Records 1 - 20 / 474
Trafficking intensity index for soil compaction management in grasslands
Bondi, Giulia ; O‘Sullivan, Lilian ; Fenton, Owen ; Creamer, Rachel ; Marongiu, Irene ; Wall, David P. - \ 2020
Soil Use and Management (2020). - ISSN 0266-0032
compaction - grazing - machinery - soil - soil structural quality - trafficking pressure
Good soil structure provides multiple benefits for society but in grass-based production systems is underpinned by trafficking management regime. For Irish soils, there is no soil trafficking intensity index that considers the effect of geo-climatic variability or differences in drainage classes on soil compaction risk. Grazing and machinery activity data were compiled across 38 managed grasslands along with common soil structural quality indicators in order to develop and validate a ‘soil trafficking intensity index for compaction (STICi)’. Two component indices of STICi were developed: (a) a grazing trafficking index (Gi, kg × year ha−1) and (b) a machinery trafficking index (Mi, kg × year ha−1). The average annual grazing trafficking pressure observed was 213,914 kg × year ha−1, and the average annual machinery trafficking pressure was 4,412 kg × year ha−1. These figures represent thresholds above which soils are at higher risk of compaction. Mi spanned a wider range (−2.1 ≤ Mi ≤ 2.8) compared with Gi (−1.32 ≤ Gi ≤ 1.06). STICi and components, when disaggregated by soil drainage class, were able to detect changes in direct indicators of soil structural quality, such as bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, water conductivity and visual soil assessment. STICi (Mi and Gi) were also related to indirect indicators, such as, soil carbon content, earthworms and microbial biomass. In general, poorly drained sites showed higher vulnerability to machinery trafficking intensity compared with grazing trafficking pressure. At national scale, STICi can be utilized to identify soils at risk of compaction and underpin targeted management advice for supporting sustainable grassland production.
Enteric methane emission from Jersey cows during the spring transition from indoor feeding to grazing
Szalanski, Marcin ; Kristensen, Troels ; Difford, Gareth ; Lassen, Jan ; Buitenhuis, Albert J. ; Pszczola, Marcin ; Løvendahl, Peter - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)7. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6319 - 6329.
dairy - genotype by environment interaction - grazing - Jersey - methane
Organic dairy cows in Denmark are often kept indoors during the winter and outside at least part time in the summer. Consequently, their diet changes by the season. We hypothesized that grazing might affect enteric CH 4 emissions due to changes in the nutrition, maintenance, and activity of the cows, and they might differentially respond to these factors. This study assessed the repeatability of enteric CH 4 emission measurements for Jersey cattle in a commercial organic dairy herd in Denmark. It also evaluated the effects of a gradual transition from indoor winter feeding to outdoor spring grazing. Further, it assessed the individual-level correlations between measurements during the consecutive feeding periods (phenotype × environment, P × E) as neither pedigrees nor genotypes were available to estimate a genotype by environment effect. Ninety-six mixed-parity lactating Jersey cows were monitored for 30 d before grazing and for 24 d while grazing. The cows spent 8 to 11 h grazing each day and had free access to an in-barn automatic milking system (AMS). For each visit to the AMS, milk yield was recorded and logged along with date and time. Monitoring equipment installed in the AMS feed bins continuously measured enteric CH 4 and CO 2 concentrations (ppm) using a noninvasive “sniffer” method. Raw enteric CH 4 and CO 2 concentrations and their ratio (CH 4 :CO 2 ) were derived from average concentrations measured during milking and per day for each cow. We used mixed models equations to estimate variance components and adjust for the fixed and random effects influencing the analyzed gas concentrations. Univariate models were used to precorrect the gas measurements for diurnal variation and to estimate the direct effect of grazing on the analyzed concentrations. A bivariate model was used to assess the correlation between the 2 periods (in-barn vs. grazing) for each gas concentration. Grazing had a weak P × E interaction for daily average CH 4 and CO 2 gas concentrations. Bivariate repeatability estimates for average CH 4 and CO 2 concentrations and CH 4 :CO 2 were 0.77 to 0.78, 0.73 to 0.80, and 0.26, respectively. Repeatability for CH 4 :CO 2 was low (0.26) but indicated some between-animal variation. In conclusion, grazing does not create significant shifts compared with indoor feeding in how animals rank for average CH 4 and CO 2 concentrations and CH 4 :CO 2 . We found no evidence that separate evaluation is needed to quantify enteric CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from Jersey cows during in-barn and grazing periods.
