Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Grazing management for more resilient mixed livestock farming systems on native grasslands of southern South America
    Modernel, Pablo ; Picasso, Valentin ; Carmo, Martin Do; Rossing, Walter A.H. ; Corbeels, Marc ; Soca, Pablo ; Dogliotti, Santiago ; Tittonell, Pablo - \ 2019
    Grass and Forage Science 74 (2019)4. - ISSN 0142-5242 - p. 636 - 649.
    drought - grazing management - livestock farming systems - native grasslands - resilience - Rio de la Plata grasslands

    Droughts in southern South America affect grazing systems in many ways. They reduce biomass productivity; decrease livestock feed intake, weight and reproductive performance; increase farmers’ costs; and reduce farm income. It was hypothesized that simple grazing management variables affect the resilience of grazing systems to droughts at the paddock and farm scales. The effects of grazing management on herbage and animal production were assessed at paddock level, and how technological and structural variables relate to the production and economic performances at farm level. Results of a grazing experiment controlling herbage allowance at paddock level showed that resistance of herbage accumulation and animal live weight to drought was significantly higher for paddocks with higher pre-drought herbage allowance than for those managed to low herbage allowance treatments. A strong positive linear relationship was found between pre-drought herbage height and resistance of herbage accumulation rate (p <.01). In a longitudinal study of nine farms in Uruguay, resistance of cow pregnancy rate to drought was positively correlated with cow pregnancy rate (r =.72, p =.02) and farm net income (r =.78, p =.02), and negatively correlated with sheep-to-cattle ratio (r = −.80, p =.01). These correlations suggest that farms with higher incomes and low proportions of sheep in the herd withstand drought better (in terms of pregnancy rate). Four common regional production strategies were identified that react differently when farmers face drought, and these results can aid farmers in those regions to design more resilient mixed livestock farming systems and can inform policymakers about effective strategies for mitigating drought impacts in the region.

    Comparative Assessment of Goods and Services Provided by Grazing Regulation and Reforestation in Degraded Mediterranean Rangelands
    Papanastasis, Vasilios P. ; Bautista, Susana ; Chouvardas, Dimitrios ; Mantzanas, Konstantinos ; Papadimitriou, Maria ; Garcia Mayor, Angeles ; Koukioumi, Polina ; Papaioannou, Athanasios ; Vallejo, Ramon V. - \ 2017
    Land Degradation and Development 28 (2017)4. - ISSN 1085-3278 - p. 1178 - 1187.
    carbon sequestration - ecosystem services - forage - grazing management - landscape functional analysis - plant diversity - restoration actions - soil functions

    Several management actions are applied to restore ecosystem services in degraded Mediterranean rangelands, which range from adjusting the grazing pressure to the removal of grazers and pine plantations. Four such actions were assessed in Quercus coccifera L. shrublands in northern Greece: (i) moderate grazing by goats and sheep; (ii) no grazing; (iii) no grazing plus pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) plantation in forest gaps (gap reforestation); and (iv) no grazing plus full reforestation of shrubland areas, also with P. pinaster. In addition, heavy grazing was also assessed to serve as a control action. We comparatively assessed the impact of these actions on key provisioning, regulating and supporting ecosystem services by using ground-based indicators. Depending on the ecosystem service considered, the management actions were ranked differently. However, the overall provision of services was particularly favoured under moderate and no grazing management options, with moderate grazing outranking any other action in provisioning services and the no grazing action presenting the most balanced provision of services. Pine reforestations largely contributed to water and soil conservation and C sequestration but had a negative impact on plant diversity when implemented at the expense of removing natural vegetation in the area. Heavy grazing had the lowest provision of ecosystem services. It is concluded that degraded rangelands can be restored by moderating the grazing pressure rather than completely banning livestock grazing or converting them into pine plantations.

    Weiden en bodem : nog niet zo simpel
    Lenssinck, Frank - \ 2015
    grazing - milk production - grazing management - returns - animal health - grassland management - dairy farming

    “De zuivel en wij hebben afgesproken dat we weiden, dus doen we dat. Bovendien valt er geld mee te verdienen, alleen als je het goed doet.” Maar geld verdienen met weidegang is niet zo simpel als vaak wordt voorgesteld. Het betekent een nieuwe focus, waarin niet meer gestuurd wordt op een hoge melkproductie, maar op maximale grasbenutting. En op gezonde koeien. Frank Lenssinck van VIC Zegveld en Nick van Eekeren, onderzoeker bij Louis Bolk Instituut, gingen samen met veertien rundveedierenartsen van Veerkracht op zoek naar de rendabele weidende koe.
