Effects of azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil and ethoprophos on the reproduction of three terrestrial invertebrates using a natural Mediterranean soil
Leitao, S. ; Cerejeira, J. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Sousa, J.P. - \ 2014
Applied Soil Ecology 76 (2014). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 124 - 131.
enhanced biodegradation - enchytraeus-albidus - folsomia-candida - eisenia-foetida - pesticides - toxicity - bioavailability - c-14-lindane - earthworms - greece
The potential terrestrial toxicity of three pesticides, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, and ethoprophos was evaluated using reproduction ecotoxicological tests with different non-target species: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei, and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus. All reproduction tests were performed with natural soil from a Mediterranean agricultural area (with no pesticide residues) in order to improve the relevance of laboratory data to field conditions. Controls were performed with natural and standard artificial soil (OECD 10% OM). The fungicide azoxystrobin showed the highest toxicity to earthworms (EC50 = 42.0 mg a.i. kg-1 dw soil). Collembolans were the most sensitive taxa in terms of sublethal effects of chlorothalonil with an EC50 of 31.1 mg a.i. kg-1 dw soil followed by the earthworms with an EC50 of 40.9 mg a.i. kg-1 dw soil. The insecticide ethoprophos was the most toxic to collembolans affecting their reproduction with an EC50 of 0.027 mg a.i. kg-1 dw soil. Enchytraeids were generally the least sensitive of the three species tested for long-term effects. Earthworms were not always the most sensitive species, emphasizing the need to increase the number of mandatory assays with key non-target organisms in the environmental risk assessment of pesticides
Evaluation and Selection of Indicators for Land Degradation and Desertification Monitoring: Methodological Approach
Kosmas, C. ; Karis, O. ; Karavitis, C. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Salvati, L. ; Acikalin, S. ; Alcala, S. ; Alfama, P. ; Atlhopheng, J. ; Barrera, J. ; Belgacem, A. ; Sole-Benet, A. ; Brito, J. ; Chaker, M. ; Chanda, R. ; Coelho, C. ; Darkoh, M. ; Diamantis, I. ; Ermolaeva, O. ; Fassouli, V. ; Fei, W. ; Fernandez, F. ; Ferreira, A. ; Gokceoglu, C. ; Gonzalez, D. ; Gungor, H. ; Hessel, R. ; Juying, J. ; Khatteli, H. ; Kounalaki, A. ; Laouina, A. ; Lollino, P. ; Lopes, M. ; Magole, L. ; Medina, L. ; Mendoza, M. ; Morais, P. ; Mulale, K. ; Ocakoglu, F. ; Ouessar, M. ; Ovalle, C. ; Perez, C. ; Perkins, J. ; Pliakas, F. ; Polemio, M. ; Pozo, A. ; Prat, C. ; Qinke, Y. ; Ramos, A. ; Riquelme, J. ; Romanenkov, V. ; Rui, L. ; Santaloia, F. ; Sebego, R. ; Sghaier, M. ; Silva, N. ; Sizemskaya, M. ; Soares, J. ; Sonmez, H. ; Taamallah, H. ; Tezcan, L. ; Torri, D. ; Ungaro, F. ; Valente, S. ; Vente, J. de; Zagal, E. ; Zeiliguer, A. ; Zhonging, W. ; Ziogas, A. - \ 2014
Environmental Management 54 (2014)5. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 951 - 970.
mediterranean conditions - aggregate stability - soil properties - rock fragments - organic-matter - vegetation - tillage - biomass - erosion - greece
An approach to derive relationships for defining land degradation and desertification risk and developing appropriate tools for assessing the effectiveness of the various land management practices using indicators is presented in the present paper. In order to investigate which indicators are most effective in assessing the level of desertification risk, a total of 70 candidate indicators was selected providing information for the biophysical environment, socio-economic conditions, and land management characteristics. The indicators were defined in 1,672 field sites located in 17 study areas in the Mediterranean region, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Based on an existing geo-referenced database, classes were designated for each indicator and a sensitivity score to desertification was assigned to each class based on existing research. The obtained data were analyzed for the various processes of land degradation at farm level. The derived methodology was assessed using independent indicators, such as the measured soil erosion rate, and the organic matter content of the soil. Based on regression analyses, the collected indicator set can be reduced to a number of effective indicators ranging from 8 to 17 in the various processes of land degradation. Among the most important indicators identified as affecting land degradation and desertification risk were rain seasonality, slope gradient, plant cover, rate of land abandonment, land-use intensity, and the level of policy implementation.
