Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Getting a grip on hydrological and sediment connectivity
Masselink, Rens J.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.J. Ritsema; S.E.A.T.M. van der Zee, co-promotor(en): S.D. Keesstra; A.J.A.M. Temme. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436342 - 158
hydrology - sediment - land degradation - slopes - geological sedimentation - land management - soil physics - hydrologie - sediment - landdegradatie - hellingen - geologische sedimentatie - grondbeheer - bodemfysica

Land degradation is a large problem worldwide, especially in agricultural areas. Between 1-6 billion ha of land worldwide is affected by land degradation. With an increasing world population, more food production is needed and, therefore, more land is converted into agricultural areas. This conversion of land to agricultural areas, in turn, leads to more land degradation. Some common forms of land degradation are desertification, salinization and soil erosion by water. The negative effects of soil erosion have been recognized for a long time. Since the early 20th century, researchers have tried to quantify soil displaced due to water, and to measure and model the efficiency of management strategies.

The implications of problems with upscaling, wrong process representation and equifinality include the difficulty to properly predict sediment sources, pathways and sinks within catchments. These problems then can translate into the implementation of sub-optimal management strategies. To deal with these non-linear processes and the lack of proper representation of water and sediment sources, pathways and sinks, the concept of connectivity was developed. Currently, many definitions of connectivity have been proposed, although the definition most used is that of hydrological connectivity by Pringle (2003): ‘Hydrologic connectivity is the water-mediated transport of matter, energy and organisms within or between elements of the hydrologic cycle’.

A unified theory on what constitutes connectivity and how connectivity should be measured or inferred remains one of the biggest challenges within catchment science. In addition, it is unclear whether connectivity should be an output or an input of a model and if an input, whether this should be added explicitly or implicitly. The main objective of this thesis was, therefore, to assess and quantify hydrological and sediment connectivity in a meaningful way, which can further our understanding of hydrological and sediment transport processes and catchment system dynamics.

The study was carried out in three catchments in Navarre, northern Spain. Two catchments, ‘Latxaga’ and ‘La Tejeria’, are agricultural catchments with sizes of 2.07 km2 and 1.69 km2, respectively. The ‘Oskotz Forestal’ catchment is a (semi-)natural catchment, with a size of 5.05 km2. Land cover in the agricultural catchments is mainly winter wheat and barley, while in the Oskotz catchment it is grassland and forest. Latxaga and La Tejeria are mainly underlain by marls and within La Tejeria some sandstone is also present. The geology in Oskotz is characterised by an alternation of marls and sandy limestone.

In chapter 2, I used networks (graph theory) to characterise and quantify overland flow connectivity dynamics on hillslopes in a humid sub-Mediterranean environment by using a combination of high-resolution digital-terrain models, overland flow sensors and a network approach. Results showed that there are significant differences between overland flow connectivity on agricultural areas and semi-natural shrubs areas. Significant positive correlations between connectivity and precipitation characteristics were found. Significant negative correlations between connectivity and soil moisture were found, most likely due to soil water repellency and/or soil surface crusting. The combination of structural networks and dynamic networks for determining potential connectivity and actual connectivity proved a powerful tool for analysing overland flow connectivity.

In chapter 3, I determined the functioning of hillslope-channel connectivity and the continuation of transport of these sediments in the channel. To determine this functioning, I obtained data on sediment transport from the hillslopes to the channels while simultaneously looking at factors that influence sediment export out of the catchment. For measuring hillslope-channel sediment connectivity, Rare-Earth Oxide (REO) tracers were applied to a hillslope in the Latxaga catchment preceding the winter of 2014-2015. The results showed that during the winter there have been no sediments transported from the hillslope into the channel. Analysis of precipitation data showed that although total precipitation quantities did not differ much from the mean, the precipitation intensities were low. Using a Random Forest (RF) machine learning method, I showed that hillslope-channel connectivity in Latxaga is dominated by sediment mobilisation during large (high intensity) precipitation events. Sediments are for a large part exported during those events. Large events also leave behind large amounts of sediments in and near the channel, which is gradually removed by small events.

In chapter 4 I demonstrated that existing data can be used to assess governing factors of connectivity, and how these factors change over time. Data from three catchments in Navarre, Northern Spain, were used to assess factors that influence hydrologic and sediment connectivity. These factors were used as components in a spatially-lumped linear model for discharge and suspended-sediment yield. Three components of connectivity were distinguished: topographical, biological and soil. Changes in the topographical component for the studied periods were considered relatively small, and, therefore, kept constant. Changes in the biological component were determined using the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index. Changes in the soil component were assessed using an Antecedent Precipitation Index. Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients were between 0.49 through 0.62 for the discharge models and between 0.23 through 0.3 for the sediment-yield models. I recommended applying the model at smaller spatial scales than catchment scale to minimize the lumping of spatial variability in the components.

In chapter 5, the objective was to better understand the implications of model calibration at different spatial scales on the simulation of hydrology and sediment dynamics of an agricultural catchment. I applied the LAPSUS-D model to the Latxaga catchment. The model was calibrated and validated (4 years: 2011-2015) using three datasets at varying spatial scales: hillslope, catchment and the combined dataset (combined-calibrated model). The hillslope-calibrated model showed mainly infiltration-excess overland flow, the catchment-calibrated mainly saturation-excess overland flow at the footslopes and the combined-calibrated model showed saturation-excess overland flow from the midslopes to the footslopes. For hydrology, the combined-calibrated model simulated the large discharge peaks best, while at the hillslope scale, the hillslope-calibrated model performed best. The hillslope-calibrated model produced the highest model efficiencies for sediments, for calibration (0.618) and validation (0.269). The hillslope-calibrated model was the only model that showed observed gully erosion on a high-resolution DEM and displayed channel sediment dynamics. However, absolute quantities of erosion and deposition within the catchment were too high. The results show that modellers need to be aware of problems associated with automatic calibration, over-calibration and not incorporating measured data at multiple spatial scales. We advocate incorporating runoff and sediment tracing data at multiple scales whenever this is possible and to, furthermore, carry out specific measuring campaigns towards this end, ultimately to get a more comprehensive view on hydrological and sediment connectivity within a catchment.

