Understanding wicked problems and organized irresponsibility: challenges for governing the sustainable intensification of chicken meat production
Bueren, E.M. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 8 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 1 - 14.
supply chain management - antibiotic-resistance - escherichia-coli - risk - agriculture - uncertainty - future - issues - green
Framing sustainable intensification as a wicked problem reveals how inherent trade-offs and resulting uncertainty and ambiguity block integrated problem solving as promoted by sustainable chain management approaches to production and consumption. The fragmented institutional set-up of the chains avoids that individual actors take responsibility for risks they helped to produce, resulting in ‘organized irresponsibility’. Governance arrangements for sustainable chain management focus especially on reducing risk and uncertainty and ignore trade-offs instead of acknowledging them. For the Dutch chicken meat chain, this article explores how wicked problems and organized irresponsibility influence governance opportunities for sustainable intensification.
Convergence between science and environmental education
Wals, A.E.J. ; Brody, M. ; Dillon, J. ; Stevenson, R.B. - \ 2014
Science 344 (2014)6184. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 583 - 584.
citizen science - public engagement - green
Urgent issues such as climate change, food scarcity, malnutrition, and loss of biodiversity are highly complex and contested in both science and society (1). To address them, environmental educators and science educators seek to engage people in what are commonly referred to as sustainability challenges. Regrettably, science education (SE), which focuses primarily on teaching knowledge and skills, and environmental education (EE), which also stresses the incorporation of values and changing behaviors, have become increasingly distant. The relationship between SE and EE has been characterized as “distant, competitive, predatorprey and host-parasite” (2). We examine the potential for a convergence of EE and SE that might engage people in addressing fundamental socioecological challenges.
Extending environmental management beyond the firm boundaries: An empirical study of Dutch food and beverage firms
Grekova, E. ; Bremmers, H.J. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Kemp, R.G.M. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2014
International Journal of Production Economics 152 (2014). - ISSN 0925-5273 - p. 174 - 187.
supply-chain management - resource-based view - institutional pressures - energy efficiency - performance - green - model - industry - drivers - system
Consumer demand for environmental sustainability and for affordable prices calls for cooperation and information exchange in food chains to reduce joint environmental impact, known as externally-oriented environmental management (E-EM). E-EM is increasingly regarded as a management tool to simultaneously improve environmental, operational, and business performance. Understanding the factors that influence managers to develop E-EM helps to design environmentally and economically sustainable food chains. The prior research regarding these factors is not exhaustive and demanded a multi-period approach. This study expands the understanding of the factors that influence managers to develop E-EM with a multi-period empirical research. We address the effects of external institutional pressures (regulative, normative, and culturally-cognitive) and the level of in-company environmental management (I-EM) on E-EM, which involves information exchange in the chain, cooperation with suppliers and customers. The analysis relies on survey data of 255 and 96 Dutch food and beverage (F&B) processors from 2002 and 2010 respectively. The findings indicate that respondents have considerably improved I-EM over time. I-EM requires in-company pzrocedures ranging from environmental strategy formulation to the managerial review of achieved results to assure continuous improvement of environmental performance. F&B processors that had already achieved a high level of I-EM are more likely to develop E-EM. Also growing normative and culturally-cognitive pressures from supply chain partners and increasingly from long-term public–private environmental covenants significantly influenced E-EM implementation. However, regulative pressure from public authorities had no impact. It appeared that E-EM is influenced mostly by institutional pressures when the firms are less experienced with I-EM.
Biomass and lipid productivity of Neochloris oleoabundans under alkaline–saline conditions
Severino R Quintanilha Santos, A.M. ; Lamers, P.P. ; Janssen, M. ; Wijffels, R.H. - \ 2013
Algal Research 2 (2013)3. - ISSN 2211-9264 - p. 204 - 211.
photosynthetic efficiency - chlorella-sorokiniana - cell-growth - light - microalgae - photobioreactor - accumulation - green - water - path
We explored the effect of pH and nitrogen supply on the biomass and fatty acid productivities of the microalga Neochloris oleoabundans cultivated in saline medium under continuous light. During light-limited and nitrogen-replete conditions, the maximal volumetric biomass productivity was 0.98 gDW L-1 d-1 at pH 8.2 and 0.47 gDW L-1 d-1 at pH 10. Apparently microalgal growth costs more energy at high pH, resulting in lower biomass productivities.With the fatty acid content being 2-fold higher at pH 10 (8% versus 15% w/w), the maximal volumetric fatty acid productivity was 75.2 mgFA L-1 d-1 at pH 8.2 and 66.6 mgFA L-1 d-1 at pH 10.When high pH was combined with nitrogen depletion, fatty acids accumulated up to 29% (w/w), leading to the highest fatty acid productivity observed in this study (112.4 mgFA L-1 d-1). These findings stimulate further development of a two-stage process for optimal overall lipid productivity.
