Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    ‘Robot en weidegang: blijf bij je systeem’ : Bert Philipsen pleit voor rust, regelmaat en loslaten
    Philipsen, Bert - \ 2015
    dairy farming - dairy farming systems - grazing - grazing systems - grazing intensity - milking robots - farm management - livestock farming - cattle husbandry

    Robotmelken en weidegang is een kwestie van goed plannen, een doordacht systeem hebben, consequent handelen en loslaten. Dat stelt Bert Philipsen van Wageningen Livestock Research. „Zoek de werkwijze die bij je past. Weet wat je wilt en zoek naar rust en regelmaat. Dan kan robotmelken plus weidegang een succes worden.”

    Intermediate herbivory intensity of an aboveground pest promotes soil labile resources and microbial biomass via modifying rice growth
    Huang, J. ; Liu, M. ; Chen, X. ; Chen, J. ; Chen, F. ; Li, H. ; Hu, F. - \ 2013
    Plant and Soil 367 (2013). - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 437 - 447.
    nilaparvata-lugens stal - below-ground communities - inner-mongolia grassland - animal trophic groups - brown planthopper - lolium-perenne - nitrogen availability - plant performance - grazing intensity - carbon allocation
    The importance of aboveground herbivores for modifying belowground ecosystems has prompted numerous studies; however, studies can be biased by context dependent conditions which lead to extremely inconsistent results. So far, the impacts of herbivory inte
    Does conservation on farmland contribute to halting the biodiversity decline?
    Kleijn, D. ; Rundlöf, M. ; Scheper, J.A. ; Smith, H.G. ; Tscharntke, T. - \ 2011
    Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26 (2011)9. - ISSN 0169-5347 - p. 474 - 481.
    agri-environment schemes - land-use intensity - agricultural intensification - landscape context - species richness - european countries - bird populations - biological-control - grazing intensity - natural enemies
    Biodiversity continues to decline, despite the implementation of international conservation conventions and measures. To counteract biodiversity loss, it is pivotal to know how conservation actions affect biodiversity trends. Focussing on European farmland species, we review what is known about the impact of conservation initiatives on biodiversity. We argue that the effects of conservation are a function of conservation-induced ecological contrast, agricultural land-use intensity and landscape context. We find that, to date, only a few studies have linked local conservation effects to national biodiversity trends. It is therefore unknown how the extensive European agri-environmental budget for conservation on farmland contributes to the policy objectives to halt biodiversity decline. Based on this review, we identify new research directions addressing this important knowledge gap.
    Intensification of agriculture, landscape composition and wild bee communities: A large scale study in four European countries
    Feon, V. Le; Schermann-Legionnet, A. ; Delettre, Y. ; Aviron, S. ; Billeter, R. ; Bugter, R.J.F. ; Hendrickx, F. ; Burel, F. - \ 2010
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 137 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 143 - 150.
    co-inertia analysis - pollinator diversity - grazing intensity - bumble bees - beneficial arthropods - boundary vegetation - species-diversity - crop pollination - foraging ranges - nesting bees
    The impacts of agricultural practices and landscape composition on bee communities were investigated in 14 sites located in four Western European countries (Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Standardized interviews with farmers assessed agricultural practices in terms of agricultural inputs (nitrogen fertilization and pesticides), livestock density and crop types. The proportion of semi-natural habitats was calculated for each site. We showed negative effects of agricultural intensification on species richness, abundance and diversity of wild bees. By contrast, bee species richness increased with the amount of semi-natural habitats in the landscape. Using a co-inertia analysis, we found an opposition between two types of agricultural specialization: towards crop production or towards animal husbandry. Species richness, abundance and diversity of wild bees were greater in sites turned towards crop production. In these sites, flowering crops provided abundant food resources for bees whereas, in the other group of sites, intensive animal husbandry led to landscapes dominated by forage crops rather than flower-rich permanent grasslands. We also showed that bumblebees seemed to be less sensitive to agricultural intensification than solitary bees.