The combination of chapters in this thesis showed that the connectivity concept is useful for a wide range of studies, from hillslope scale to catchment scale. Using the concept, I was able to determine sediment dynamics for a humid-Mediterranean catchment and show that this behaviour is different than previously thought.

Depending of the aim of the study, various concepts of connectivity are useful. Different geologic and climatic settings cause large differences in catchment (sediment) dynamics. It might, therefore, not be necessary, or even possible, to strive for a single, unifying conceptual framework for connectivity. Instead, a collection of frameworks for different settings should be developed. These frameworks should, however, always aim at helping to understand which measurements need to be taken and which type of models and indices should be used for that particular setting.

It is my honest opinion that connectivity is definitely a useful concept to advance our knowledge on water and sediment transport processes further. However, careful consideration is also required as this particular concept will not necessary provide the ultimate explanation and insights in dynamic behaviour within watersheds around the world. The gap between the different spatial and temporal scales is too complex to be bridged with a single concept like connectivity. However, the many studies about connectivity that will be published in the near future will be able to advance knowledge on water and sediment transport processes.

Groeimogelijkheden verkend bij AMvB grondgebonden melkveehouderij
Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2015
Wageningen UR
melkveehouderij - groeianalyse - grondbeheer - fosfaat - melkvee - huisvesting van koeien - maatregelen - wetgeving - landbouwgrond - dairy farming - growth analysis - land management - phosphate - dairy cattle - cow housing - measures - legislation - agricultural land
Op 29 maart 2015 heeft staatssecretaris Sharon Dijksma voorstellen voor de Algemene Maatregel van Bestuur (AmvB) grondgebonden groei melkveehouderij aan de Eerste Kamer aangeboden. Voor de Koeien & Kansen-bedrijven is verkend wat voor gevolgen dit heeft voor hun bedrijf.
Quantifying the effects of management on ecosystem services
Oudenhoven, A.P.E. van - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Dolf de Groot; Rob Alkemade. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571723 - 171
ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - grondbeheer - modelleren - natuurbescherming - ecosystem services - ecosystems - land management - modeling - nature conservation
Dit proefschrift onderzoekt de effecten van landbeheer op ecosysteemdiensten. Landbeheer betreft de menselijke activiteiten die landgebruik ondersteunen. Het geheel werd toegepast in drie case studies, variërend van landschap- tot bioomniveau: in Nationaal Landschap 'Het Groene Woud' in Noord Brabant (Hoofdstuk 3), mangrovesystemen in Java, Indonesië (Hoofdstuk 4), en voor ‘rangelands’ op globale schaal (Hoofdstuk 5).
Land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: adoption and impact
Akalu Teshome Firew, ; Firew, A.T. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571563 - 148
grondbeheer - landdegradatie - hooglanden - waterbescherming - bodembescherming - ethiopië - land management - land degradation - highlands - water conservation - soil conservation - ethiopia

Abstract

Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been low. This is because investments in LM practices are influenced by various institutional, socio-economic and bio-physical factors. The main objective of this research is to investigate the impact of these different factors on investments in LM in the north-western Ethiopian highlands. It focuses on the drivers of the different stages of adoption, on profitability of LM practices, and on land quality, land fragmentation, tenure arrangements and social capital.

We examined the drivers of the different stages of adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices using an ordered probit model. The results indicate that adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) passes through four major phases: non-adoption/dis-adoption, initial adoption, actual adoption and final adoption. Some socio-economic and institutional factors have a different effect on the respective SWC adoption phases. Final adoption depends mostly on profitability, land-related factors, social capital and perception of erosion problems.

We also investigated the effectiveness and profitability of three SWC practices (stone bunds, soil bunds and Fanya juu bunds) using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). The results show that SWC practices are effective in controlling soil erosion, though the profitability of these SWC methods is dependent on the site where they are used. Fanya juu and stone bunds are generally profitable under standard conditions (e.g. medium slope and average soil quality and labour costs). However, the study also shows that different underlying assumptions change the CBA results considerably and consequently also change the conclusions regarding circumstances under which SWC measures are or are not profitable.

Besides, we assessed farmers’ perceptions about land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems and their influence on interrelated LM (Bunds, Compost/Manure and Fertilizer) investments using a multivariate probit (MPV) model. The study shows that investments in LM practices are interdependent. For example, compost/manure and fertiliser substitute each other to a certain extent (often not used together, or used interchangeably by farmers) in the farming system of the study areas. Land quality (e.g. slope and soil fertility status), land fragmentation (parcel size and distance of parcel from homestead) and tenure arrangements influence farmers’ investments in LM practices.

In addition, the relationship between the different dimensions of social capital and investments in LM practices was explored. The results show that the different dimensions of social capital affect LM practices differently. In particular, the cooperation and trust dimensions of social capital are associated with the intensity of investment in SWC bunds and fertiliser use. The extent of participation in formal institutions has a positive effect on the use of fertiliser and compost.

Furthermore, we evaluated different SWC practices using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) to assess their ecological, economic and social impacts. The study reveals that MCA is an effective evaluation tool that can take into account non- monetary and less quantifiable effects of SWC measures, which is not possible with Cost Benefit Analysis. The results of the analysis indicate that farmers have a range of criteria to evaluate the performance of SWC measures. The relative importance of each criterion in the selection of SWC alternatives depends to a large extent on slope categories.