Fluorescent protein vectors for promoter analysis in lactic acid bacteria and Escherichia coli
García-Cayuela, T. ; Cadiñanos, L.P. de; Mohedano, M.L. ; Palencia, P.F. de; Boden, D. ; Wells, J. ; Peláez, C. ; López, P. ; Requena, T. - \ 2012
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 96 (2012)1. - ISSN 0175-7598 - p. 171 - 181.
lactococcus-lactis - streptococcus-pneumoniae - genetic tools - in-vitro - green - cremoris - red - transformation - expression - faecalis
Fluorescent reporter genes are valuable tools for real-time monitoring of gene expression in living cells. In this study we describe the construction of novel promoter-probe vectors containing a synthetic mCherry fluorescent protein gene, codon-optimized for lactic acid bacteria, divergently linked, or not, to a gene encoding the S65T and F64L variant of the green fluorescent protein. The utility of the transcriptional fusion vectors was demonstrated by the cloning of a single or two divergent promoter regions and by the quantitative evaluation of fluorescence during growth of Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli.
A comparison of children with ADHD in a natural and built setting
Berg, A.E. van den; Berg, C.G. van den - \ 2011
Child: Care, Health and Development 37 (2011)3. - ISSN 0305-1862 - p. 430 - 439.
inner-city children - physical-activity - attention - green - environment - benefits - disorder - exposure - quality - stress
Background - A link has been suggested between children's disconnection from nature and the recent surge in childhood disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Research on benefits of nature for healthy children provides some support for such a link. However, only a few studies have directly examined the influence of contact with nature on children with ADHD. Aim -The aim of the present research was to gain more insight into the behaviour and emotional and cognitive functioning of children with ADHD in a natural and built setting. Methods - Two groups of six children (age 9–17) who stayed at care farms for children with ADHD in the Netherlands were systematically observed, questioned, and tested during visits to a wooded area and a small town. Results - Both groups performed better on a concentration task in the woods than in the town, despite the fact that all children visited the town after the woods and thus their scores in the town were possibly inflated by learning effects. However, the behaviour and emotional functioning in the two settings differed between the groups. One group of children liked the woods better than the town and displayed more positive behaviours and feelings in the natural environment. The other group of children liked the town equally well as the woods and displayed positive behaviours and feelings in both settings, although they showed somewhat more non-social, aggressive, inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive behaviour in the town than in the woods.
Spectral dependence of photosynthesis and light absorptance in single leaves and canopy in rose
Paradiso, R. ; Meinen, E. ; Snel, J.F.H. ; Visser, P.H.B. de; Ieperen, W. van; Hogewoning, S.W. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2011
Scientia Horticulturae 127 (2011)4. - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 548 - 554.