    Effect of conservation management on bees and insect-pollinated grassland plant communities in three European countries
    Batáry, P. ; Báldi, A. ; Sárospataki, M. ; Kohler, F. ; Verhulst, J. ; Knop, E. ; Herzog, F. ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2010
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 136 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 35 - 39.
    agri-environment schemes - intensively farmed landscapes - grazing intensity - agricultural intensification - promoting biodiversity - farmland biodiversity - diversity - scale - assemblages - populations
    It is now widely accepted that agricultural intensification drives the decline of biodiversity and related ecosystem services like pollination. Conservation management, such as agri-environment schemes (AES), has been introduced to counteract these declines, but in Western European countries these tend to produce mixed biodiversity benefits. Not much is known about the effects of AES in Central and Eastern European countries. We evaluated the effect of reduced stocking rates (0.5 cow/ha vs. >1 cow/ha) on bees and insect-pollinated plants in semi-natural pastures in Hungary. We sampled bees using sweep net and transect surveys in the edge and interior of the fields three times in 2003. On the same transects, we also estimated the cover of all plant species. We found no management effect on species richness and abundance with respect to cover of bees and insect-pollinated plants, but grazing intensity resulted in differences in species composition of insect-pollinated plants. Furthermore, we compared our results with those of a similar study carried out in Switzerland, and the Netherlands, but with different management regimes. There were positive effects of management in Switzerland, but conservation effects were lacking in the Netherlands. Species richness of both bees and insect-pollinated plants was highest in Hungary, intermediate in Switzerland and lowest in the Netherlands. Across all countries, the richness of insect-pollinated plants was a good predictor of bee species richness. Grassland extensification schemes were effective for bees and insect-pollinated plants in the country with intermediate land-use intensity and biodiversity only (Switzerland). The absence of effects in the Netherlands may have been caused by the management being highly intensive on both field types. In Hungarian grasslands biodiversity levels were high regardless of management and both investigated stocking rates may be qualified as conservation management. Therefore, agricultural policy in Hungary should encourage the maintenance of a variety of traditional grazing practices for conserving this still highly diverse pollinator fauna.
    Stroomdalgraslanden in Nederland : ontwikkeling en beheer in de Vreugderijkerwaard : veldwerkplaats rivierenlandschap Vreugderijkerwaard, 16 mei 2008
    Sykora, K.V. ; Zwanenburg, L. - \ 2008
    [S.l. : S.n. - 5
    begrazing - soortenrijkdom - soortendiversiteit - beweidingsintensiteit - natuurbeheer - uiterwaarden - begrazingsbeheer - grazing - species richness - species diversity - grazing intensity - nature management - river forelands - grazing management
    Verslag van de veldwerkplaats in de Vreugderijkerwaard, een tweeluik van excursies. Op 28 mei zijn de Millingerwaard en de Erlecomsewaard bezocht. Per gebied werden de beheersstrategieën besproken, de mate van begrazingsintensiteit voor een succesvol beheer, de dynamische verschillen per uiterwaardengebied en de verspreiding en soortensamenstelling van plantengemeenschappen. De Vreugderijkerwaard is een uiterwaard langs de IJssel, waarvan een deel al tientallen jaren in beheer is bij Natuurmonumenten. Op de oeverwal is tijdens de veldexcursie een prachtig ontwikkelde stroomdalvegetatie aangetroffen. Dit zijn de resultaten van een uitgekiend begrazingsbeheer. Ook zijn sinds enkele jaren een aantal voormalige agrarische graslanden bij het reservaat gevoegd en integraal opgenomen in de begrazing. Al na een paar jaar vestigden zich hier (massaal) enkele rode lijst- soorten. De basis voor een geslaagd beheer is de aanwezigheid van gezonde natuurlijke processen.