Sensitivity analysis and calibration of the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) for the upper Malewa Catchment, Kenya
Odongo, V.O. ; Onyando, J.O. ; Mutua, B.M. ; Oel, P.R. van; Becht, R. - \ 2013
International Journal of Sediment Research 28 (2013)3. - ISSN 1001-6279 - p. 368 - 383.
sediment rating curves - uncertainty analysis - hydrologic-models - river catchment - erosion - yield - delivery - runoff - validation - greece
Simulation models are widely used for studying physical processes such as surface runoff, sediment transport and sediment yield in catchments. Most models need case-specific empirical data for parameterization before being applied especially in regions other than the ones they have been developed. Sensitivity analysis is usually performed to determine the most influential factors of a model so that they can be prioritized for optimization. In this way uncertainties in model outputs can be reduced considerably. This study evaluates the commonly used modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) model used for sediment yield simulation for the case of the upper Malewa catchment in Kenya. The conceptual factors of the model are assessed relative to the hydrological factors in the model. Also, the sensitivity of the model to the choice of the objective function in calibration is tested. The Sobol' sensitivity analysis method was used for evaluating the degree of sensitivity of the conceptual and hydrological factors for sediment yield simulations using the MUSLE model. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and the modified Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSEm) are used to test the sensitivity of the model to the choice of the objective function and robustness of model performance with sediment data measured from upper Malewa catchment, Kenya. The results indicate that the conceptual factors are the most sensitive factors of the MUSLE model contributing about 66% of the variability in the output sediment yield. Increased variability of sediment yield output was also observed. This was attributed to interactions of input factors. For the upper Malewa catchment calibration of the MUSLE model indicates that the use of NSEm as an objective function provides stable results, which indicates that the model can satisfactorily be applied for sediment yield simulations.
State of the Art on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture, Country data on energy consumption in different agroproduction sectors in the European countries
Visser, C.L.M. de; Buisonje, F.E. de; Ellen, H.H. ; Stanghellini, C. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2012
agrEE - 68
energiegebruik - landbouwproductie - dierlijke productie - gewasproductie - energie - efficiëntie - levenscyclusanalyse - finland - duitsland - griekenland - nederland - polen - portugal - energy consumption - agricultural production - animal production - crop production - energy - efficiency - life cycle assessment - finland - germany - greece - netherlands - poland - portugal
Energy efficiency is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. The general term "energy efficiency", when applied to agriculture, reflects changes in technology, governmental and EC policies – including the Common Agricultural Policy, climate change on a broad scale and local weather patterns, and farming management practices. There is not a single measure to describe, ensure, or improve energy efficiency. Instead, in the energy balance for a given production process, a variety of indicators may serve and support energy efficiency analysis. The results of this study are based on the specific input of primary energy per cultivation area (GJ ha-1) and on the specific input of primary energy per ton of agricultural product (GJ t-1). All the measures that are suitable to reduce the specific energy input, will improve energy efficiency (the energy efficiency measures). Improving energy efficiency of agricultural production contributes directly to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide.