    Robot & Weiden : Vijf concepten voor automatisch melden en weiden
    Philipsen, A.P. ; Derks, T. ; Hoog, B. van der; Leeuw, S. de; Sweep, B. ; Cornelissen, J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Stichting Weidegang / Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 16
    melkveehouderij - begrazing - begrazingsbeheer - melkrobots - automatisering - machinaal melken - dairy farming - grazing - grazing management - milking robots - automation - machine milking
    Ons motto is 'Robot & Weiden: dat kan!' Het is een kwestie van de juiste werkwijze vinden, eentje die past bij jouw bedrijf, ambities en voorkeuren. In Robot & Weiden heeft een groep van 50 weidende melkveehouders met een AMS en een team van weidegang-experts de koppen bij elkaar gestoken om van elkaar te leren hoe je automatisch melken en weiden kunt combineren. Daarbij stond de vraag centraal wat werkt wel en wat werkt niet? Zij hebben deze ervaringen omgezet tot vijf Robot & Weiden concepten.
    Beweiding
    Vrolijk, Maarten - \ 2015
    grazing - grazing management - agricultural education - on-farm training
    Ammoniakemissie en weidegang melkvee : verkenning weidegang als ammoniak reducerende maatregel
    Hoving, I.E. ; Holshof, G. ; Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 856) - 45
    melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - begrazing - begrazingsbeheer - emissiereductie - luchtkwaliteit - landbouw en milieu - dairy farming - ammonia emission - grazing - grazing management - emission reduction - air quality - agriculture and environment
    To see if additional grazing can be considered as additional management measure to reduce ammonia emissions, a model-based exploration on the effects of grazing on ammonia emission has been carried out. Increase in grazing dairy cattle from 720 hours per cow per year reduced ammonia emissions by 3.3 grams per cow per hour on annual basis. Besides, it did not matter how the total number of hours grazing came. Grazing seemed to have economic advances as well. Furthermore, it has been explored how grazing as measure can be secured.
    Amazing Grazing 2030
    Galama, Paul - \ 2015
    dairy farming - cow housing - farm management - farming systems - pastures - grazing - grazing management - animal welfare
    Effects of large herbivores on grassland arthropod diversity
    Klink, R. van; Plas, F. van der; Noordwijk, C.G.E. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Olff, H. - \ 2015
    Biological Reviews 90 (2015)2. - ISSN 1464-7931 - p. 347 - 366.
    ungrazed chalk grassland - ground beetle coleoptera - plant-species richness - grazing management - phytophagous insects - seminatural grasslands - community structure - tallgrass prairie - long-term - butterfly communities
    Both arthropods and large grazing herbivores are important components and drivers of biodiversity in grassland ecosystems, but a synthesis of how arthropod diversity is affected by large herbivores has been largely missing. To fill this gap, we conducted a literature search, which yielded 141 studies on this topic of which 24 simultaneously investigated plant and arthropod diversity. Using the data from these 24 studies, we compared the responses of plant and arthropod diversity to an increase in grazing intensity. This quantitative assessment showed no overall significant effect of increasing grazing intensity on plant diversity, while arthropod diversity was generally negatively affected. To understand these negative effects, we explored the mechanisms by which large herbivores affect arthropod communities: direct effects, changes in vegetation structure, changes in plant community composition, changes in soil conditions, and cascading effects within the arthropod interaction web. We identify three main factors determining the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity: (i) unintentional predation and increased disturbance, (ii) decreases in total resource abundance for arthropods (biomass) and (iii) changes in plant diversity, vegetation structure and abiotic conditions. In general, heterogeneity in vegetation structure and abiotic conditions increases at intermediate grazing intensity, but declines at both low and high grazing intensity. We conclude that large herbivores can only increase arthropod diversity if they cause an increase in (a)biotic heterogeneity, and then only if this increase is large enough to compensate for the loss of total resource abundance and the increased mortality rate. This is expected to occur only at low herbivore densities or with spatio-temporal variation in herbivore densities. As we demonstrate that arthropod diversity is often more negatively affected by grazing than plant diversity, we strongly recommend considering the specific requirements of arthropods when applying grazing management and to include arthropods in monitoring schemes. Conservation strategies aiming at maximizing heterogeneity, including regulation of herbivore densities (through human interventions or top-down control), maintenance of different types of management in close proximity and rotational grazing regimes, are the most promising options to conserve arthropod diversity.