    Voordeel extensief bedrijf. Wageningen Universiteit brengt invloeden van klimaatverandering op de melkveehouderij in beeld
    Deusings, J. ; Berentsen, Paul - \ 2008
    Veeteelt 25 (2008)8. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 12 - 14.
    melkveehouderij - klimaatverandering - intensieve veehouderij - extensieve veehouderij - beweidingsintensiteit - graslanden - gewasproductie - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - dairy farming - climatic change - intensive livestock farming - extensive livestock farming - grazing intensity - grasslands - crop production - farm results
    Een stijgende temperatuur en periodes met veel neerslag. Welke invloed heeft dat op de Nederlandse melkveehouderij? Wagenings onderzoek brengt effecten van klimaatverandering in beeld en bekijkt de economische consequenties. Om de economische gevolgen van de klimaatverandering voor Nederlandse melkveebedrijven te bepalen zijn modelberekeningen gedaan voor 2 voorbeeldbedrijven met een verschillende intensiteit
    Spectral and human sensors : hyperspectral remote sensing and participatory GIS for mapping livestock grazing intensity and vegetation in transhumant Mediterranean conservation areas
    Bemigisha, J. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Sip van Wieren. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049364 - 156
    geografische informatiesystemen - remote sensing - beweidingsintensiteit - cartografie - middellandse-zeegebied - vegetatie - ontbladering - mediterrane graslanden - geographical information systems - remote sensing - grazing intensity - mapping - mediterranean region - vegetation - defoliation - mediterranean grasslands
    Increasing shortage of pasture resources due to land use conversion
    constitutes a major challenge to traditional transhumance systems.
    Reduction of transhumance and related activities leaves the non
    converted areas abandoned. This may lead to change in grazing
    intensity, which might result into change in species composition and
    vegetation pattern. A reduction in grazing intensity might thus
    influence the biodiversity and forage quality of previously more
    intensively grazed areas. Proper management of Mediterranean
    grasslands would require insight on how grazing intensity varies
    across a landscape and how it influences the distribution and
    abundance of plant species.
    The aim of this study was to investigate methods for mapping of
    livestock grazing intensity and vegetation, using hyperspectral remote
    sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and participatory GIS
    (PGIS). Investigations were undertaken at two main levels. A
    greenhouse experiment was used to investigate the effects of
    defoliation and defoliation time for two species grown in mono and
    mixed culture on the height and dry matter yield as measures of
    regrowth and competitive ability of two livestock forage grasses
    selected from a transhumant Mediterranean area. Narrow band
    hyperspectral reflectance, indices and the red-edge position were
    investigated to see if they may be used to study these effects. At field
    landscape level, we tested the use of local people’s knowledge in
    mapping grazing intensity through the application of PGIS.
    The results from the greenhouse experiment showed that the species
    with higher dry matter yield (Lolium multiflorum) had a significantly
    higher relative regrowth rate and possibly higher competitive ability
    than its competitor Dactylis glomerata (P < 0.05). Increase in dry
    matter yield was shown as the trait that determines competitive
    ability in the early established stage of the two grass species (period
    of 13 to 18 weeks after sowing). The experiment also provided insight
    on the persistence of forage species that are of grazing preference.
    Selective clipping did not alter the competitive ability of D. glomerata
    to surpass that of L. multiflorum when the former was clipped at
    lower clipping intensity to simulate selective grazing.
    The hyperspectral remote sensing variables that may be used to
    estimate the effect of species types, cultures and defoliation
    treatments were: the physiological reflectance index (PRI), the Carter
    index, R694, the ration of the Transformed Chlorophyll Absorption in
    Reflectance Index to the Optimized Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index
    (TCARI/OSAVI) and the red-edge position. The PRI was found to be
    the most sensitive index. A significant increase (p < 0.001) in PRI
    was associated with the higher competitive ability of L. multiflorum
    than D. glomerata when the two were mixed. The response of the PRI
    from negative to positive over the measurement time in relation to
    height and dry matter yield suggest that the PRI may be used to
    study competitive ability because the related growth characteristics
    are indicators of competitive ability. This encourages further
    investigation of this method as a potential simpler and quicker
    alternative to the existing canopy height and pasture growth models.