optical-properties - visible radiation - quintinia-serrata - quantum yield - crop plants - red - quality - growth - green - anthocyanins
Little is known about the effects of leaf pigmentation (related to leaf ontogeny), on the spectral dependence of photosynthesis and most observations have been limited so far to single leaves. This study aimed to investigate photosynthesis and the related optical properties of two types of rose leaves, young reddish leaves and middle age green leaves, and to quantify the spectral dependence of photosynthesis at the canopy level. Photosynthesis was measured with CO2/H2O gas analyzer on intact leaves of rose ‘Akito’ at narrow band light of 18 wavelengths. Subsequently, the optical properties (transmittance, absorptance and reflectance) were measured with spectrophotometer. A mechanistic crop model was used for up scaling measurements at the single leaf level to the crop level (crop with LAI = 3). The green and the reddish leaves had similar total PAR absorptance, even though absorptance around 550 nm was slightly lower in the green leaves. The maxima of photosynthesis efficiency were at 640–680 nm for quantum yield (per absorbed light unit) and at 660–680 nm for action spectrum (per incident light unit), regardless the colour of the leaf blade. In the range 500–580 nm, both the quantum yield and the action spectrum were lower in reddish than in green leaves. Differences in optical properties and photosynthetic behaviour were related to the higher content of anthocyanins in red leaves. The spectral dependence of light absorption and photosynthesis at the canopy level differed distinctly from that at leaf level. The spectral differences in absorption at the leaf level almost disappeared at the canopy level. Consequently, while the action spectrum of green light (520–570 nm) was only 67% of that of red light (680 nm) at the leaf level, it increased to 79% at the crop level. Young reddish leaves had higher absorptance but lower action spectrum and quantum yield at green light. Spectral differences in photosynthesis at the canopy level are much smaller than at the leaf level. Our short term measurements suggest that optimizing spectral output of LED lamps may increase photosynthesis up to 12% for a canopy with green leaves and up to 17% for a canopy with reddish leaves when compared to the spectrum of HPS lamps.
Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Recent trends and policies
Qu, F. ; Kuyvenhoven, A. ; Shi, X. ; Heerink, N. - \ 2011
China Economic Review 22 (2011)4. - ISSN 1043-951X - p. 444 - 460.
land conversion program - conservation set-aside - heihe river-basin - environmental degradation - northwest china - water markets - impacts - green - grain - poverty
In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently become available are used to that end. In addition, we analyse the impact of new policy initiatives to introduce market-based instruments and new institutions to address land degradation and water scarcity problems. We find that the decline in cultivated area has accelerated in the beginning of the new century. Ecological recovery programs, not urbanization and industrialization, are the major factors causing this decline. Ecological recovery programs are also a major force behind the increase in forest land area and the reduction of water erosion. Modest successes can be observed in the protection of wetlands and (until the mid-1980s) for the average quality of cultivated land. On the other hand, degradation of natural grassland and wind erosion have become much more severe in recent decades. In northern China, particularly in the 3-H (Hai and Luan, Huai and Huang) river basins, the availability of water has tightened. Groundwater tables have fallen considerably in the Hai river basin, because farmers increasingly rely on groundwater for irrigation. Evidence on other parts of northern China is mixed. Pollution of surface water is getting worse since the beginning of the 1990s in two major lakes in southern China and until recently in the rivers in northern China. Water quality problems in the larger rivers in southern China are less severe and getting less. These problems are to a large extent caused by agriculture-based non-point source pollution, especially in the major lakes and reservoirs. The sloping land conversion program, water pricing, and the establishment of water user associations and payments for environmental service projects are used as cases to examine the introduction of market-based instruments and new institutions. We argue that less government interference in the implementation of these instruments and institutions is likely to enhance ecological as well the economic benefits. Moreover, supportive measures to improve the functioning of land and labor markets are usually needed to ensure the sustainability of the impact of interventions.
From closed-loop to sustainable suplly chains: the WEEE case
Quariguasi Frota Neto, J. ; Walther, G. ; Bloemhof, J.M. ; Nunen, J.A.E.E. van; Spengler, T. - \ 2010
International Journal of Production Research 48 (2010)15. - ISSN 0020-7543 - p. 4463 - 4481.
product recovery - decision-making - green - approximation - management - systems - curves - issues - set - aid
The primary objective of closed-loop supply chains (CLSC) is to improve the maximum economic benefit from end-of-use products. Nevertheless, the literature within this stream of research advocates that closing the loop also helps to mitigate the undesirable environmental footprint of supply chains. Therefore, closed-loop supply chains are assumed to be sustainable supply chains almost by definition. In this paper we analyse if and when this assumption holds. We illustrate our findings based on the Electric and Electronic Equipment (EEE) supply chain. For all phases of the supply chain, i.e. manufacturing, usage, transportation and end-of-life activities, we assess the magnitude of the environmental impacts, based on a single environmental metric, namely the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). Given the environmental hot-spots in the Electric and Electronic Equipment supply chain, we propose useful extensions for existing CLSC optimisation models to ensure that closed-loop supply chains are at the same time sustainable supply chains
Roasting Effects on Formation Mechanisms of Coffee Brew Melanoidins
Bekedam, E.K. ; Loots, M.J. ; Schols, H.A. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Smit, G. - \ 2008
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (2008)16. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 7138 - 7145.