Hydrological analysis of the Evrotas basin, Greece - Low flow characterization and scenario analisis
Cazemier, M. ; Querner, E.P. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Gallart, F. ; Prat, N. ; Tzoraki, O. ; Froebrich, J. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2249) - 92
hydrologie - waterlopen - aquatische ecologie - griekenland - stroming - seizoengebondenheid - hydrology - streams - aquatic ecology - greece - flow - seasonality
Analysis of growth dynamics of Mediterranean bioenergy crops
Archontoulis, S.V. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): N.G. Danalatos; Xinyou Yin. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730091 - 235
agro-ecologie - ecofysiologie - bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - brandstofgewassen - helianthus annuus - hibiscus cannabinus - cynara cardunculus - gewasproductie - griekenland - middellandse-zeegebied - biobased economy - agroecology - ecophysiology - bioenergy - biofuels - fuel crops - helianthus annuus - hibiscus cannabinus - cynara cardunculus - crop production - greece - mediterranean region - biobased economy
In spite of the rapidly growing bioenergy production worldwide, there is lack of field experience and experimental data on the cultivation of bioenergy crops. This study aims to advance crop management operations and modelling studies by providing essential information on phenology, agronomy and crop physiology of three Mediterranean bioenergy crops: Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf) and Cynara cardunculus (cynara). These crops cover a wide range of bio-industrial applications and fit into different cropping strategies. For these crops, we identified the most important knowledge gaps and performed a series of field experiments to fill some of those, particularly for cynara.
Information on phenology and seed yield potential for cynara was missing mainly due to its complex inflorescence structure. This thesis codifies and describes cynara’s phenological growth stages according to the universal BBCH coding system. This scale can be used by everyone involved in the production of this crop under all circumstances. In addition, we present a robust allometric model for estimating seed yield under diverse management and environmental conditions. Inputs to the model are two easily quantifiable inflorescence traits: total weight and number of seed-bearing heads per unit area.
Additionally, this thesis investigates factors at leaf, canopy and crop level that determine biomass production for all tested crops and provides key parameters for crop growth modelling. Leaf photosynthesis and respiration rates in response to light, temperature and leaf nitrogen were quantified. Based on such data, a biochemical model for C3 leaf photosynthesis and an empirical model for respiration were parameterized and validated. Then, to upscale these rates from the leaf to the canopy level, light- and nitrogen extinction coefficients over time and in response to water availability were determined in detail. It was shown that the light extinction coefficient changes under water stress conditions and time of year, while leaf nitrogen only shows a strong vertical distribution within crop canopy during the mid-season. Relevant agronomic data, such as biomass production over time and leaf area index in response to management practices, are also presented for the three crops.
This thesis contributes to the general objective of gaining more insight into bioenergy production from crop species. The findings can help farmers, researchers and modellers to better evaluate agricultural land uses and to improve biomass quantity and quality. Among the studied species, the perennial cynara shows the greatest potential for energy production in the Mediterranean region because a significant part of the production is achieved in the winter–spring period relying on natural rainfall.
Key words: cynara, kenaf, sunflower, phenology, agronomy, crop physiology, modelling, biomass production, crop growth, growth stages, BBCH code, seed yield, oil/seed ratio, leaf area index, leaf nitrogen, light and nitrogen extinction coefficients, photosynthesis, respiration, respiration acclimation, bioenergy, Greece, Mediterranean region.
Flow characterization temporary streams : using the model SIMGRO for the Evrotas basin, Greece
Vernooij, M.G.M. ; Querner, E.P. ; Jacobs, C. ; Froebrich, J. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2126) - 59
waterlopen - modellen - poelen - rivieren - stroming - energiebalans - griekenland - streams - models - pools - rivers - flow - energy balance - greece
Tools were developed to quantify space–time development of different flow phases on a river basin scale. Such information is needed for the WFD. The spatial development of temporary streams was investigated in the Evrotas basin, Greece. We used the regional hydrological model SIMGRO in a GIS framework to generate flow time series for all major streams. For a streams reach five flow phases are distinguished, being: floods; riffles; connected flow; pools and dry conditions. For each stream and flow phase, thresholds were identified based on local characteristics. The analysis shows the frequency of the flow phases per month. For all streams in the Evrotas basin the average frequency of the flow phase dry and pools are presented. The aim is that GIS helps to better understand the link between dry streams and spatially-distributed catchment characteristics. Local morphological conditions and roughness of the bed need to be considered in defining appropriate threshold levels for the flow phases.