    This may lead to efficient assessment and improved understanding of
    the condition and spatial patterns of forage vegetation species at field
    level.
    At field landscape level, using participatory GIS (PGIS), spatial
    knowledge on grazing intensity from pastoralists and local range
    ecology experts was elicited and relevant criteria generated and used
    to classify grazing intensity. Local pastoralists appeared to be more
    knowledgeable than local range ecology experts, possibly because of
    the pastoralists’ superior familiarity with the rangeland and better
    perceptions about the distribution of palatable species but the experts
    represented the grazing intensity better on a map. Local pastoralists
    have potential to contribute better to this process if the PGIS includes
    adequate training in the map making process. The local experts
    showed the capability to produce data and synthesize spatial
    variables, but it was also shown that the expert-based PGIS maps
    may not always be reliable. Using a proposition that “This area or
    pixel belongs to the high, medium, or low grazing intensity class
    because the local expert(s) says (say) so”, we tested for uncertainty
    in the PGIS-maps produced by different local experts using spatial
    tools such as evidential belief functions (EBFs).
    Evaluating the classification uncertainty in the different grazing
    intensity maps revealed that the maps with the lowest uncertainty
    were based on the composition of palatable vegetation species as the
    mapping criterion. This criterion may be used for mapping grazing
    intensity because it relates to measures of forage condition such as
    ground cover and quality, but it may be limited in use if other
    parameters such as vegetation composition and quantity are not
    integrated. If the definition of grazing intensity also includes these
    parameters and also livestock vegetation use factor and impacts on
    vegetation, then the proposition for EBF evaluation would be that:
    “This pixel or area is a specific grazing intensity class because of the
    level of livestock grazing use and its impacts on species composition,
    ground cover, quantity and quality. These parameters may be
    efficiently estimated using hyperspectral remote sensing. In order to
    include local knowledge in such an evaluation, research should
    establish how local pastoralists and experts may process the various
    parameters and how they may apply such a proposition.
    Since more than one criterion proved cumbersome for the local
    experts as evidenced by a weak correlation between the grazing
    intensity map and a grazing suitability index (r =0.35 (p < 0.01)),
    spatial multiple criteria tools may be useful for synthesizing the
    different mapping criteria.
    Overall, this study showed that high spectral resolution sensors can
    detect the effect of grazing and competitive interactions among
    forage plants through narrow band channels across the spectrum,
    while the local people perceive a few broad grazing intensity classes
    and spatially represent them using a few criteria. The two are
    complementary. The spectral sensor provides detailed information on
    the status and spatial patterns of vegetation, while local participants
    provide the spatial information on a more general coarse scale that
    may be used as baseline for hyperspectral remote sensing research.
    Weiden kan op elk bedrijf
    Hogenkamp, W. - \ 2007
    Boerderij 92 (2007)26. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 14 - 15.
    melkveehouderij - melkvee - begrazing - beweidingsintensiteit - beweidingssystemen - dairy farming - dairy cattle - grazing - grazing intensity - grazing systems
    Steeds vaker komt het voor dat koeien jaarrond op stal staan. Het project Koe en wij probeert hierin verandering te brengen. Met een goed beweidingsplan is het namelijk mogelijk om koeien buiten te laten grazen
    Maak paden hard en geef koe ruimte
    Versteeg, A. - \ 2007
    Boerderij/Veehouderij 92 (2007)11. - p. 16 - 17.