For enhancing the adoption and impacts of land management, there is a need to increase knowledge about location specific viable LM practices, to promote collective action at watershed level, to pay more attention to farmers’ preferences and to improve the capacity and capability of farmers.

Mapping and modelling the effects of land use and land management change on ecosystem services from local ecosystems and landscapes to global biomes
Petz, K. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Rob Alkemade; Dolf de Groot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738509 - 212
ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - landgebruik - grondbeheer - cartografie - modelleren - extensieve weiden - begrazing - noord-brabant - zuid-afrika - ecosystem services - ecosystems - land use - land management - mapping - modeling - rangelands - grazing - noord-brabant - south africa
Herstel en duurzaam beheer van biodiversiteit en ecosysteemdiensten worden steeds meer geïntegreerd in nationaal en internationaal beleid. In dit proefschrift wordt een methodologie ontwikkeld voor de kwantificering van effecten van landmanagement op de ruimtelijke verspreiding van ecosysteemdiensten, zodat de door landmanagement veroorzaakte trade-offs tussen ecosysteemdiensten bepaald kunnen worden voor zowel lokale ecosystemen en landschappen als regionale en mondiale biomen. Een groot aantal ecosysteemdiensten zijn bestudeerd. De karterings- en modelleringsmethoden zijn toegepast en gecombineerd met scenario-analyse in de Nederlandse en Zuid-Afrikaanse studies. Voor Nederland is het landschap van Het Groene Woud bestudeerd.
Sustainable land management in dynamic agro-ecosystems: an Integrated, multi-scale socio-ecological analysis in Western Kenya highlands
Mutoko, M.C. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Lars Hein; C.A. Shisanya. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737854 - 157
grondbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaam bodemgebruik - agro-ecosystemen - hulpbronnenbeheer - hooglanden - natuurbeheer - kenya - land management - sustainability - sustainable land use - agroecosystems - resource management - highlands - nature management - kenya

This study was motivated by the puzzlingly localised implementation of available Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices despite the urgent need to reduce both land degradation and general poverty levels in the western highlands of Kenya. This research aimed to not only unravel reasons for the restricted geographical diffusion of SLM practices but also make concrete contributions to foster the promotion of SLM practices. Four specific research objectives and questions were formulated, and an integrated, multi-scale socio-ecological systems framework designed to address these issues at various levels. At the farming system level, high livelihood diversity was found as households increasingly depend on off-farm income opportunities. Besides, results show low production efficiency (average 40%) across five distinct farm types with important implications on intensification in land use. The off-farm oriented and resource-poor farm types were the least likely to invest in SLM practices on their farms. For the forest ecosystem, the estimated local economic benefits of around US$ 450 ha-1 yr-1 were considerably less than half the forgone returns from agricultural activities if the forest were to be converted. Arguably, continued protection of the Kakamega rainforest is justified because of the unknown value of its rich biodiversity and stored carbon in its system, which does not currently generate local economic benefits. At the landscape level, this study found that Vihiga District has undergone rapid land-use changes in the past 25 years. In particular, there has been a major conversion of forest and bare land to agricultural land use. Results show that productivity of tea and to a lesser extent, vegetables increased but the yields of maize and beans—the most common crops—oscillated around 1 ton ha-1. As a result, per capita food crop production dropped by 28% during the past two decades. Empirical findings demonstrate that high and increasing population pressure on land does not necessarily lead to agricultural intensification. Finally, with stakeholder participation, I evaluate local potentials for initiating collaborative action towards wider promotion of SLM practices in the western highlands of Kenya. A positive correlation (rho = 0.83) was found between stakeholder co-operation and the success level of past SLM projects. Reasonable prospects such as some technology adoption activities and organisation of local actors were established, which are necessary for triggering the transformation process to sustainable state of productivity. Based on synthesis of the key findings presented in this thesis, I conclude that the difficulty of achieving wider geographical diffusion of SLM practices in the study area can be attributed to four main reasons. First, there is a practical challenge to properly target the technologies to the right farming households in order to achieve the greatest impacts. Second, the rampant decrease in productive resources (land, capital and labour) for farm production coupled with low efficiencies in common farm enterprises has created an additional aspect of poverty traps—a ‘maize-centred’ poverty trap—making it difficult for a majority of farmers to invest meaningfully in SLM practices. Third, increasing pressure on land from population growth has failed to stimulate better land management practices and efficient resource use in agriculture possibly because the community attempts to make for the shortfall from off-farm activities or by accessing the almost free forest resources where available in the district. Lastly, the low collaboration level among key stakeholders involved in promotion of various components of SLM practices indicates a thin spread of efforts on the ground and unexpectedly delays an accelerated technological transition process. Therefore, I recommend a paradigm shift to embrace a broader, integrated and multi-stakeholder approach to solving the problem of land degradation in the study area and other similar agro-ecosystems in SSA; an approach that equally promotes improved farm productivity and creates off-farm income opportunities.