Molecular characterization of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in Greece and transgenic approaches towards enhancing rhizomania disease resistance
Pavli, O.I. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Just Vlak; G.N. Skaracis, co-promotor(en): M. Prins; N.J. Panopoulos. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855477 - 166
beta vulgaris - suikerbieten - bietenrhizomanievirus - stammen (biologisch) - karakteristieken - pathogeniteit - plantenvirussen - ziekteresistentie - resistentie van variëteiten - transgene planten - genexpressie - griekenland - beta vulgaris - sugarbeet - beet necrotic yellow vein virus - strains - characteristics - pathogenicity - plant viruses - disease resistance - varietal resistance - transgenic plants - gene expression - greece
Rhizomania disease of sugar beet, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is responsible for severe economic losses. Due to the widespread occurrence of BNYVV and the absence of other practical and efficient control measures, economic viability of the crop is to the largest extent dependent on the use of varieties genetically resistant to the disease. Recent reports on the emergence of virus strains capable of compromising the Rz1-based resistance as well as on the spread of highly pathogenic RNA 5-containing BNYVV isolates have necessitated a detailed investigation of the situation as it evolves in Greece. The study revealed the widespread occurrence of BNYVV throughout the country as well as the prevalence of pathotype A isolates in all sugar beet growing regions. Sequence determination of the p25 protein, responsible for symptom development, pointed to the amino acid motifs ACHG/VCHG in the hypervariable amino acid region 67-70. However, the presence of valine (V) in position 67 was not associated with increased pathogenicity and resistance breaking properties. Disease severity appeared mostly dependent on agroclimatic conditions influencing the progress of the disease. A survey for a possible occurrence of Beet Soilborne Virus (BSBV) and Beet Virus Q (BVQ) in rhizomania infested fields revealed the co-existence of both viruses, with BVQ being systematically found in co-infections with BNYVV, while BSBV was in all cases only found in triple infections. Towards the exploitation of the antiviral properties of RNA silencing, three intron hairpin constructs carrying parts of the BNYVV replicase gene, were evaluated for their potential to confer rhizomania resistance in Ri T-DNA-transformed sugar beet roots. The results show that transgenic hairy roots were effectively protected against the virus disease and further indicate that the developed methodology for Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation can be employed as a suitable platform to study transgene expression in sugar beet and other transformation recalcitrant crop species. In parallel, the potential to exploit the HrpZPsph protein from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola for engineering rhizomania resistance in sugar beet against BNYVV was demonstrated by the successful engineering and protection against BNYVV in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana
Preliminary Water Assessment Reports of The Test Basins of The Watch Project
Ludwig, F. ; Candel, M. ; Carrera, J. ; Fendekova, M. ; Haddeland, I. ; Horacek, S. ; Jodar, J. ; Koutroulis, A. ; Navorro, V. ; Tsanis, I. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Watch (WATCH technical report / Water and Global Change no. X) - 19
klimaatverandering - stroomgebieden - rivieren - watervoorraden - afvoer - waterbeheer - gevalsanalyse - noorwegen - spanje - tsjechië - griekenland - elbe - kreta - climatic change - watersheds - rivers - water resources - discharge - water management - case studies - norway - spain - czech republic - greece - river elbe - crete