Effect of timing of corn silage supplementation to Holstein dairy cows given limited daily access to pasture : intake and performance
Mattiauda, D.A. ; Gibb, M.J. ; Carriquiry, M. ; Tamminga, S. ; Chilibroste, P. - \ 2019
Animal 13 (2019). - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 127 - 135.
feeding strategy - grazing - grazing pattern - ingestive behaviour - milk production
The timing in which supplements are provided in grazing systems can affect dry matter (DM) intake and productive performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of corn silage supplementation on ingestive behaviour, DM intake, milk yield and composition in grazing dairy cows. In total, 33 Holstein dairy cows in a randomized block design grazed on a second-year mixed grass–legume pasture from 0900 to 1500 h and received 2.7 kg of a commercial supplement at each milking. Paddock sizes were adjusted to provide a daily herbage allowance of 15 kg DM/cow determined at ground level. The three treatments imposed each provided 3.8 kg DM/day of corn silage offered in a single meal at 0800 h (Treatment AM), equally distributed in two meals 0800 and 1700 h (Treatment AM-PM) or a single meal at 1700 h (Treatment PM). The experiment was carried out during the late autumn and early winter period, with 1 week of adaptation and 6 weeks of measurements. There were no differences between treatments in milk yield, but 4% fat-corrected milk yield tended to be greater in AM-PM than in AM cows, which did not differ from PM (23.7, 25.3 and 24.6±0.84 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). Fat percentage and yield were greater for AM-PM than for AM cows and intermediate for PM cows (3.89 v. 3.66±0.072% and 1.00 v. 0.92±0.035 kg/day, respectively). Offering corn silage in two meals had an effect on herbage DM intake which was greater for AM-PM than AM cows and was intermediate in PM cows (8.5, 11.0 and 10.3±0.68 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). During the 6-h period at pasture, the overall proportion of observations on which cows were grazing tended to be different between treatments and a clear grazing pattern along the grazing session (1-h observation period) was identified. During the time at pasture, the proportion of observations during which cows ruminated was positively correlated with the DM intake of corn silage immediately before turn out to pasture. The treatment effects on herbage DM intake did not sufficiently explain differences in productive performance. This suggests that the timing of the corn silage supplementation affected rumen kinetics and likewise the appearance of hunger and satiety signals as indicated by observed changes in temporal patterns of grazing and ruminating activities.
Philipsen, A.P. ; Pol, A. van den - \ 2018
Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
dairy farming - pastures - grassland management - grazing - grazing systems - cattle housing
Het dossier Beweiding bevat een overzicht van actuele kennis over het onderwerp Beweiding. Een belangrijk onderdeel is de Basisbundel Beweiding, een set van powerpointpresentaties met actuele kennis over beweiding. Daarnaast is er informatie bij de thema’s ‘Feedwedge bij omweiden’ en ‘Nieuw Nederlands Weiden’ te downloaden.
Risks and opportunities of trophic rewilding for arthropod communities
Klink, Roel van; WallisDeVries, Michiel F. - \ 2018
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1761. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 8 p.
grazing - insects - invertebrates - near-natural grazing - Oostvaardersplassen - restoration
Trophic rewilding is a restoration strategy focusing on the restoration of trophic interactions to promote self-regulating, biodiverse ecosystems. It has been proposed as an alternative to traditional conservation management in abandoned or defaunated areas. Arthropods constitute the most species-rich group of eukaryotic organisms, but are rarely considered in rewilding. Here, we first present an overview of direct and indirect pathways by which large herbivores and predators affect arthropod communities. We then review the published evidence of the impacts of rewilding with large herbivores on arthropods, including grey literature. We find that systematic monitoring is rare and that a comparison with a relevant control treatment is usually lacking. Nevertheless, the available data suggest that when the important process of top-down control of large-herbivore populations is missing, arthropod diversity tends to decrease. To ensure that rewilding is supportive of biodiversity conservation, we propose that if natural processes can only partially be restored, substitutes for missing processes are applied. We also propose that boundaries of acceptable outcomes of rewilding actions should be defined a priori, particularly concerning biodiversity conservation, and that action is taken when these boundaries are transgressed. To evaluate the success of rewilding for biodiversity, monitoring of arthropod communities should be a key instrument.This article is part of the theme issue 'Trophic rewilding: consequences for ecosystems under global change'.
