. A number of Diaporthe isolates have been collected from Vaccinium growing regions in Europe, and initially identified as D. vaccinii based on host association. Using DNA sequence inference of the combined ß-tubulin, calmodulin, translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA, along with morphological characteristics, six species were characterised. Diaporthe eres, D. vaccinii and D. viticola are known species and three novel taxa are described here as D. asheicola, D. baccae and D. sterilis. This study is the first confirmed report of D. vaccinii in Latvia and the Netherlands.
Genera of diaporthalean coelomycetes associated with leaf spots of tree hosts
Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Edwards, J. ; Pascoe, I.G. ; Porter, I.J. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 66 - 75.
phylogenetic lineages - ribosomal dna - south-africa - primer sets - eucalyptus - phaeoacremonium - grapevines - harknessia - culture - genus
Four different genera of diaporthalean coelomycetous fungi associated with leaf spots of tree hosts are morphologically treated and phylogenetically compared based on the DNA sequence data of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA gene (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon. These include two new Australian genera, namely Auratiopycnidiella, proposed for a leaf spotting fungus occurring on Tristaniopsis laurina in New South Wales, and Disculoides, proposed for two species occurring on leaf spots of Eucalyptus leaves in Victoria. Two new species are described in Aurantiosacculus, a hitherto monotypic genus associated with leaf spots of Eucalyptus in Australia, namely A. acutatus on E. viminalis, and A. eucalyptorum on E. globulus, both occurring in Tasmania. Lastly, an epitype specimen is designated for Erythrogloeum hymenaeae, the type species of the genus Erythrogloeum, and causal agent of a prominent leaf spot disease on Hymenaea courbaril in South America. All four genera are shown to be allied to Diaporthales, although only Aurantiosacculus (Cryphonectriaceae) could be resolved to family level, the rest being incertae sedis.
Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees
Damm, U. ; Fourie, P.H. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2010
Persoonia 24 (2010). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 60 - 80.
molecular phylogeny - petri disease - phaeoacremonium - anamorph - key - phialophora - grapevines - acremonium - complex - fungi
Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal their phylogenetic relationships, these fungi were studied on a morphological and molecular (5.8S nrDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2, GAPDH, EF-1a, 28S nrDNA, 18S nrDNA) basis. Some of the isolates were identified as Coniochaeta (Sordariomycetes), including C. velutina and two new species, C. africana and C. prunicola. The majority of the isolates, however, formed pycnidial or pseudopycnidial synanamorphs and were not closely related to Coniochaeta. According to their 28S nrDNA phylogeny, they formed two distinct groups, one of which was closely related to Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). The new genus Collophora is proposed, comprising five species that frequently occur in necrotic peach and nectarine wood, namely Co. africana, Co. capensis, Co. paarla, Co. pallida and Co. rubra. The second group was closely related to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Eurotiomycetes), occurring mainly in plum wood. Besides P. zymoides occurring on Prunus salicina, four new species are described, namely P. dura, P. effusa, P. prunicola and P. tardicola. In a preliminary inoculation study, pathogenicity was confirmed for some of the new species on apricot, peach or plum wood.
|Diplodia seriata, the anamorph of "Botryosphaeria" obtusa
Phillips, A.J.L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Alves, A. - \ 2007
Fungal Diversity 25 (2007). - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 141 - 155.
phylogenetic inference - grapevines - dieback - trees - dna
The correct name to use for the anamorph of Botryosphaeria obtusa has been uncertain for many years. Since the genus name Botryophaeria is no longer available for this fungus the question of the correct Diplodia anamorph name must be resolved. Therefore, the aims of this work were to determine the correct name to apply to the anamorph of "B." obtusa through a study of relevant type specimens. The phylogenetic relationship of the species to its nearest relatives, and phylogenetic variation within the species were determined through a study of ITS sequence data. The species was shown to be relatively homogenous, cosmopolitan and plurivorous. The name Diplodia seriata was shown to be the oldest suitable name available. An epitype specimen is designated.
Characterisation of Phomopsis spp. associated with die-back of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) in South Africa
Rensburg, J.C.J. van; Lamprecht, S.C. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Castlebury, L.A. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2006
Studies in Mycology 55 (2006). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 65 - 74.
Die-back of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) causes substantial losses in commercial Aspalathus plantations in South Africa. In the past, the disease has been attributed to Phomopsis phaseoli (teleomorph: Diaporthe phaseolorum). Isolates obtained from diseased plants, however, were highly variable with regard to morphology and pathogenicity. The aim of the present study was thus to identify the Phomopsis species associated with die-back of rooibos. Isolates were subjected to DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and partial sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene. Furthermore, isolates were also compared in glasshouse inoculation trials on 8-mo-old potted plants to evaluate their pathogenicity. Five species were identified, of which D. aspalathi (formerly identified as D. phaseolorum or D. phaseolorum var. meridionalis) proved to be the most virulent, followed by D. ambigua, Phomopsis theicola, one species of Libertella and Phomopsis, respectively, and a newly described species, P. cuppatea. A description is also provided for D. ambigua based on a newly designated epitype specimen.