Modellering van verandering van grondgebruik en bosbouw in een algemeen evenwichtsmodel
Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 21) - 6
landgebruik - grondbeheer - vraagfunctie - aanbodsfunctie - landbouwgrond - bossen - modellen - land use - land management - demand functions - supply functions - agricultural land - forests - models
Bij veel onderzoeksvragen bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving en Wageningen UR spelen ontbossing en bosbouw een belangrijke rol. Om de effecten te analyseren voor grondgebruik van het beleid voor biobrandstoffen, landbouw of handel wordt vaak het algemene evenwichtsmodel MAGNET van LEI Wageningen UR gebruikt. Een van de sterke kanten van dit model van de wereldeconomie is de aandacht voor grondaanbod. Recent is een nieuwe benadering voor de dynamiek van de grondmarkt en de rol van bosbouw ontwikkeld. WOt-paper 21 beschrijft de achtergronden van deze nieuwe benadering van grondaanbod in MAGNET.
Exploring the potential of co-investments in land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Adimassu Teferi, Z. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Aad Kessler. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734518 - 120
grondbeheer - landdegradatie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - boeren - gewasproductie - perceptie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - watererosie - stakeholders - ethiopië - land management - land degradation - sustainability - farmers - crop production - perception - soil fertility - water erosion - stakeholders - ethiopia

Like in any other part of the country, land degradation resulting from water erosion and nutrient depletion is one of the most challenging problems for farmers in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, investments in land management to reduce land degradation and increase agricultural production by smallholder farmers have been limited. In addition, public and private sector organizations have never collaborated to stimulate (investments in) land improvement. This study focuses on coinvestments, which are conceived as the collaboration of different stakeholders in land management in the form of material, labour, finance, technology, knowledge and governance. The overall aim of this study was to explore the potential of co-investments to foster land management and increase land productivity in the CRV of Ethiopia. Chapter 2 presents farmers’ perceptions of crop productivity and their strategies to cope with perceived changes in the CRV of |Ethiopia. It reveals that farmers perceive a decrease in crop productivity and food production over the last decades and that they blame a decline in rainfall for this. As a consequence, farmers apply different strategies to cope with, and adapt to perceived rainfall shortages and related expected yield losses. However, an analysis of rainfall data in the CRV shows that rainfall characteristics have not changed over the last three decades. Moreover, according to analysis of official data, crop productivity per hectare in the CRV even shows a slight increase over the last decade. Therefore, farmers’ perception of a decline in crop productivity and rainfall can be explained by i) the increased demand to grow more crops to feed the rapidly growing population, and ii) the lower moisture availability for plant growth as a consequence of more intensive farming (often on less suitable fields) and land degradation. The root causes of frequent food shortages are thus not only related to rainfall, but also to soil fertility decline, soil erosion and lack of rainwater storage in the soil. Current farmers’ strategies are, therefore, not adequate to cope with the increased food demand. There is an urgent need to invest in sustainable land management (SLM) practices that enhance local food production. Chapter 3 focuses on the farmers’ perception of land degradation (especially soil erosion and nutrient depletion) and their investments in land management. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. Results reveal that land degradation in the form of water erosion and fertility depletion is a problem and has increased over the last decade in the CRV. Farmers are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers’ investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited. Results also show that farmers’ awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade, do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Chapter 4 is devoted to exploring the determents of farmers’ decisions how much and where to invest in land management. The study identified five major factors that influence farmers’ decisions how much to invest in land management. These include households’ resource endowments, farming experience and knowledge, access to information, social capital and availability of family labour. This result implies that extension strategies aiming at sustainable land management should try to enhance households’ resources endowments, improve their access to information and stimulate collective action in land management. Similarly, the study revealed the decisions of farmers’ where to invest in land management is influenced by the vulnerability, accessibility and fertility condition of their plots. Farmers were more willing to invest in plots that are vulnerable to water erosion, have better soil fertility and are larger. However, the influence of all these factors on farmers’ investments in land management was highly variable across the different study sites within the CRV. Hence, the diversity in social, economic, cultural and biophysical conditions must be taken into account by rural extension programmes. This calls for site-specific land management strategies that can be planned and implemented at micro-level with active participation of farmers. Chapter 5 deals with co-investments in land management. Lack of collaboration is a growing concern for the success of SLM in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, not only farmers but also public institutions and private sectors are hesitant to collaborate and invest in SLM. This study identified several major bottlenecks and requirements for co-investments by public institutions and private sectors. Nevertheless, the results varied across the administrative levels. As a result, macro level institutions did not acknowledge most of the bottlenecks and requirements reported by meso and micro level institutions. Therefore, a micro-mesomacro consensus is required to improve co-investments. Furthermore, most bottlenecks and requirements for public institutions were related to governance issues. This suggests the need to establish good governance at all levels in Ethiopia in order to improve co-investments in SLM. In addition to public institutions, private sectors identified major bottlenecks and requirements which are mostly related to economic issues. However, given the current socio-economic and political situation in Ethiopia, it is a long way to fulfilling the requirements proposed by public institutions and private sectors. This indicates that requirements should be fulfilled gradually and systematically for successful co-investments in SLM. Chapter 6 explores the potential of co-investments in land management for bringing change at the grassroot level in Ethiopia. First, this study explores the most important co-investment activities that trigger farmers to invest in land management based on a co-investment initiative in the Galessa watershed. Second, it assesses the impact of these co-investment activities on farmers’ investments in land management by comparing experimental (participant) and control (non-participant) groups of farmers using survey data. The case study revealed that the most important co-investment activities that triggered farmers to invest in land management include co-investments in awareness creation, water provision, technology and governance. Of these activities, co-investing in water provision is the most successful activity, because it directly solves one of the basic needs of farmers in the watershed. Results reveal that the experimental group of farmers invested more in land management practices, such as soil bunds, compost and tree planting, than the control group of farmers. The article concludes that multiple level coinvestment activities are crucial to trigger farmers to invest in land management in Ethiopia. Chapter 7 is a synthesis of previous chapters. It briefly summarizes answers to the research questions, describes the added value of the thesis in terms of knowledge generation and provides suggestions for further research and policy making. The synthesis indicates that although farmers are well aware of the land degradation problem, their investments in land management are not sufficient to reverse the situation. It also reveals that farmers’ investments are affected by highly diverse socio-economic and biophysical constraints. Moreover, public and private sectors are constrained by financial and governance factors and require several preconditions before actually investing in land management. Despite these constraints at micro, meso and macro institutional levels, this thesis shows that there is potential for coinvestments in SLM in Ethiopia. Exploiting this potential principally requires commitment of all stakeholders to co-invest in land management.