    veehouders - melkveebedrijven - rundvee - koeien - begrazing - weiden - beweidingsintensiteit - grasmatvernietiging - flexibiliteit - melkkoeien - weer - graastijd - stockmen - dairy farms - cattle - cows - grazing - pastures - grazing intensity - sward destruction - flexibility - dairy cows - weather - grazing date
    Veehouders met veel vee zijn al gauw huiverig om de koeien naar buiten te doen. He gebrek aan overzicht en vertrapping in het land zijn gemakkelijk te voorkomen. Een dertiental tips worden gegeven
    Geef fris gras met constant ruw eiwit
    Hogenkamp, W. - \ 2007
    Boerderij/Veehouderij 92 (2007)13. - p. 12 - 13.
    rundveevoeding - begrazing - beweidingsintensiteit - weiden - graslandbeheer - klavers - ruweiwit - bijvoeding - voeropname - rantsoenbeweiding - bemesting - cattle feeding - grazing - grazing intensity - pastures - grassland management - clovers - crude protein - supplementary feeding - feed intake - controlled grazing - fertilizer application
    Een evenwichtig weiderantsoen geeft constante productie en een niet te hoog melkureumgehalte. Veehouderij zet in samenwerking met NMI en Koe en Wij de aandachtspunten op een rij
    'Niet bang zijn om later in te scharen'; Thema graslandmanagement
    Klein Swormink, B. - \ 2006
    Nieuwe oogst / LTO Noord. Editie Noord 2 (2006)15. - ISSN 1871-0875 - p. 29 - 29.
    graslanden - graslandbeheer - opbrengsten - stikstofmeststoffen - eiwitgehalte - begrazing - begrazingsproeven - beweidingsintensiteit - dierhouderij - grasmatvernietiging - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - grasslands - grassland management - yields - nitrogen fertilizers - protein content - grazing - grazing trials - grazing intensity - animal husbandry - sward destruction - farm management
    Theun Vellinga promoveerde op verbetering van grasland- en stikstofgebruik. Volgens hem kunnen veehouders bij het managen van hun grasland meer sturen op het eiwitgehalte van het gras. De benutting van grasland kan beter. Een veel gemaakte fout is het inscharen van koeien in te jong gras. Dit is niet alleen slecht voor de stikstofbenutting, het kost ook opbrengst
    Weidegang... in beweging
    Animal Sciences Group (ASG), - \ 2005
    Animal Sciences Group
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - graasduur - begrazing - beweidingsintensiteit - beweidingssystemen - weiden - graslanden - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - dairy farming - dairy cows - grazing time - grazing - grazing intensity - grazing systems - pastures - grasslands - farm management
    Het doel van deze brochure is om een actueel overzicht van weidegang te geven. Door ontwikkelingen in de melkveehouderij wordt weidegang steeds minder vanzelfsprekend, ten gunste van opstallen. Hoe erg is dat eigenlijk? Is weidegang belangrijk? En zo ja, waarom?
    Koe zoekt wei : een beschrijving van het belang van weidegang en maatregelen om weidegang te behouden
    Berg, B. van den; Dobbe, J. - \ 2005
    Den Haag [etc.] : Nederlandse Vereniging tot Bescherming van Dieren [etc.] - 30 p.