    Begrazingsintensiteit en insectenrijkdom in heideterreinen
    Noordijk, J. ; Colijn, E. ; Smit, J. ; Veling, K. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2013
    De Levende Natuur 114 (2013)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 204 - 211.
    insectengemeenschappen - fauna - geleedpotigen - begrazingsbeheer - heidegebieden - begrazingsexperimenten - noord-brabant - insect communities - fauna - arthropods - grazing management - heathlands - grazing experiments - noord-brabant
    Begrazing als beheervorm wordt breed toegepast in heidegebieden om op een betaalbare manier openheid van het landschap en variatie in levensgemeenschappen te handhaven. De wijze van uitvoering luistert daarbij nauw, maar goede inzichten in de effecten van graasdruk op insecten ontbraken tot nu toe. Dit artikel geeft de resultaten van een veldonderzoek naar de invloed van begrazingsintensiteit op de soortenrijkdom van sprinkhanen, Heidecicade, vlinders, zweefvliegen, bijen en mieren in Noord-Brabantse heideterreinen.
    Economisch weiden = Economics of grazing
    Pol, A. van den; Philipsen, A.P. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 679) - 126
    melkveehouderij - begrazing - begrazingsbeheer - begrazingsproeven - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - rendement - melkveevoeding - voedingsrantsoenen - bijvoeding - dairy farming - grazing - grazing management - grazing trials - farm management - returns - dairy cattle nutrition - feed rations - supplementary feeding
    This report provides insight into the economics of grazing on modern dairy farms and shows how the yield from grazing can be improved.
    Stikstofoverschot door bijvoeren van grazers
    Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Klimkowska, A. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Slim, P.A. ; Til, M. van - \ 2012
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 9 (2012)7. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 14 - 17.
    duingebieden - grote grazers - depositie - emissie - stikstof - habitats - begrazingsbeheer - bijvoeding - noord-holland - duneland - large herbivores - deposition - emission - nitrogen - habitats - grazing management - supplementary feeding - noord-holland
    In de Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen wordt verruiging bestreden door het inscharen van runderen. Het bijvoeren van het vee in de winter zorgt voor een extra input van stikstof boven op de aanwezige atmosferische depositie. Het bijvoeren kan daardoor leiden tot een (verdere) overschrijding van de kritische depositie voor enkele gevoelige habitattypen zoals de grijze duinen.
    Innovations in grazing : proceedings 2nd meeting EGF Working Group Grazing
    Pol, A. van den; Vliegher, A. de; Hennessy, D. ; Peyraud, J.L. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 644) - 15
    veehouderij - begrazing - begrazingsbeheer - innovaties - kennisoverdracht - melken - melkkoeien - melkveehouderij - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - livestock farming - grazing - grazing management - innovations - knowledge transfer - milking - dairy cows - dairy farming - decision support systems
    This report presents the main results of the second meeting of the European Grassland Federation Working Group "Grazing" which was held in Lublin, Poland on 3 June 2012. The theme of the meeting was "Innovations in Grazing".
    Weidegang biologische melkveehouderij : hoe meer, hoe beter?
    Smolders, E.A.A. ; Plomp, M. - \ 2012
    V-focus 9 (2012)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 24 - 25.
    melkveehouderij - biologische landbouw - begrazing - begrazingsbeheer - graasduur - vragenlijsten - dairy farming - organic farming - grazing - grazing management - grazing time - questionnaires
    Biologische melkveehouders vinden unaniem dat hun koeien in de wei horen. Maar hoeveel weiden ze hun koeien nu echt? Welke systemen passen ze toe? En welke gevolgen heeft dat voor de koe? Een enquête onder 89 van de in totaal circa 320 biologische melkveehouders geeft antwoord op deze vragen.
    Spiegelen met weidegang motiveert
    Haan, M.H.A. de; Philipsen, A.P. ; Pol, A. van den - \ 2012
    V-focus 9 (2012)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 26 - 28.
    melkveehouderij - begrazing - begrazingsbeheer - graasduur - effecten - dairy farming - grazing - grazing management - grazing time - effects
    Nederlandse melkveehouders vinden het vaak lastig om de koeien goed te weiden. Om verschillende redenen. Het weer werkt vaak niet mee, goed weiden vraagt aandacht, maar er is ook onbekendheid met effecten van weidegang. Vergelijking van bedrijfsresultaten op het gebied van economie, gezondheid en voeding met groepsgemiddelden geeft inzicht in de effecten van weidegang. Een benchmark gebaseerd op verschillen in weidegang motiveert tot beter weiden en meer inkomen.