molecular-weight melanoidins - zinc-chelating substance - chemical-characterization - antioxidant activity - liquid-chromatography - beverages - beans - green - acids - food
The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their melanoidin, nitrogen, protein, phenolic groups, chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, caffeic acid, and sugar content. It was found that the melanoidin level in all fractions correlated with both the nitrogen and the protein content. The melanoidin level also correlated with the phenolic groups¿ level and ester-linked quinic acid level. It was concluded that proteins and chlorogenic acids should be primarily involved in melanoidin formation. Initial roasting, from green to light-roasted beans, especially led to the formation of intermediate Mw (IMw) melanoidins when compared to high Mw (HMw) melanoidins. Indications were found that this IMw melanoidin formation is mainly due to Maillard reactions and chlorogenic acid incorporation reactions between chlorogenic acids, sucrose, and amino acids/protein fragments. Additionally, it was found that prolonged roasting predominantly led to formation melanoidins with a high Mw. Furthermore, arabinogalactans seem to be relatively more involved in melanoidin formation than galactomannans. It was hypothesized that chromophores may be formed or attached through the arabinose moiety of arabinogalactan proteins (AGP). Finally, it could be concluded that galactomannans are continuously incorporated in AGP-melanoidins upon roasting.
Towards red-edge positions less sensitive to canopy biophysical parameters for leaf chlorophyll estimation using properties optique spectrales des feuilles (PROSPECT) and scattering by arbitrarily inclined leaves (SAILH) simulated data
Cho, M.A. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Atzberger, C. - \ 2008
International Journal of Remote Sensing 29 (2008)8. - ISSN 0143-1161 - p. 2241 - 2255.
hyperspectral vegetation indexes - area index - photosynthetic efficiency - precision agriculture - optical-properties - remote estimation - reflectance data - model - nitrogen - green
Several methods for extracting the chlorophyll sensitive red-edge position (REP) from hyperspectral data are reported in literature. This study is a continuation of a recent paper published as 'A new technique for extracting the red edge position from hyperspectral data: the linear extrapolation method'. The method was validated experimentally for estimation of foliar nitrogen concentrations of rye, maize and mixed grass/herb. The objective of this study was to test the utility of the linear extrapolation method under different conditions including variable canopy biophysical parameters, solar zenith angle, sensor noise and spectral bandwidth. REPs were extracted from synthetic canopy spectra that were simulated using properties optique spectrales des feuilles (PROSPECT) and scattering by arbitrarily inclined leaves (SAILH) radiative transfer models. REPs extracted by the linear extrapolation method involving wavebands at 680, 694, 724 and 760 nm produced the highest correlation (R2=0.75) with leaf chlorophyll content with minimal effects of leaf and canopy biophysical confounders (leaf area index, leaf inclination distribution and leaf dry matter content) compared to traditional techniques including the linear interpolation, inverted Gaussian modelling and polynomial fitting techniques. In addition, the new technique is insensitive to changes in solar zenith angle. However, the advantage of using the linear extrapolation method compared to the various alternative methods diminishes with increasing sensor noise and decreasing spectral resolution. In summary, the linear extrapolation technique confirms its high potential for leaf chlorophyll estimation. The efficacy of the technique under field conditions needs to be established
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Studies on the Formation of Roasting-Induced Antioxidative Structures in Coffee Brews at Different Degrees of Roast
Bekedam, E.K. ; Schols, H.A. ; Cämmerer, B. ; Kroh, L.W. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Smit, G. - \ 2008
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (2008)12. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4597 - 4604.