Models meet data : Challenges and opportunities in implementing land management in Earth system models
Pongratz, Julia ; Dolman, Han ; Don, Axel ; Erb, Karl Heinz ; Fuchs, Richard ; Herold, Martin ; Jones, Chris ; Kuemmerle, Tobias ; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan ; Meyfroidt, Patrick ; Naudts, Kim - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)4. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1470 - 1487.
climate - croplands - Earth observations - Earth system models - forestry - grazing - land management - land use
As the applications of Earth system models (ESMs) move from general climate projections toward questions of mitigation and adaptation, the inclusion of land management practices in these models becomes crucial. We carried out a survey among modeling groups to show an evolution from models able only to deal with land-cover change to more sophisticated approaches that allow also for the partial integration of land management changes. For the longer term a comprehensive land management representation can be anticipated for all major models. To guide the prioritization of implementation, we evaluate ten land management practices—forestry harvest, tree species selection, grazing and mowing harvest, crop harvest, crop species selection, irrigation, wetland drainage, fertilization, tillage, and fire—for (1) their importance on the Earth system, (2) the possibility of implementing them in state-of-the-art ESMs, and (3) availability of required input data. Matching these criteria, we identify “low-hanging fruits” for the inclusion in ESMs, such as basic implementations of crop and forestry harvest and fertilization. We also identify research requirements for specific communities to address the remaining land management practices. Data availability severely hampers modeling the most extensive land management practice, grazing and mowing harvest, and is a limiting factor for a comprehensive implementation of most other practices. Inadequate process understanding hampers even a basic assessment of crop species selection and tillage effects. The need for multiple advanced model structures will be the challenge for a comprehensive implementation of most practices but considerable synergy can be gained using the same structures for different practices. A continuous and closer collaboration of the modeling, Earth observation, and land system science communities is thus required to achieve the inclusion of land management in ESMs.
Restoration of inland brackish vegetation by large-scale transfer of coastal driftline material
Wolters, Mineke ; Vries, Saskia de; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Bakker, Jan P. - \ 2017
Applied Vegetation Science 20 (2017)4. - ISSN 1402-2001 - p. 641 - 650.
brackish habitat - dispersal - driftline - grazing - saline habitat - salinity - sheep - target species - top soil removal - transfer rate
Question: Does large-scale transfer of coastal driftline material enhance the establishment of inland brackish vegetation?. Location: The Klutenplas of 11 ha, a formerly reclaimed agricultural field, north coast of the Netherlands. Methods: A large quantity of coastal driftline material of local origin was transferred to the restoration site in 2006 after top soil removal in 2005 leaving bare areas for control plots. A priori species composition of the driftline was analysed in a greenhouse germination study. Target species were assigned to saline and brackish ecological species groups and present and historic regional occurrences. Our procedure for selecting target species resulted in a list of 98 species characteristic of terrestrial salt and brackish ecological species groups. The establishment of plant species in the field was recorded annually from 2006 to 2009, with a final survey in 2012. A comparison between locations with and without driftline was made. The entire study site was grazed with sheep. Results: Driftline material contained 39 species, including 26 target species. During the first 4 yr, the mean number of target species in the established vegetation of driftline plots was significantly higher than in control plots. When corrected for spontaneous occurrence by natural colonization in control plots, 44% of the target species in the established vegetation of driftline plots during the first 4 yr could be attributed to the transferred material. After 7 yr driftline and control plots converged to similar levels, probably as a result of dispersal by wind and animals. Conclusions: Transfer of coastal driftline material enhanced the rate of establishment of inland brackish vegetation for at least the first 4 yr.