    begrazing - beweidingsintensiteit - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - grazing - grazing intensity - animal welfare - animal health
    Dat weidegang van koeien steeds verder achteruit gaat, heeft meerdere oorzaken. Er is dan ook niet één eenvoudige oplossing om deze ontwikkeling te stoppen en weidegang te behouden. Er zal een veelheid aan acties ondernomen moeten worden door alle bij deze problematiek betrokken partijen. Maatschappelijke organisaties roepen daarom supermarkten, zuivelindustrie, organisaties van melkveehouders en de overheid op om een krachtdadig plan van aanpak op te stellen voor behoud van weidegang van koeien. In deze nota geven de Dierenbescherming en Stichting Natuur en Milieu een voorzet voor de discussie met bedrijfsleven en overheid, door te beschrijven wat zij zoal zouden kunnen doen voor het behoud van weidegang en door aan te geven wat er volgens hen minimaal moet gebeuren
    Ammoniakemissie uit de melkveestal bij beperkte weidegang in relatie tot melkureumgehalte
    Duinkerken, G. van; Smits, M.C.J. ; Sebek, L.B.J. ; Vereijken, P.F.G. ; Andre, G. ; Monteny, G.J. - \ 2004
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (PraktijkRapport / Animal Sciences Group, Praktijkonderzoek : Rundvee ) - 24
    ammoniak - ureum - rantsoenbeweiding - beweidingsintensiteit - ammonia - urea - controlled grazing - grazing intensity
    Ammoniak (NH3) ontstaat wanneer ureum uit de urine wordt afgebroken door het enzym urease, dat onder andere aanwezig is in mest. Urine en mest komen met elkaar in contact op stalvloeren en in mestkelders, waardoor een melkveestal een belangrijke bron van ammoniakuitstoot is. Bepalend voor de mate van emissie zijn met name de ureumconcentratie in de urine en de temperatuur. De ammoniakemissie vanuit natuurlijk geventileerde melkveestallen kan met behulp van voedingsmaatregelen worden teruggedrongen. Dit geldt zowel voor bedrijfssituaties met summerfeeding als bedrijfssituaties met beperkte weidegang. Het melkureumgehalte is daarbij een goede indicator voor de emissiereductie. Voedingsmaatregelen die bijdragen aan verlaging van het melkureumgehalte, dragen tevens bij aan een verlaging van de ammoniakemissie uit de stal. Voorbeelden van dergelijke emissieverlagende maatregelen zijn: verlaging van het N-bemestingsniveau op grasland, later inscharen in weidepercelen en het bijvoeren van energierijke en eiwitarme voeders op stal (denk aan snijmaïs). De ammoniakemissie vanuit de natuurlijk geventileerde ligboxenstal met roostervloer kan voor bedrijfssituaties met beperkte weidegang goed worden voorspeld met een emissiemodel met buitentemperatuur en tankmelkureumgehalte als verklarende variabelen. Uit dit model blijkt dat de stalemissie stijgt met ca. 2,6% bij toename van de buitentemperatuur met 1°C en dat de stalemissie exponentieel stijgt bij een toename van het tankmelkureumgehalte. Bij een niveau van 20 mg ureum per 100 g melk stijgt de stalemissie met ca. 2,5% bij stijging van het melkureumgehalte met 1 mg/100 g. Bij een niveau van 30 mg ureum per 100 g melk stijgt de stalemissie met ca. 3,5% bij stijging van het melkureumgehalte met 1 mg/100 g
    Stikstofverliezen op droge zandgronden kunnen omlaag
    Boer, H.C. de - \ 2004
    Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 18 (2004)1. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 14 - 15.
    nitraten - uitspoelen - verontreinigingsbeheersing - grondwaterverontreiniging - melkveehouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - beweidingsintensiteit - zandgronden - weiden - bemesting - nitrates - leaching - pollution control - groundwater pollution - dairy farming - farm management - grazing intensity - sandy soils - pastures - fertilizer application
    Uit driejarig onderzoek op droge zandgrond blijkt dat minder beweiding in combinatie met een lagere werkzame stikstofgift de nitraatuitspoeling duidelijk kan verlagen bij slechts een lichte daling van de netto drogestofopbrengst.
    Herbivores as mediators of their environment: the impact of large and small species on vegetation dynamics
    Bakker, E.S. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse; H. Olff. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058088789 - 184
    grazing - grasslands - cattle - rabbits - herbivores - grazing intensity - voles - grazing experiments - vegetation management - netherlands - natural areas - begrazing - graslanden - rundvee - konijnen - herbivoren - beweidingsintensiteit - woelmuizen - begrazingsexperimenten - vegetatiebeheer - nederland - natuurgebieden

    Regarding the scale at which grasslands are grazed and the use of large grazers as a tool in nature conservation, it is important to understand the impact that herbivores may have on grasslands. Over the last decades evidence has accumulated that herbivores can have a strong impact on plant communities and vegetation dynamics, but the direction and strength of herbivore effects differs much between studies. One reason could be that different types or sizes of herbivores have different effects. This study compares the effects of large and small herbivores on plant species diversity, vegetation and nutrient dynamics and grassland-woodland transitions. The data presented result from field experiments on a moderately nutrient rich riverine floodplain grassland, grazed by cattle, European rabbits and common voles.