chemical-characterization - thermal-degradation - chlorogenic acids - model systems - melanoidins - capacity - foods - beverages - green
The antioxidative properties of coffee brew fractions were studied using electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and Fremy¿s salt (nitrosodisulfonate) as stabilized radicals. TEMPO was scavenged by antioxidants formed during roasting and not by chlorogenic acid, whereas Fremy¿s salt was scavenged by all antioxidants tested including chlorogenic acid. The stabilized radical TEMPO allowed the exclusive measurement of roasting-induced antioxidants. The roasting-induced antioxidant activity of coffee brews increased with increasing degree of roast, and most of these antioxidants were formed during the initial roasting stage. The majority of these roasting-induced antioxidants were present in the high molecular weight fractions, indicating that the formation of these antioxidants preferably occurs at specific high molecular weight structures, likely being arabinogalactan and/or protein moieties which might be part of the melanoidin complex. It was found that chlorogenic acids most probably do not lose their antioxidant activity and phenolic characteristics upon incorporation in coffee melanoidins. The parameter fast reacting antioxidants (FRA) was introduced as an alternative for the antioxidative potential. FRA levels showed that coffee fractions rich in roasting-induced antioxidants exposed their antioxidant activity relatively slowly, which must be a consequence of its complex structure. Finally, the melanoidin content and the roasting-induced antioxidant activity showed a positive and linear correlation for the coffee brew fractions, showing that roasting-induced antioxidants are present within melanoidins. This is the first time that the formation of roasting-induced antioxidants could be directly correlated with the extent of Maillard reaction and melanoidin formation in a complex product such as coffee.
Arabinogalactan Proteins Are Incorporated in Negatively Charged Coffee Brew Melanoidins
Bekedam, E.K. ; Laat, M.P.F.C. de; Schols, H.A. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Smit, G. - \ 2007
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (2007)3. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 761 - 768.
arabica beans - maillard reaction - espresso coffee - green - model - food - polysaccharides - electrophoresis - substances - components
The charge properties of melanoidins in high molecular weight (HMw) coffee brew fractions, isolated by diafiltration and membrane dialysis, were studied. Ion exchange chromatography experiments with the HMw fractions showed that coffee brew melanoidins were negatively charged whereas these molecules did not expose any positive charge at the pH of coffee brew. Fractions with different ionic charges were isolated and subsequently characterized by means of the specific extinction coefficient (Kmix 405nm), sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, and the arabinogalactan protein (AGP) specific Yariv gel-diffusion assay. The isolated fractions were different in composition and AGP was found to be present in one of the HMw fractions. The AGP accounted for 6% of the coffee brew dry matter and had a moderate negative charge, probably caused by the presence of uronic acids. As the fraction that precipitated with Yariv was brown (Kmix 405nm = 1.2), compared to a white color in the green bean, it was concluded that these AGPs had undergone Maillard reaction resulting in an AGP-melanoidin complex. The presence of mannose (presumably from galactomannan) indicates the incorporation of galactomannans in the AGP-melanoidin complex. As the uronic acid content in the more negatively charged melanoidin-rich, AGP-poor HMw fractions decreased, it was hypothesized that acidic groups are formed or incorporated during melanoidin formation.
High Molecular Weight Melanoidins from Coffee Brew
Bekedam, E.K. ; Schols, H.A. ; Boekel, T. van; Smit, G. - \ 2006
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (2006)20. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 7658 - 7666.
chemical-characterization - maillard reaction - liquid-chromatography - espresso coffee - roasted coffee - arabica coffee - foam stability - amino-acids - hot-water - green
The composition of high molecular weight (HMw) coffee melanoidin populations, obtained after ethanol precipitation, was studied. The specific extinction coefficient (Kmix) at 280, 325, 405 nm, sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, amino acid composition, and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content were investigated. Results show that most HMw coffee melanoidins are soluble at high ethanol concentrations. The amino acid composition of the HMw fractions was similar, while 17% (w/w) of the nitrogen was NPN, probably originating from degraded amino acids/proteins and now part of melanoidins. A strong correlation between the melanoidin content, the NPN, and protein content was found. It was concluded that proteins are incorporated into the melanoidins and that the degree of chemical modification, for example, by phenolic groups, determines the solubility of melanoidins in ethanol. Although the existence of covalent interaction between melanoidins and polysaccharides were not proven in this study, the findings suggest that especially arabinogalactan is likely involved in melanoidin formation. Finally, phenolic groups were present in the HMw fraction of coffee, and a correlation was found with the melanoidin concentration
Microbiological analysis and antibacterial effects of the indigenous fermented Puer tea
Mo, H.Z. ; Xu, X.Q. ; Yan, M.C. ; Yang Zhu, Yang - \ 2005
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 16 (2005)6. - ISSN 1722-6996 - p. 16 - 18.
antimicrobial activity - kombucha fermentation - erh - catechins - oolong - black - green
Microbiological analysis was done on samples from an indigenously fermented tea - Puer. Microbial counting and identification revealed that Aspergillus niger was the dominating microorganism during the fermentation. Antimicrobial activity of fermentation samples showed inhibitory effect on several food borne bacteria, including spore forming bacteria Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium sporogenes. The antimicrobial activity increased with the course of the fermentation. This implied that certain metabolites of Aspergillus niger growing on tea leaves had the feature of inhibiting certain food borne spoilage and pathogen microorganisms.