A process for effective desertification mitigation
Schwilch, G. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; H. Hurni, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732880 - 178
woestijnvorming - grondbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - besluitvorming - participatie - stakeholders - bodembescherming - milieueffect - mitigatie - desertification - land management - sustainability - decision making - participation - stakeholders - soil conservation - environmental impact - mitigation

in these ecosystems can easily result in widespread and severe land degradation and thus desertification.
Combined with global issues such as climate change, economic disparities, migration, and competing claims
on land, this often leads to a vicious cycle of aridity, land degradation, and productivity loss. In addition to
the harsh environmental conditions limiting land productivity, the socio-economic situation in drylands can
pose challenges as well, given that these regions are often characterised by remoteness, marginality, lowproductivity
farming, weak institutions, and even conflict. Managing land sustainably under such conditions
is a challenge which concerns land users and other stakeholders, policymakers, and researchers alike.
Desertification research has traditionally focused on degradation assessments, whereas prevention and
mitigation strategies have not sufficiently been emphasised, although the concept of sustainable land
management (SLM) is increasingly being acknowledged (Chapter 1).
The present research was embedded in the EU FP6 research project DESIRE (Desertification
Mitigation and Remediation of Land – a Global Approach for Local Solutions; 2007–2012). DESIRE aimed to
establish promising alternative land use and management strategies in 17 areas affected by land
degradation and desertification around the world. Project work was based on close collaboration of
scientists with local stakeholder groups. The study sites served as a global laboratory for developing and
applying new methods of science – stakeholder collaboration and trialling traditional and innovative
approaches to combating desertification.
Chapter 2 offers a compilation and review of a number of methodological approaches to monitoring
and assessing SLM which to date have been little reported in the literature. Lessons are drawn from these
experiences, and common elements and future pathways are identified as a basis for a global approach.
The local-level methods of the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT)
framework serve to catalogue SLM technologies and approaches as case studies. This tool was included in
the local-level Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA) as well as in the DESIRE project.
Complementary site-based approaches can enhance an ecological process-based understanding of SLM
variation. At national and sub-national levels, a joint WOCAT/LADA/DESIRE spatial assessment based on
land use systems can be used to identify the status and trends of degradation and SLM, including causes,
drivers, and impacts on ecosystem services. Expert consultation is combined with scientific evidence and,
where necessary, enhanced with secondary data and indicator databases. Key lessons learnt include the
need for a multi-scale approach, for using common indicators, and for drawing on a variety of information
sources, including scientific data and local knowledge, by means of participatory methods. Methodological
consistency allows for cross-scale analyses, and findings can be analysed and documented for use by
decision-makers at various levels. Effective monitoring and assessment of SLM (e.g. for the United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification, UNCCD) requires a comprehensive methodological framework
agreed upon and adopted by the major players.
Although a variety of conservation measures are already applied at the local level, they are not
adequately recognised, evaluated, and shared by land users, technicians, researchers, and policymakers.
Likewise, collaboration between researchers and implementers is often insufficient. Chapter 3 presents a
new methodological framework for a participatory process of appraising and selecting desertification
mitigation strategies, and outlines first experiences from its application in the DESIRE project. The
methodology – a key product developed within this PhD study – combines a collective learning and
decision-making approach with the use of evaluated global best practices. It moves through a concise
process in three parts, starting out with the identification of land degradation and locally applied solutions
in a stakeholder workshop, followed by an assessment of local solutions using a standardised evaluation
tool, and ending with the joint selection of promising strategies for implementation with the help of a
decision support tool. A preliminary analysis of the application of the first part of the methodology showed
that the initial stakeholder workshop resulted in a good basis for stakeholder cooperation and yielded
promising land conservation practices for further assessment. Study site research teams appreciated the
results, which they considered particularly valuable because urgent issues and promising options had
emerged from joint reflection. The methodology was found to be suitable for initiating mutual learning
among different stakeholder groups, as well as for integrating local and scientific knowledge.
The thus identified SLM practices were then documented and evaluated by local researchers in
collaboration with land users and using the internationally recognised and standardised WOCAT
questionnaires. These in-depth assessments of 30 technologies and 8 approaches are analysed and
compared across the DESIRE study sites in Chapter 4, highlighting key issues of SLM in drylands. Careful
attention is paid to features which specifically characterise SLM in drylands and make SLM practices
especially useful regarding the identified threats. Among the achievements attributed to the documented
technologies, those mentioned most were diversified and enhanced production, as well as better
management of water and soil degradation, whether by means of water harvesting, by improving soil
moisture, or by reducing runoff. Demonstrating a favourable local-scale cost–benefit relationship was
found to be crucial to improving people’s livelihoods and preventing further outmigration. However, it was
also found that more research is needed to support the case study authors’ assessments of SLM impacts as