Understanding relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment
Tamou, Charles - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): I.J.M. Boer, co-promotor(en): S.J. Oosting; R. Ripoll Bosch; I. Youssao Aboudou Karim. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431552 - 154
pastoralism - livestock - grazing - crop production - nature conservation - cattle breeds - environment - nature reserves - benin - pastoralisme - vee - begrazing - gewasproductie - natuurbescherming - rundveerassen - milieu - natuurreservaten - benin
The competition for land has become an issue of major concern and cause of conflict, especially between pastoralists and crop farmers, but also between pastoralists and nature conservation institutions. The Biosphere Reserve of W in Benin Republic (WBR) and its surrounding lands are located in the agro-pastoral contact zone in West Africa, enabling competition for land, and affecting the relations between pastoralism and its environment. The general aim of this thesis, therefore, was to understand the relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment. In terms of land use change, cropland area around WBR expanded, whereas grazing area reduced. Population growth and rising demand for food crops and cash crops were the indirect causes of this loss of grazing lands. Competing claims over land existed between crop farmers and pastoralists, among crop farmers, and among crop farmers, pastoralists, and the WBR authority due to past expropriation, unfair and incomplete implementation of the WBR regulations and the increasing shift of pastoral lifestyle to crop farming. In terms of effects of grazing on plant communities, highly grazed sites had more species diversity than lowly grazed sites. This suggests that the current level of grazing was not damaging plant communities’ diversity. Annual species dominated the surveyed vegetation, suggesting that restoration of grazing lands with perennials requires human intervention. Herding involves taking decisions and moving of livestock in search for feed. Herding decisions are based on traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of soil, forage and livestock. Pastoralists identified five different soils, which they selected for herding at different times of the year. Perennial grasses were perceived of high nutritional quality, whereas annuals were of low nutritional quality. Afzelia africana had high perceived quality for milk production, whereas Khaya senegalensis had the highest perceived quality for meat production, health and strength. In decision making for herding, pastoralists used a holistic approach, combining TEK about soil, vegetation and livestock, in a structured and prioritised reasoning. Changes in the pastoral system can lead to changes in desired livestock traits, which may lead to loss of indigenous breeds. Keteeji was valued for its endurance and tolerance to trypanosomiasis, Bodeeji was highly valued for endurance and Gudali was perceived of high value for meat and milk production, but of low value for endurance. To deal with the changing and unfavourable conditions of their environment, pastoralists preferred cattle breeds performing well on adaptive traits i.e. withstanding hunger, intelligence, and withstanding disease. Our results suggest that pastoralism is under pressure and that its survival depends on policies. In the pessimistic scenario, i.e. without any change, pastoralists will use, likely, the stepping-out strategy in the future. In the optimistic scenario, two possible institutional interventions could help maintaining pastoralism in the region: payments for ecosystem services provided by pastoralism, and association of pastoralism with nature conservation. In practice, however, the implementation of these two interventions is very challenging, which implies an increasing vulnerability of pastoralists and pastoral lifestyle.
Grazing and automation : proceedings 4th Meeting EGF Working Group "Grazing" in Wageningen
Pol-van Dasselaar, A. van den; Vlieger, A. de; Hennesy, D. ; Isselstein, J. ; Peyraud, J.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1003) - 24
dairy cattle - machine milking - grazing - dairy farming - automation - melkvee - machinaal melken - begrazing - melkveehouderij - automatisering
Weidegang weer terug in het agrarisch onderwijs
Pol-van Dasselaar, Agnes van den - \ 2016
agricultural education - grasslands - grazing - on-farm training - dairy farming - cows - agricultural prices
Wel of geen weidegang is geen zwart-witverhaal, maar zorgt standaard wel voor stevige discussies onder agrarische studenten, zo heeft Agnes van den Pol-van Dasselaar ervaren. De lector Beweiding werkt aan het verankeren en versterken van praktijkkennis over weidegang in het onderwijs.
Wandelende maaiers en bemesters in Purmerend : 180 lammeren moeten veldkwaliteit Purmersteijn verbeteren
Schoot, Jan Rinze van der - \ 2016
sports grounds - grazing - lambs - sheep - sward renovation
Al enige tijd liep fieldmanager Jan Butter ermee rond, het idee om de velden te laten begrazen door lammeren. Dit jaar werd die wens werkelijkheid. Op 3 juli werden onder toeziend oog van diverse belangstellenden 180 lammeren losgelaten op complex Purmersteijn. Daar begrazen en bepoepen de beestjes, afkomstig van een plaatselijke boer, zo’n drie weken lang de natuurgrasvelden, in de hoop dat zij de veldkwaliteit helpen verbeteren nog voordat het voetbalseizoen begint
Mosquera, J. ; Philipsen, B. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 983) - 23
melkkoeien - melkvee - begrazing - ammoniakemissie - rundveemest - rundveeteelt - dairy cows - dairy cattle - grazing - ammonia emission - cattle manure - cattle farming
Grazing is a possible measure within PAS (Programmatic Approach Nitrogen) to reduce ammonia emissions from cattle farming (PAS 2015.08.02). In order to be applied, all dairy cows should be grazing for at least 720 hours per year. This measure is being assigned an ammonia emission reduction of 5%. The purpose of this desk study is to identify and quantify the effect of grazing on the ammonia emission from/in perspective of the whole manure chain for different grazing strategies.