Private or self-regulation? A comparative study of forest certification choices in Canada, the United States and Germany
Cashore, B. ; Kooten, G.C. van; Vertinsky, I. ; Auld, G. ; Affolderbach, J. - \ 2005
Forest Policy and Economics 7 (2005)1. - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 53 - 69.
governance systems - policy - perspective - management - responses - products - green
Forest certification is perhaps the best example of a voluntary governance structure for addressing environmental spillovers. Competing forest certification schemes have evolved. At the global level, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 certification and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification focus on environmental processes and sustainable management of forestland, respectively. Regional/domestic schemes have been started by industry and/or landowners to compete with the FSC system. The main difference between FSC certification and the others is that the FSC relies on regulation by a non-state private regulator, while the others employ a form of self-regulation. In this study, survey data from firms in Canada, the United States and Germany are used to investigate factors that cause firms to prefer and/or choose a particular certification scheme. The findings indicate that market access is an important reason why forest firms certify, but it is an insufficient reason for them to pick the FSC system despite opinion polls that reveal a preference for FSC-style certification. Rather, firms prefer (participate in) FSC certification because they perceive it to confer environmental benefits, while those choosing another certification scheme do so on economic grounds. Finally, as companies become increasingly aware of their certification options, they are less likely to pursue FSC certification.
Why might forest companies certify? Results from a Canadian survey
Takahashi, T. ; Kooten, G.C. van; Vertinsky, I. - \ 2003
International Forestry Review 5 (2003)4. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 329 - 337.
During the late 1980s/early 1990s, voluntary forest certification emerged as a new market-based incentive mechanism and had an important influence on the way the world's forests are managed. To understand the mechanism of its diffusion, we employed a survey instrument and probit regression analysis to investigate certification of forest practices by Canadian companies. Specifically, we investigated the characteristics of firms that have considered certification and of firms that have formally manifested their intention to certify. Three major forest certification schemes are considered: (1) ISO 14001, (2) the Canadian Standards Association, and (3) the Forest Stewardship Council. We find that a firm's type of tenure holdings, reliance on export markets, size, and the local community are important factors in explaining why forest companies consider certification.
Effect of roasting on the carbohydrate composition of Coffea arabica beans.
Oosterveld, A. ; Voragen, A.G.J. ; Schols, H.A. - \ 2003
Carbohydrate Polymers 54 (2003)2. - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 183 - 192.
rich pectic polysaccharides - sugar-beet pulp - chemical characterization - hot-water - arabinose - green
Coffee beans (arabica) with different degrees of roast were sequentially extracted with water (90 °C, 1 h), water (170 °C, 30 min), and 0.05 M NaOH (0 °C, 1 h). The amount and composition of polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in the extracts and residues were analyzed. The results were compared with the composition of the same batch of green arabica coffee beans. Although part of our results were already reported in rather fragmented studies, this study gives a more complete overview of the amount and composition of unextractable polymers, extractable polymers, oligomers, monomers, and their conversion into (non-sugar) degradation products as a function of their degree of roast. It was found that most carbohydrates in the roasted coffee bean were present as polysaccharides (extractable or unextractable). The fact that only a small part of the carbohydrates in the extracts were recovered as oligomer and even less as monomers, showed that oligomers and especially monomers were converted very rapidly into Maillard and pyrolysis products. Cellulose remains unextractable and its solubility was not affected by the degree of roast. Galactomannans were also mainly present as unextractable polymers in green beans, but were solubilized to a large extent with increasing degrees of roast. The arabinogalactans in the roasted bean were highly soluble at the extraction conditions used. The arabinose as present as side-chains in the arabinogalactans were found to be more susceptible to degradation at more severe roasting conditions than the galactans. Also evidence was found that populations of arabinogalactans with very different ara:gal ratios exist in the roasted beans as well as in the green beans.