well as to provide a solid rationale for investments in SLM.
There are many and often competing options for SLM, and each must be assessed – and sometimes
negotiated – prior to implementation. This makes SLM a classic multi-stakeholder issue which concerns
individual and community land users, agricultural advisors, natural resource managers, government
authorities, civil society, and researchers alike. Selecting appropriate SLM technologies for implementation
thus requires an approach that is capable of integrating the diverse knowledge, perceptions, and
judgements of the different stakeholders involved. Time and resource constraints often impede the
development of contextualised, targeted, and sophisticated decision support systems. The DESIRE research
project provided an excellent opportunity to develop and test a generic decision support methodology,
using it to assist the study site teams in selecting, together with stakeholders in a stakeholder workshop,
the most promising SLM option(s) for subsequent test implementation in the field (Chapter 5). Special
attention was paid to the screening of local innovations, the selection and adaptation of potential SLM
technologies, and the decision-making process determining which options are to be implemented. Chapter
5 reviews the application of the DESIRE decision support methodology in a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic
contexts, finding it to be well-structured, comprehensive, and relatively easy to apply. The builtin
global database of SLM options provided knowledge from various environments, while the use of simple
software allowed for easy calculation and visualisation of results. The scoring and negotiation of each
option’s sustainability forced stakeholders to consider and acknowledge each other’s positions and
opinions, ensuring that the final choice was well-accepted. The methodology included seeking
commitments from stakeholders to implement the selected option(s). Challenges included the complexity
of the issues at hand and the need for skilled moderators. Nonetheless, positive outcomes and user
feedback confirmed that the DESIRE decision support methodology is an easy-to-use stepwise methodology
for facilitating decision-focused participatory processes.
Participatory and multi-stakeholder approaches are increasingly motivated by social learning and
empowerment goals. Yet there remains a lack of practical tools for facilitating such processes. The research
presented here aimed to close the gap between the theory and the practice of stakeholder participation
and learning in decision-making processes concerned with SLM. Chapter 6 analyses and describes how the
3-part participatory methodology for selecting SLM options contributed to multi-stakeholder learning.
Cross-site analysis and in-depth evaluation of the Moroccan and Portuguese sites were used to evaluate
how well the proposed process facilitated stakeholder learning and the selection of appropriate SLM
options for local implementation. The structured nature of the process – starting with the joint setting of
SLM goals – was found to facilitate mutual understanding and collaboration between stakeholders. The
deliberation process led to a high degree of consensus over the outcome and, although this had not been
an initial aim, in many cases also fostered social learning. This solution-oriented methodology is applicable
in a wide range of contexts and can be implemented with limited time and resources.
Chapter 7 presents insights into the field implementation of one of the selected SLM measures in
Sehoul, Morocco. The Moroccan DESIRE study site was located near the city of Rabat, in an area where
desertification poses a threat to marginal and often stony and degraded slopes. The use of marginal and
stony land by the local population had become necessary due to increased poverty and the occupation of
the best stretches of land by new owners. The land use change from grazing to cropping caused a
deterioration of the field water balance, characterised by increased water loss through runoff, drainage,
and evaporation, and resulting in less primary production. Promising experiences with no-tillage practices
elsewhere in Morocco had motivated the Moroccan government to promote Conservation Agriculture
throughout the country. This combination of crop rotation, minimal soil disturbance, and soil cover
maintenance, however, had not yet been tested on sloping degraded land. The field trial results showed
that covering the soil with crop residues neither improved yields nor increased rainwater use efficiency,
although soil water was generally enhanced. Soil moisture measurements revealed that no-tillage was
favourable mainly at soil depths of 5 cm and in connection with low-rainfall events (< 20 mm); under these
circumstances, moisture content was generally higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage.
Moreover, farmers in Sehoul were found to be primarily interested in animal husbandry, and both crop
residues and grains were used as feed. Chapter 7 concludes with lessons learnt from the on-farm trials in
Sehoul.
The synthesis (Chapter 8) offers more detailed reflection on certain key aspects of the research
findings, such as the 3-part methodology, monitoring and assessment, stakeholder collaboration and
learning, decision support, and desertification mitigation by means of SLM technologies and approaches.
This is followed by a review of challenges and limitations of the proposed methodological framework and
an assessment of its overall impact. The chapter concludes with an outlook and recommendations. One
major conclusion is that research needs to move beyond simply idealising and promoting participatory
approaches and learning processes: in addition, researchers must also advocate the provision of time and
resources and the establishment of long-term partnerships by both scientific and policymaking bodies. Indepth
and long-term field-based research remains important, but it requires sufficient resources and longterm
commitment in order to provide adequate evidence. The methodology developed within this thesis is
not limited to desertification; it is appropriate and useful for tackling land degradation anywhere in the
world and for advancing towards more sustainable decisions on SLM strategies with a higher acceptance
among stakeholders. Negotiation of, and deliberation over, ecosystem services might be the key to
boosting SLM beyond the local scale, while at the same time compensating land users for their crucial
efforts to combat desertification.