    The herbivores studied showed strong interactions: cattle facilitated for rabbits, i.e. most rabbits grazed where cattle also grazed, whereas voles preferred vegetation where cattle were excluded. Cattle grazing created a short sward where colonization rates of plant species were enhanced, resulting in more species per square meter than in ungrazed vegetation. However, most species within this short sward were found where rabbits created bare soil patches through digging, thus providing colonizing species with a suitable regeneration site. Grazing by cattle and rabbits resulted in lower nitrogen availability for plants compared to treatments where only voles grazed. This can be due to a different scale of returning nutrients through faeces: cattle create a few very rich patches and remove nutrients from most of the vegetation, whereas voles redistribute nutrients at a very fine scale, returning small amounts to many plants. The grazing pressure of voles was calculated to be roughly similar to that of cattle and rabbits together. However, grazing by cattle and rabbits caused a short sward and a very stable plant composition with regard to the dominant species, whereas vole grazing caused the dominant plants to show large year-to-year fluctuations in abundance and a high average vegetation height. These differences are probably induced by the size of the herbivores and thus whether they graze the vegetation from above or from below.

    In the transition zone of grassland to woodland, palatable trees (Oaks) could invade grazed grassland through the association with unpalatable thorny shrubs (Blackthorn), a process called associational resistance. Associational resistance did work effectively against cattle, but not against rabbits, that both consumed Blackthorn sprouts and young Oaks by going under the shrubs to consume the tree seedlings. Therefore rabbits inhibited tree regeneration, whereas under cattle grazing a mosaic of shrubs, trees and grassland could develop.

    Concluding, herbivores can strongly affect their environment, but not in a standard way, i.e. different herbivores have different potentials that are explained both by differences in herbivore size and in habits, as burrowing or consumption of woody plants.

    How effective are European agri-environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity?
    Kleijn, D. ; Sutherland, W.J. - \ 2003
    Journal of Applied Ecology 40 (2003)6. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 947 - 969.
    natuurbescherming - wildbescherming - landbouwbeleid - evaluatie - landen van de europese unie - agrarisch natuurbeheer - nature conservation - wildlife conservation - agricultural policy - evaluation - european union countries - agri-environment schemes - herbicide-tolerant crops - skylarks alauda-arvensis - farm-scale evaluations - cereal fields - agricultural landscape - headland management - grazing intensity - bird populations - southern england - conservation
    1. Increasing concern over the environmental impact of agriculture in Europe has led to the introduction of agri-environment schemes. These schemes compensate farmers financially for any loss of income associated with measures that aim to benefit the environment or biodiversity. There are currently agri-environment schemes in 26 out of 44 European countries. 2. Agri-environment schemes vary markedly between countries even within the European Union. The main objectives include reducing nutrient and pesticide emissions, protecting biodiversity, restoring landscapes and preventing rural depopulation. In virtually all countries the uptake of schemes is highest in areas of extensive agriculture where biodiversity is still relatively high and lowest in intensively farmed areas where biodiversity is low. 3. Approximately e24.3 billion has been spent on agri-environment schemes in the European Union (EU) since 1994, an unknown proportion of it on schemes with biodiversity conservation aims. We carried out a comprehensive search for studies that test the effectiveness of agri-environment schemes in published papers or reports. Only 62 evaluation studies were found originating from just five EU countries and Switzerland (5). Indeed 76% of the studies were from the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, where until now only c. 6% of the EU agri-environmental budget has been spent. Other studies were from Germany (6), Ireland (3) and Portugal (1). 