    Desire for greener land : options for sustainable land management in drylands
    Schwilch, G. ; Hessel, R. ; Verzandvoort, S.J.E. - \ 2012
    Bern [etc.] : University of Bern [etc.] - ISBN 9789461733290 - 282
    droge gebieden - grondbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaam bodemgebruik - woestijnvorming - bodembescherming - waterbeheer - teeltsystemen - begrazingsbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - arid lands - land management - sustainability - sustainable land use - desertification - soil conservation - water management - cropping systems - grazing management - forest management
    Desire for Greener Land compiles options for Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in drylands. It is a result of the integrated research project DESIRE (Desertification Mitigation and Remediation of Land - A Global Approach for Local Solutions). Lasting five years (2007–2012) and funded within the EU’s Sixth Framework Programme, DESIRE brought together the expertise of 26 international research institutes and non-governmental organisations. The DESIRE project aimed to establish promising alternative land use and management strategies in 17 degradation and desertification sites around the world, relying on close collaboration between scientists and local stakeholder groups. The study sites provided a global laboratory in which researchers could apply, test, and identify new and innovative approaches to combatting desertification. The resulting SLM strategies are local- to regional-scale interventions designed to increase productivity, preserve natural resource bases, and improve people’s livelihoods. These were documented and mapped using the internationally recognised WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodological framework, which formed an integral part of the DESIRE project. The DESIRE approach offers an integrated multidisciplinary way of working together from the beginning to the end of a project; it enables scientists, local stakeholders and policy makers to jointly find solutions to desertification. This book describes the DESIRE approach and WOCAT methodology for a range of audiences, from local agricultural advisors to scientists and policymakers. Links are provided to manuals and online materials, enabling application of the various tools and methods in similar projects. The book also includes an analysis of the current context of degradation and SLM in the study sites, in addition to analysis of the SLM technologies and approaches trialled in the DESIRE project. Thirty SLM technologies, eight SLM approaches, and several degradation and SLM maps from all the DESIRE study sites are compiled in a concise and well-illustrated format, following the style of this volume’s forerunner where the land is greener (WOCAT 2007). Finally, conclusions and policy points are presented on behalf of decision makers, the private sector, civil society, donors, and the research community. These are intended to support people’s efforts to invest wisely in the sustainable management of land – enabling greener drylands to become a reality, not just a desire.
    Development of an ECONET for Lugansk Oblast : rural development and sustainable development in Ukraine
    Sluis, T. van der; Buijs, J. ; Koopmanschap, E.M.J. ; Gosselink, J.M.J. ; Kliuiev, V. ; Eupen, M. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2153.a) - 86
    ecologische hoofdstructuur - steppen - ecologisch herstel - begrazingsbeheer - veehouderij - participatie - biodiversiteit - oekraïne - natuurbescherming - ecological network - steppes - ecological restoration - grazing management - livestock farming - participation - biodiversity - ukraine - nature conservation
    Effects of vegetation management by mowing on ground-dwelling arthropods
    Noordijk, J. ; Schaffers, A.P. ; Sykora, K.V. - \ 2010
    Ecological Engineering 36 (2010)5. - ISSN 0925-8574 - p. 740 - 750.
    calcareous grasslands - grazing management - species-diversity - roadside verges - conservation - plant - invertebrates - biodiversity - communities - responses
    Species-rich grasslands are rare in the Netherlands and need consistent vegetation management to retain their characteristic biodiversity. Roadside verges are important refuges for grassland plants since the mowing management no longer aims at traffic safety only but also strives for botanical diversity. Although arthropods are highly abundant in roadside verges, the effect of different mowing practices on this group is largely unknown. During 4 years, we studied ground beetles, weevils, ants and ground-dwelling spiders with pitfall traps in experimental plots in roadside verges with five different mowing treatments: (i) no management, (ii) and (iii) mowing once a year with and without hay removal, (iv) and (v) mowing twice a year with and without hay removal. This was done in a plant productivity gradient; the experiment was repeated in low-, medium- and high-productive verges. In the low-productive site, the effect of management on the arthropods only existed in a higher abundance in plots mown twice per year with hay removal. In the medium- and high-productive sites, mowing twice a year with hay removal resulted not only in highest abundances but also in highest arthropod species richness. Mowing twice without hay removal and mowing once with removal showed intermediate values, while mowing once per year without removal and particularly the absence of management resulted in low diversity and low abundance. To promote ground-dwelling arthropods in medium-to-high-productive grassland verges, we recommend a management of mowing twice a year with the removal of hay. It is reasoned that some form of rotational management, aiming at leaving some vegetation refuges intact after mowing events, may further promote arthropod survival. However, caution should be taken that these refuges are not too large, as overall suitability for ground-dwelling arthropod decreases rapidly in such patches. Out of several studied vegetation characteristics, the number of flowering plant species (medium-productive verge) and total flower abundance (high-productive verge) appeared to represent suitable, and easily monitored, proxies that significantly mirror arthropod diversity.