Desire for greener land : options for sustainable land management in drylands
Schwilch, G. ; Hessel, R. ; Verzandvoort, S.J.E. - \ 2012
Bern [etc.] : University of Bern [etc.] - ISBN 9789461733290 - 282
droge gebieden - grondbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaam bodemgebruik - woestijnvorming - bodembescherming - waterbeheer - teeltsystemen - begrazingsbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - arid lands - land management - sustainability - sustainable land use - desertification - soil conservation - water management - cropping systems - grazing management - forest management
Desire for Greener Land compiles options for Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in drylands. It is a result of the integrated research project DESIRE (Desertification Mitigation and Remediation of Land - A Global Approach for Local Solutions). Lasting five years (2007–2012) and funded within the EU’s Sixth Framework Programme, DESIRE brought together the expertise of 26 international research institutes and non-governmental organisations. The DESIRE project aimed to establish promising alternative land use and management strategies in 17 degradation and desertification sites around the world, relying on close collaboration between scientists and local stakeholder groups. The study sites provided a global laboratory in which researchers could apply, test, and identify new and innovative approaches to combatting desertification. The resulting SLM strategies are local- to regional-scale interventions designed to increase productivity, preserve natural resource bases, and improve people’s livelihoods. These were documented and mapped using the internationally recognised WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodological framework, which formed an integral part of the DESIRE project. The DESIRE approach offers an integrated multidisciplinary way of working together from the beginning to the end of a project; it enables scientists, local stakeholders and policy makers to jointly find solutions to desertification. This book describes the DESIRE approach and WOCAT methodology for a range of audiences, from local agricultural advisors to scientists and policymakers. Links are provided to manuals and online materials, enabling application of the various tools and methods in similar projects. The book also includes an analysis of the current context of degradation and SLM in the study sites, in addition to analysis of the SLM technologies and approaches trialled in the DESIRE project. Thirty SLM technologies, eight SLM approaches, and several degradation and SLM maps from all the DESIRE study sites are compiled in a concise and well-illustrated format, following the style of this volume’s forerunner where the land is greener (WOCAT 2007). Finally, conclusions and policy points are presented on behalf of decision makers, the private sector, civil society, donors, and the research community. These are intended to support people’s efforts to invest wisely in the sustainable management of land – enabling greener drylands to become a reality, not just a desire.
Transforming landscapes, transforming lives : the business of sustainable water buffer management
Steenbergen, F. van; Tuinhof, A. ; Knoop, L. ; Kauffman, J.H. - \ 2011
Wageningen : 3R Water - ISBN 9789079658008 - 105
grondbeheer - duurzame ontwikkeling - buffers - buffercapaciteit - waterbeheer - hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - sociale gevolgen - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - land management - sustainable development - buffers - buffering capacity - water management - resource management - natural resources - social impact - livelihood strategies
This book is about sustainable land management, the development of water buffers and the business case underneath it. It is part of the discussion on the green economy: investment in natural resource management makes business sense. This also applies for investment in land, water and vegetative cover. Some of the parameters may be different – returns may not always be immediate – but essentially both the financial payback and the economic dividend of investing in integrated landscapes – if done properly – are rewarding. The social impact moreover is important – investing in sustainable land and water buffers will transform lives and economies. Having a buffer gives a sense of security and the reassurance that come what may one’s livelihood is secured.
50 Jaar onderwijs in de Wageningse Cultuurtechniek volgen en verzorgen : een persoonlijke terugblik vanaf 1963 op ontwikkelingen rond opleiding en afdeling: "cultuurtechniek" en wat daarna kwam
Jaarsma, C.F. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Leerstoelgroep Landgebruiksplanning (Nota / Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Planvorming 111) - 64
grondbeheer - landinrichting - landgebruiksplanning - ruimtelijke ordening - wegen - verkeer - transport - plattelandsplanning - infrastructuur - hoger onderwijs - universitaire onderwijsprogramma's - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - land management - land development - land use planning - physical planning - roads - traffic - rural planning - infrastructure - higher education - college programs - scientific research
In zijn afscheidscollege stelt Jaarsma drie aspecten aan de orde, zoals hij die zelf, eerst als student en vanaf 1970 als docent heeft ervaren: de opeenvolgende onderwijs-programma’s voor de opleiding Cultuurtechniek – Landinrichtingswetenschappen – Landschapsarchitectuur & Ruimtelijke Planning aan de Landbouwhogeschool, de Landbouwuniversiteit en Wageningen Universiteit; het onderwijs rond verkeer, vervoer en infrastructuur in die jaren en de relatie tussen onderwijs en onderzoek daarbij, en de rol van afstudeervakken (scripties) en projecten derde geldstroom; en het andere onderwijs in vooral technische vakken, waar hij vanaf 1996 bij betrokken is geweest. Afsluitend gaat hij in op ontwikkelingen van de organisatie in de loop der jaren die, terugkijkend, soms opmerkelijk, grappig of anders toch zeker interessant zijn.
Economic Transition and Natural Resource Management in East and Southeast Asia
Beckmann, V. ; Dung, N.H. ; Shi, X. ; Spoor, M. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2010
Aachen, Germany : Shaker (Institutional change in agriculture and natural resources vol. 36) - ISBN 9783832281076 - 410
overgangseconomieën - economische verandering - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - grondbeheer - landbouwontwikkeling - duurzame ontwikkeling - milieueconomie - oost-azië - zuidoost-azië - transition economies - economic change - natural resources - resource management - land management - agricultural development - sustainable development - environmental economics - east asia - south east asia
Economic and institutional reforms in East and Southeast Asia have caused impressive economic growth and improved the livelihood of millions of people. In several regions, however, this growth has been obtained at the expense of land quality or to the detriment of other natural resources. As a consequence, the sustainability of future growth is threatened. Efforts aimed at promoting sustainable resource use in rural East and Southeast Asia are being and will be confronted with and influenced by two major changes. First, the continuous transition towards a market-oriented economy implies that massive, centralized state regulation will decrease and that economic, decentralized and informal resource management institutions are likely to increase in importance. Second, domestic economic liberalization, international trade liberalization and globalization will greatly affect domestic agricultural prices and, hence, the use of natural resources. This volume contains a selection of papers that were presented at the Asia-Link RECREATE seminar at the University of Economics, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, in June 2007 and the international Asia-Link RECREATE conference at Nanjing Agriculture University, China, in October 2008. The seminar, the conference and the publication of this book are part of Asia-Link's "Restructuring Higher Education in Resource and Environmental Economics" project activities, which have been funded by the European Union under its Asia-Link programme. The selected papers provide an overview, albeit not a complete one, regarding the environmental and natural resource problems Southeast Asian countries are facing from an economic perspective. The papers are written in such a way so that they can serve as supporting case study material for classes in environmental and natural resource economics at the graduate level. The editors also expect that environmental and natural resource economists with an interest in Southeast Asia will find the various chapters of interest as well as stimulating for their own research.
Capacity building for landscape ecological research : at the State University of Mato Grosso UNEMAT, Brazil
Doorn, A.M. van; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Silva, C. Da; Klijn, J.A. ; Eupen, M. van - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2010) - 36
landschap - landschapsecologie - grondbeheer - regionale ontwikkeling - onderwijs - internationale samenwerking - nederland - brazilië - duurzame ontwikkeling - onderwijsondersteuning - capaciteitsopbouw - landscape - landscape ecology - land management - regional development - education - international cooperation - netherlands - brazil - sustainable development - education support - capacity building
The state of Mato Grosso in Brasil faces environmental challenges since agricultural developments threaten biodiversity and other environmental values. The mission of the state university of Mato Grosso (UNEMAT) is to contribute to the knowledge needed for the sustainable development of the state. However, there is a need for academic capacity building. Collaboration with Wageningen University intends to improve the quality of the education and science especially concerning landscape ecological research.
Risk Task Force on Public goods from private land
Buckwell, A. ; Armstrong-Brown, S. ; Baldock, D. ; Bielenberg, N. ; Brouwer, F.M. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2009
Belgium : RISE (Rural Investment Support for Europe) - 66
grondbeheer - land management
The study focused on the nature and scale of public goods and services which land managers (farmers and foresters) currently provide. Using the available evidence on the range of environmental and man-made landscape services which multi-functional land management can offer, the report presents a series of mechanisms which could be used to deliver services not provided for by the market.
Towards reflexive land and water management in Iran : linking technology, governance and culture
Balali, M.R. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michiel Korthals; Jozef Keulartz. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854272 - 245
grondbeheer - waterbeheer - hulpbronnenbeheer - technologie - cultuur - iran - governance - land management - water management - resource management - technology - culture - iran - governance