This report presents the initial plans of the case studies how they link to rest of the Watch project and on which water resources they will focus. This report will function as the basis for further discussions on how to improve the integration of the case studies within the project and to develop a more general protocol for each of the case studies. Currently 5 catchments are used within the Watch project, they differ in climatic and hydro-geological features and expected climate changes: the Glomma River basin (Eastern Norway), the upper Guadiana basin (Central Spanish Plateau), the Nitra River basin (central Slovakia), the Upper-Elbe basin (part of the Elbe River) and the island of Crete. Also the water resources issues vary over these cases. Agricultural (and domestic) water use is under pressure in the Mediterranean catchments probably aggravating with the expected increase in drought frequency under future climate. The Norwegian catchment provides hydropower services under threat of precipitation increase rather than decrease. The central European catchments are threatened mainly by increased variability, i.e. increased frequencies of extremes in a densely populated environment, and river flow may need additional buffers (reservoirs) to reduce floodrisk and store water for dry periods
|Migranten bij de Demka-staalfabrieken in Utrecht (1915-1983)
Rommes, R.N.J. ; Schrover, M. - \ 2008
Utrecht : Matrijs - ISBN 9789053453537 - 184
migranten - migrantenarbeid - fabrieksarbeiders - staal - werknemers in de industrie - arbeidsverhoudingen - huisvesting - vrije tijd - sociale economie - duitsland - belgië - hongarije - italië - spanje - griekenland - turkije - nederland - geschiedenis - utrecht - groningen - friesland - migrants - migrant labour - factory workers - steel - industrial workers - labour relations - housing - leisure - socioeconomics - germany - belgium - hungary - italy - spain - greece - turkey - netherlands - history - utrecht - groningen - friesland
Damage by monk seals to gear of the artisanal fishery in the Foca Monk Seal Pilot Conservation Area, Turkey
Guclusoy, H. - \ 2008
Fisheries Research 90 (2008)1-3. - ISSN 0165-7836 - p. 70 - 77.
monachus-monachus - greece
The present study examines the operational interaction between critically endangered monk seals Monachus monachus and artisanal fisheries in the Foc¿a Pilot Monk Seal Conservation Area, Turkey between 1994 and 2002. One to four permanent researchers collected the data on this interaction during the seal sighting data inquiries. Interviews with the fishermen provided 142 direct interactions with monk seals around the fishing gear. Among these encounters damage to fishing gear, including gill nets (53%), trammel nets (37%), longlines (9%) and a lure (1%) was recorded 90 times. However, no difference was found in damage between gill and trammel nets. Although, the damage inflicted by seals per occasion was found to be substantial (maximum 462.5 USD per occasion), the overall annual economic impact on the artisanal fishery was found to be modest. Limitation in soaking time of nets; long-line use instead of nets in MPAs where monk seals survive; and low interest credits to be given to those fishermen who suffer monk seal damage, are proposed as appropriate management practices.
The Effect of Soil Erosion on Europe's Crop Yields
Bakker, M.M. ; Govers, G. ; Jones, R.A. ; Rounsevell, M.D.A. - \ 2007
Ecosystems 10 (2007)7. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 1209 - 1219.
land-use change - topsoil removal - future scenarios - wheat yields - corn yield - productivity - growth - greece - loess
Soil erosion negatively affects crop yields and may have contributed to the collapse of ancient civilizations. Whether erosion may have such an impact on modern societies as well, is subject to debate. In this paper we quantify the relationship between crop yields and soil water available to plants, the most important yield-determining factor affected by erosion, at the European scale. Using information on the spatial distribution of erosion rates we calculate the potential threat of erosion-induced productivity losses. We show that future reductions in productivity in Europe as a whole are relatively small and do not pose a substantial threat to crop production within the coming century. However, within Europe there is considerable variability, and although productivity in northern Europe is not likely to be significantly reduced by soil erosion, for the southern countries the threat of erosion-induced productivity declines is stronger.