Koeien kunnen omschakelen : On-off weiden maakt economisch geen verschil, maar spaart wel arbeid
Galama, Paul ; Holshof, Gertjan - \ 2016
dairy farming - grasslands - grazing - grazing systems - farm management - milk production - dairy cattle nutrition - dry matter - grasses - stalls - strip grazing - returns
Nederlandse melkveehouders ‘mixen’ weidegang met op stal bĳvoeren. Maar dat hoeft niet, zo blĳkt uit onderzoek met de koeien van het VIC in Zegveld. Met on-off weiden gaat de koe dag en nacht weiden als er gras is, óf staat ze op stal waar ze dan volledig gevoerd wordt. De melkproductie en de bĳ gevoerde kilo’s droge stof zĳn bĳ on-off weiden hetzelfde als bĳ beperkt weiden en op stal voeren.
Succesvol weiden tijdens voorjaar en najaar in Nederland
Snip, Karst-Jan ; Kwakernaak, C. ; Stienezen, M.W.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 1
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - huisvesting, dieren - begrazing - diervoeding - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - animal housing - grazing - animal nutrition
Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands. : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
Vonk, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 53) - 164
air pollutants, greenhouse gases, livestock, crops, animal housing, manure storage, manure application, inorganic fertilizer, enteric fermentation, manure management, agricultural soils, liming, NIR, CRF, IIR, NFR - landbouw - gewassen - landbouwgronden - vee - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - mestverwerking - begrazing - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - kooldioxide - methaan - anorganische meststoffen - fermentatie - bekalking - nederland - compost - rioolslib - teelt - oogstresten - rijp worden - agriculture - crops - agricultural soils - livestock - animal housing - animal manures - cattle manure - manure treatment - grazing - greenhouse gases - air pollutants - emission - ammonia emission - carbon dioxide - methane - inorganic fertilizers - fermentation - liming - netherlands - composts - sewage sludge - cultivation - crop residues - ripening
The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing are assessed using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N-fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, and carbon dioxide
(CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission
calculations with NEMA
Sensor voorspelt grasopname : koeien nemen meer gras op uit het weiland dan berekend met de vem-dekking
Reenen, Kees van; Zom, Ronald ; Galama, Paul - \ 2016
dairy cows - dairy farming - sensors - grazing - grasses - feed intake - pastures - agricultural research
Wie stuurt de herder? : concurrentie of coöperatie? : natuur- en cultuurproductie met schaapskuddes
Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2708) - 47
schapen - natuurbescherming - heidegebieden - financiën - contracten - begrazing - erfgoed - nederland - sheep - nature conservation - heathlands - finance - contracts - grazing - heritage areas - netherlands
Een verkennend onderzoek naar de positie en betekenis van traditioneel werkende herders in de Nederlandse samenleving. Aan de hand van interviews, een workshop en modelberekeningen is een beeld gevormd van de financiële positie van de herders in de sector, van de knelpunten en van de betekenis die de herders hebben voor natuur en cultuurhistorie. De analyse wijst uit dat de traditioneel werkende herders een maatschappelijke meerwaarde leveren die wordt ondergewaardeerd. Er worden diverse oplossingsrichtingen aangedragen en aanbevelingen gedaan voor een structurele herziening van het huidige systeem met korte termijn contracten.
Een nieuwe economische basis voor de kudde in het Gulpdal? : zoektocht naar draagvlak voor gescheperde begrazing met streekeigen Mergellandschapen
Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Westerink, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR Wetenschapswinkel 326) - 46
schapenhouderij - kuddes (herds) - begrazing - natuurbeheer - vegetatiebeheer - landbouwkundig onderzoek - limburg - financieren - landbouwbeleid - sheep farming - herds - grazing - nature management - vegetation management - agricultural research - limburg - financing - agricultural policy
Het vinden van een nieuwe economische basis voor gescheperde kuddes is van belang voor het landschap, de natuur en het levend cultuurhistorisch erfgoed. Dit onderzoek draagt bij aan het nadenken over nieuwe richtingen en het vinden en opbouwen van een nieuwe ‘klantenkring’. Binnen het kader van het grotere onderzoeksproject ligt de nadruk van het onderzoek door Wageningen op het in kaart brengen van de belangen van alle betrokken partijen en het van hieruit ontwerpen van een nieuw sociaal contract waarmee de schaapskudde in het Gulpdal duurzaam in stand kan worden gehouden.
Pol-van Dasselaar, Agnes van den; Galama, Paul - \ 2015
livestock farming - selective grazing - rotational grazing - grazing - agricultural research - animal behaviour
Weiden en bodem : nog niet zo simpel
Lenssinck, Frank - \ 2015
grazing - milk production - grazing management - returns - animal health - grassland management - dairy farming