Key words: Qanat, land and water, sustainability, Industrial and reflexive modernity


This PhD thesis is concerned with the causes and consequences of the environmental crisis and explores possible trajectories towards sustainable land and water management in Iran and other countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The basic assumption underlying the conceptual framework of this thesis is that soil and water technologies, social institutions and environmental mentalities are strongly interconnected; they co-evolve, shaping and reshaping one another in the process. The main research question concerns the changes within this network of technologies, institutions and mentalities that are required for a successful transition from industrial modernity to what sociologists like Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens and Scott Lash have called ‘reflexive’ modernity. In order to examine the possibilities and problems of a reflexive turn in land and water management in Iran and other MENA-countries, large-scale empirical studies were conducted among farmers and village informants, soil and water experts, and policymakers.

Multifunctional rural land management; economics and policies
Brouwer, F.M. ; Heide, M. van der - \ 2009
London : Earthscan Publications Ltd. - ISBN 9781844075775 - 300
landgebruik - landschapsbescherming - plattelandsomgeving - landbouw - meervoudig landgebruik - grondbeheer - economie - politiek - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - land use - landscape conservation - rural environment - agriculture - multiple land use - land management - economics - politics - sustainability - sustainable development
The increasing demand for rural land and its natural resources is creating competition and conflicts. Many interested parties, including farmers, nature conservationists, rural residents and tourists, compete for the same space. Especially in densely populated areas, agriculture, recreation, urban and suburban growth and infrastructure development exert a constant pressure on rural areas. Because land is a finite resource, spatial policies which are formulated and implemented to increase the area allocated to one use imply a decrease in land available for other uses. As a result, at many locations, multi-purpose land use is becoming increasingly important. This notion of multi-purpose land use is reflected in the term 'multifunctionality'. This volume provides insights into viable strategies of sustainable management practices allowing multiple functions sustained by agriculture and natural resources in rural areas. It shows how the rural economy and policies can balance and cope with these competing demands and includes numerous case studies from Europe, North America and developing countries.
Towards a sustainable future of the western shoreline of Lake Ziway: particiatory land use plan development workshop, Ziway, December 1-4, 2008
Hengsdijk, H. ; Groot, A.M.E. ; Driel, L.M.J.W. van; Jembere, K. ; Uum, J.H. van; Boone, P. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 234) - 36
meren - kusten - milieubeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - waterbeheer - grondbeheer - hulpbronnenbeheer - sociale economie - ethiopië - oevers - integraal waterbeheer - lakes - coasts - environmental management - sustainability - water management - land management - resource management - socioeconomics - ethiopia - shores - integrated water management
From Land Consolidation to Area Development in the Netherlands
Brink, A. van den - \ 2009
In: Land Development Strategies: Patterns, risks and responsibilities = Strategien der Raumenentwicklung: Strukturen, Risiken und Verantwortung / Hepperle, E., Lenk, H., Zurich : vdf, Hochsch.-Verl. an der ETH - ISBN 9783728132284 - p. 47 - 61.
landinrichting - landgebruiksplanning - grondbeheer - milieubeheer - europa - land development - land use planning - land management - environmental management - europe
Sustainable Land Management in the Tropics: Explaining the Miracle
Burger, C.P.J. ; Zaal, F. - \ 2009
Farnham, England : Ashgate (International Land Management Series ) - ISBN 9780754644552 - 226
grondbeheer - klimaatverandering - erosie - tropen - bodembescherming - waterbescherming - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - plattelandsontwikkeling - landgebruik - ontwikkelingseconomie - duurzame ontwikkeling - economische aspecten - land management - climatic change - erosion - tropics - soil conservation - water conservation - africa south of sahara - rural development - land use - development economics - sustainable development - economic aspects
Bringing together case studies from Kenya, Benin, Cameroon and the Philippines, this volume provides a multidisciplinary overview of the economics of natural resource management in Tropical regions, at household and village level. By comparing a wide array of climatic and economic conditions, it examines the effect of location and access to the market - as well as the importance of national policies - have on soil and water conservation. The book not only analyzes the benefits of soil and water conservation based on econometric studies, but also assesses the costs involved. In doing so it challenges commonly held assumptions about poorer community's ability to finance such measures.
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