Transmission and pathogenicity of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) among rats
Spyrou, V. ; Maurice, H. ; Billinis, C. ; Papanastassopoulou, M. ; Psalla, D. ; Nielen, M. ; Koenen, F. ; Papadopoulos, O. - \ 2004
Veterinary Research 35 (2004)1. - ISSN 0928-4249 - p. 113 - 122.
molecular analysis - pigs - infection - belgium - quantification - piglets - rodents - disease - greece - swine
Due to the probable role played by rodents as a reservoir for the transmission of the EMC virus to pigs, the experiment reported here was performed in order to assess the transmission rate of EMCV within a rat population. Twenty-five eight-week-old Wistar rats housed in individual plastic cages were experimentally infected either with a Greek myocardial EMCV strain (5 rats with a 0.2x10(6) TCID50 dose per rat and 10 rats with a 0.5x104(-5) TCID50 dose per rat, oronasally) or a Belgian myocardial EMCV strain (10 rats with a 0.5x10(4.5) TCID50 dose per rat, oronasally). Two to five days later, each inoculated rat was moved to a new clean cage and coupled with a contact rat to compare the pathogenicity of the two strains and to estimate the basic reproduction ratio R-0, indicating the level of EMCV transmission. During the experiments, faecal virus excretion was measured as well as the serological response against EMCV. After euthanasia, virus isolation was attempted from different rat tissues. Neither strains produced mortality, nor clinical signs and only low titres of neutralising antibodies were found. All contact rats, however, Iwere infected and the virus was isolated from their faeces and from various tissues. Both 10-pair experiments,revealed a point estimate for the R-0 of infinity (95%-CI for both the Greek and Belgian EMCV strains=4.48-infinity), as did the 5-pair experiment with a higher dose of the Greek strain (95%-CI=1.93-infinity). Combining the results front the two 10-pair experiments resulted in an estimate for R-0 of infinity (95%-CI: 9.87-infinity). These results indicate that the EMC virus can spread very easily within a rat population by horizontal rat-to-rat transmission (R(0)much greater than1).
Strandline and sand dune vegetation of coasts of Greece and some other Aegean countries.
Sykora, K.V. ; Babalonas, D. ; Papastergiadou, E.S. - \ 2003
Phytocoenologia 33 (2003)2-3. - ISSN 0340-269X - p. 409 - 446.
plantengemeenschappen - classificatie - kustgebieden - griekenland - plant communities - classification - coastal areas - greece
The coastal strandline and sand-dune vegetation of Greece has been reviewed. All published relevés available were collected and classified using numerical methods (TWINSPAN). The communities studied belong to three classes, one for strandline vegetation (Cakiletea maritimae), and two for sand-dune vegetation (Ammophiletea and Cisto-Micromerietea). A hierarchical syntaxonomic overview is given. The following communities and associations were distinguished: Salsolo-Matthioletum tricuspidatae, Cakilo-Xanthietum strumarii, Atriplici hastatae-Atriplicetum tataricae, Salsolo-Euphorbietum peplis, Salsolo kali-Cakiletum maritimae, Elymo-Zygophylletum albi, Community of Otanthus maritimus, Community of Eryngium maritimum, E ryngio-Sporoboletum virginici, Cypero mucronati-Agropyretum juncei, Medicagini marinae-Ammophiletum, Limonio graeci-Triplachnetum nitentis, Euphorbio-Silenetum nicaeensis, E phedero distachyae-Silenetum subconicae, Crucianelletum maritimae, E lymetum sabulosi, Sarcopoterio spinosi-Centaureetum spinosae and community of Artemisia campestris and Leymus racemosus. Twenty-nine subassociations have been distinguished. Species composition is presented in 10 synoptic tables. For each syntaxon the location where the relevés have been made is listed. Attention is paid to ecological requirements and geographical distribution. The characteristic and differential species for each syntaxon are also described. Human impact and conservation of coastal communities is discussed.