4. In the majority of studies, the research design was inadequate to assess reliably the effectiveness of the schemes. Thirty-one percent did not contain a statistical analysis. Where an experimental approach was used, designs were usually weak and biased towards giving a favourable result. The commonest experimental design (37% of the studies) was a comparison of biodiversity in agri-environment schemes and control areas. However, there is a risk of bias if either farmers or scheme co-ordinators select the sites for agri-environment schemes. In such cases the sites are likely to have a higher biodiversity at the outset compared to the controls. This problem may be addressed by collecting baseline data (34% of studies), comparing trends (32%) or changes (26%) in biodiversity between areas with and without schemes or by pairing scheme and control sites that experience similar environmental conditions (16%). 5. Overall, 54% of the examined species (groups) demonstrated increases and 6% decreases in species richness or abundance compared with controls. Seventeen percent showed increases for some species and decreases for other species, while 23% showed no change at all in response to agri-environment schemes. The response varied between taxa. Of 19 studies examining the response of birds that included a statistical analysis, four showed significant increases in species richness or abundance, two showed decreases and nine showed both increases and decreases. Comparative figures for 20 arthropod studies yielded 11 studies that showed an increase in species richness or abundance, no study showed a decrease and three showed both increases and decreases. Fourteen plant studies yielded six studies that showed increases in species richness or abundance, two showed decreases and no study showed both increases and decreases. 6. Synthesis and applications. The lack of robust evaluation studies does not allow a general judgement of the effectiveness of European agri-environment schemes. We suggest that in the future, ecological evaluations must become an integral part of any scheme, including the collection of baseline data, the random placement of scheme and control sites in areas with similar initial conditions, and sufficient replication. Results of these studies should be collected and disseminated more widely, in order to identify the approaches and prescriptions that best deliver biodiversity enhancement and value for money from community support.
    Milieuspagaat bij beweiding: broeikasgassen of MINAS
    Laarhoven, G. van; Corré, W.J. - \ 2002
    Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 16 (2002)5. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 12 - 13.
    begrazing - beweidingssystemen - beweidingsintensiteit - graasduur - zomerstalvoedering - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - melkveehouderij - melkvee - melkkoeien - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - intensivering - intensieve veehouderij - mineralen - boekhouding - stikstof - fosfaat - energiegebruik - energie - broeikaseffect - luchtverontreiniging - milieubeheer - milieubescherming - grazing - grazing systems - grazing intensity - grazing time - zero grazing - farm management - dairy farming - dairy cattle - dairy cows - farm comparisons - intensification - intensive livestock farming - minerals - accounting - nitrogen - phosphate - energy consumption - energy - greenhouse effect - air pollution - environmental management - environmental protection
    Beweiding heeft invloed op de mate en de vorm waarin stikstof verloren gaat. Het volledig opstallen van de koeien is in veel gevallen een effectieve maatregel voor het halen van de Minas-normen.
    Plus voor economie en arbeid bij beweiding
    Laarhoven, G. van - \ 2002
    Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 16 (2002)5. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 8 - 9.
    begrazing - beweidingssystemen - graasduur - zomerstalvoedering - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - beweidingsintensiteit - melkveehouderij - melkvee - melkkoeien - intensieve veehouderij - intensivering - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - inkomsten uit arbeid - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - kosten-batenanalyse - arbeid (werk) - arbeidsintensiteit - arbeid in de landbouw - grazing - grazing systems - grazing time - zero grazing - farm management - grazing intensity - dairy farming - dairy cattle - dairy cows - intensive livestock farming - intensification - farm results - earned income - farm comparisons - cost benefit analysis - labour - labour intensity - farm labour
    Over het algemeen is het zo dat de arbeidsopbrengst bij systemen met beweiding hoger is dan bij systemen zonder beweiding.
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