    Restoration of degraded steppe lands : opportunities for Lugansk Oblast, Eastern Ukraine
    Sluis, T. van der; Gosselink, J.M.J. ; Slim, P.A. ; Verhagen, J. ; Keulen, H. van - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1935) - 59
    landgebruik - landgebruiksplanning - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biodiversiteit - bedrijfssystemen - conservering - dierlijke productie - grondproductiviteit - steppen - steppegronden - oekraïne - agrobiodiversiteit - duurzaam bodemgebruik - agro-ecologie - ecologische hoofdstructuur - begrazingsbeheer - ecologisch herstel - land use - land use planning - sustainability - biodiversity - farming systems - conservation - animal production - land productivity - steppes - steppe soils - ukraine - agro-biodiversity - sustainable land use - agroecology - ecological network - grazing management - ecological restoration
    There are millions of hectares of land in the Ukraine which either have been abandoned, or are farmed with a low land productivity due to severe land degradation. The Netherlands Embassy has requested a study to assess the opportunities and benefits of restoration of degraded steppe areas. The goal of this project is the restoration of degraded land and to develop more sustainable land use with a higher biodiversity. Innovative farming systems are proposed which are both economically and environmentally sustainable agricultural production systems. This wil improve the livelihood of farmers and lead to higher biodiversity.
    Feeding and grazing management for dairy cattle: opportunities for improved production
    Abrahamse, P.A. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Seerp Tamminga, co-promotor(en): Jan Dijkstra. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854548 - 158
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - rundveevoeding - beweidingssystemen - voeropname - melkopbrengst - melksamenstelling - melkresultaten - verbetering - begrazingsbeheer - dairy farming - dairy cows - cattle feeding - grazing systems - feed intake - milk yield - milk composition - dairy performance - improvement - grazing management
    An adequate feed intake is an important prerequisite to realize high milk production in
    dairy cows, especially during grazing. The analysis of feed intake behaviour can assist in
    understanding variation in daily intake and in improving its prediction. Indeed, our results
    indicated that differences in feed intake behaviour were more pronounced when varying
    the type of roughage than when varying the type of concentrate. Dry matter intake (DMI)
    was reduced when a ration high in grass silage was fed, but milk production was only
    numericaly affected. Grazing management might result in increased herbage intake and
    higher intake of nutrients from herbage by improved nutritional composition of herbage.
    In the first grazing experiment, herbage DMI was indeed increased when allocating cows
    daily (1Da) to a new grazing plot compared to every four days (4D) allocation, but only
    when pasture mass on offer and sward surface height (SSH) were high. Grazing time
    increased numerically and ruminating time decreased between days in the 4D treatment,
    coinciding with differences in rumen fermentation characteristics and milk composition.
    Milk yield was greater in 1Da than in 4D, but milk fatty acid (FA) composition, potentially
    influencing human health, showed hardly any difference. In a subsequent experiment,
    herbage DMI was again greater when allocating twice daily (2D) compared to once daily
    (1Db), especially when SSH was high. Grazing behaviour was more equally distributed
    in 1Db than in 2D and milk yield was increased in 2D compared to 1Db at high SSH,
    but as before milk FA composition hardly differed between treatment. The last grazing
    experiment aimed to take advantage of the higher sugar contents of grass in the afternoon
    than in the morning. It showed that grazing behaviour and herbage intake were similar
    between morning (MA) and afternoon allocation (AA), but cows receiving a fresh plot in
    the afternoon had a longer evening meal than cows receiving a fresh plot in the morning.
    This, in combination with differences in diurnal chemical composition of the grass between
    treatments probably caused higher intake of sugars in AA, resulting in a higher milk fat
    content. However, milk production remained unaffected. In conclusion, the results of
    this thesis indicate that short-term feed intake behaviour is related to DMI and therefore
    may be a helpful tool in optimizing DMI and milk production in high-production dairy
    cows. Increased pasture allocation frequency improves intake and milk yield in grazing
    dairy cows, especially when offered SSH is high enough. In intensive stripgrazing systems,
    reallocation of dairy cows following afternoon milking instead of morning milking has no
    added value.
    To graze or not to graze, that's the question
    Pol-van Dasselaar, Agnes van den - \ 2008
    dairy cattle - dairy farming - forage - grazing - grazing management
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