|Advies over mogelijke activiteiten na de grote brand van juli 2000 : missie naar Samos, Griekenland 08-13 januari 2001
Hillegers, P.J.M. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra - 16
branden - bosbranden - voorkomen van branden - herstel - kennis - bosbedrijfsvoering - griekenland - bosbrand - landschapsecologie - multifunctioneel landgebruik - toerisme - Samos - fires - forest fires - fire prevention - rehabilitation - knowledge - forest management - greece - Samos
Op Samos woedde zomer 2000 een grote brand, die een grote omvang kreeg door een droge tijd, een optredende hittegolf en een krachtige wind. Nederland was negatief betrokken bij deze brand, omdat het het enige land was, dat een negatief reisadvies afgaf voor toeristen. Diplomatieke bemiddeling resulteerde in een behulpzame missie om aanleiding en methodologie bij bosbranden en de voorkoming ervan aan een nader onderzoek te onderwerpen. Multifunctioneel landgebruik is een optie, de combinatie van recreatie, landbouw, veeteelt en bosbouw evenzo. Daarnaast is voor plattelandsontwikkeling locale participatie en samenwerking van belang
Nederlandse asperges internationaal zwaar onder druk
Stokkers, R. ; Hack, M.D. - \ 2000
PAV-bulletin. Vollegrondsgroenteteelt / Praktijkonderzoek voor de Akkerbouw en de Vollegrondsgroenteteelt 4 (2000)3. - ISSN 1385-5298 - p. 36 - 39.
asparagus - marketing - import - export - kosten - productiekosten - markten - marktconcurrentie - nederland - duitsland - griekenland - marketingkanalen - landbouwstatistieken - oppervlakte (areaal) - asparagus - marketing - imports - exports - costs - production costs - markets - market competition - marketing channels - agricultural statistics - acreage - netherlands - germany - greece
Door een te hoge kostprijs dreigt de Nederlandse asperge de concurrentie te verliezen met de Duitse en Griekse asperge. Schaarse arbeid en hoge loonkosten drijven de kostprijs op. In dit artikel: aanbevelingen de concurrentiepositie van de Nederlandse aspergesector op de internationale markt te verbeteren. Gegevens in bijgaande tabellen: 1) Karakteristieken van de aspergesector in Nederland, Duitsland en Griekenland in 1998 (areaal, productie, export, import, consumptie); 2) Distributieschema van de Nederlandse groothandel op de Nederlandse en Duitse markt
Labour situation and strategies of farm women in diversified rural areas of Europe
Overbeek, G. ; (AUA) Efstratoglou, S. ; (CRR) Haugen, M.S. ; (CRES) Saraceno, E. - \ 1998
Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities - ISBN 9789282856529 - 226
plattelandsvrouwen - boerengezinnen - familiebedrijven, landbouw - vrouwen - man-vrouwrelaties - griekenland - italië - nederland - noorwegen - europa - platteland - economische situatie - arbeid in de landbouw - rural women - farm families - family farms - women - gender relations - greece - italy - netherlands - norway - europe - rural areas - economic situation - farm labour
Prototyping and dissemination of ecological olive production systems : a methodology for designing and a first step towards validation and dissemination of prototype Ecological Olive Productions Systems (EOPS) in Crete
Kabourakis, E. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): E.A. Goewie; P. Vereijken. - S.l. : [s.n.] - ISBN 9789054856153 - 121
biologische landbouw - olea europaea - olijven - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsplanning - griekenland - organic farming - olea europaea - olives - farm management - farm planning - greece
The olive sector in Crete, Greece, as in many other olive producing regions in Mediterranean European Union, faces agronomic, ecological and socioeconomic problems. These problems to a large extent are due to one sided ways of production aimed at maximum levels of production while ignoring product quality, agroecosystem functions and processes, and environment. Besides, many problems are due to the gradual abolishment of price intervention by the European Union. Therefore, olive production in the future should become sustainable. The development of multi-functional olive production, marketed with an ecological label, is considered as the most promising solution. To explore this, an innovative research project has been established at the western Messara plain (Faistos area), southern Crete, Greece. This book presents the methodology, the theoretical prototype and the initial results of prototyping and dissemination of ecological olive production systems.
Chapter 1 of the book starts with a diagnosis of conventional olive production. Subsequently the methodology followed in the innovative research project aimed at prototyping (designing, testing and improving prototypes) ecological olive production is outlined. Two networks created to facilitate the achievement of the project objectives are described: (a) the foundation "Cretan Agri-environmental Group", for conversion from conventional to ecological production and for transition to an ecological knowledge system, and (b) the pilot group of olive growers, for interactive prototyping.
Chapter 2 provides the geographic (soils, climatic Patterns, vegetation and animal life, and agroecological characteristics) and the socio-economic characteristics of the area. It emphasises the agroecological characteristics of the groves in the project area.
Chapter 3 outlines a process for establishing the objectives of ecological production, considering the agricultural, ecological and socio-economic circumstances and constraints of the region. Besides, it provides the procedure for making a hierarchy of objectives and the resulting objectives for ecological olive production systems in the project area.
Chapter 4 describes how the objectives of ecological olive production systems are transformed and quantified with appropriate parameters in order to establish desired results and to improve the prototypes until these results are achieved. It provides the quantification of objectives with twelve new parameters for olive production. Besides, this chapter presents the desired ranges for these parameters in the project area and the procedure of parameter quantification.
Chapter 5 outlines how appropriate farming methods for realising. the objectives of the prototypes are designed. Six methods are initially designed in the framework of a theoretical prototype. They deal with the ecological management of cover crops, nutrients, ecological infrastructure, water, and insect pests and pathogens. These methods are described as well as their application under the specific conditions of the agroecological zones of the area.
Chapter 6 describes the layout of the prototype in three specific variants (hilly extensive groves, hilly intensive groves and plain intensive groves) and in seventeen pilot groves provided by the twelve pilot olive growers. The initial results of testing the prototype with ten parameters, in 1994 and 1995 are presented. These initial results are related to the introduction of the six multiobjective methods by the pilot growers. They show the progress made since the introduction of the prototype and during the conversion period to ecological agriculture. This chapter also discusses the improvement of the prototype in accordance with a methodical procedure and the required specific improvements of the methods in accordance with a set of criteria.
Chapter 7 outlines a network for preparing and disseminating the prototype at the regional scale. The network for area specific prototype groups is described as well as the principles of forming such groups. The dissemination of the prototypes is outlined, and the importance of pilot groups at the different areas of Crete is emphasised.
Finally in Chapter 8 the research and pilot project circumstances are revised. Future perspectives of prototyping and dissemination of ecological olive production systems are discussed, with emphasis on the required improvements considering the initial results. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and constraints of prototyping and dissemination are outlined in relation to the application of the new methodology that was followed.
Quantified analysis of selected land use systems in the Larissa Region, Greece
Danalatos, N.G. - \ 1993
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L.J. Pons; P.M. Driessen. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789054850632 - 370
landevaluatie - grondvermogen - bodemgeschiktheid - groeistadia - gewassen, groeifasen - bedrijfssystemen - bodem - plant-water relaties - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - zonering - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - griekenland - land evaluation - land capability - soil suitability - growth stages - crop growth stage - farming systems - soil - plant water relations - physical planning - land use - zoning - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models - greece
A dynamic crop-growth simulation model was developed, based on the "Wageningen modelling approach", calibrated and applied for quantified land evaluation purposes in the Larissa (east Thessaly) plain, Greece.
The soil and climate conditions were studied in detail in three sample areas with a total extent of about 10,000 hectares. The geology, geomorphology and hydrology, and the human environment were studied as well.
Crop data were collected in field experiments with maize, cotton and wheat in 1987 through 1989. The growth of widely used maize and cotton cultivars was studied in Larissa and Thessaloniki in 1987 and 1988; a durum (spring) wheat cultivar was studied in Larissa in 1989 and in Spata (Athens) in 1991.
Land data were collected for calculation of the water-limited production potential, which is within the reach of the farmers in the Larissa area. A full land evaluation of the whole area was not done. Rather, it was demonstrated that the model developed allows to quantify the impact of selected limitations on the performance of land-use systems as a basis for land suitability classification.
|De land- en tuinbouw in Griekenland
Anonymous, - \ 1981
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor Landbouwpublikaties en Landbouwdocumentatie no. 4561)
landbouw - griekenland - bibliografieën - agriculture - greece - bibliographies