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Morphological and functional maturation of Leydig cells: from rodent models to primates
Teerds, K.J. ; Huhtaniemi, I. - \ 2015
Human Reproduction Update 21 (2015)3. - ISSN 1355-4786 - p. 310 - 328.
human-fetal testis - growth-factor-i - insulin-like factor-3 - n-butyl phthalate - brown-norway rat - human testicular development - receptor gene-expression - ribonucleic-acid levels - developing mouse testis - late-onset hypogonadism
BACKGROUND Leydig cells (LC) are the sites of testicular androgen production. Development of LC occurs in the testes of most mammalian species as two distinct growth phases, i.e. as fetal and pubertal/adult populations. In primates there are indications of a third neonatal growth phase. LC androgen production begins in embryonic life and is crucial for the intrauterine masculinization of the male fetal genital tract and brain, and continues until birth after which it rapidly declines. A short post-natal phase of LC activity in primates (including human) termed ‘mini-puberty’ precedes the period of juvenile quiescence. The adult population of LC evolves, depending on species, in mid- to late-prepuberty upon reawakening of the hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular axis, and these cells are responsible for testicular androgen production in adult life, which continues with a slight gradual decline until senescence. This review is an updated comparative analysis of the functional and morphological maturation of LC in model species with special reference to rodents and primates. METHODS Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched between December 2012 and October 2014. Studies published in languages other than English or German were excluded, as were data in abstract form only. Studies available on primates were primarily examined and compared with available data from specific animal models with emphasis on rodents. RESULTS Expression of different marker genes in rodents provides evidence that at least two distinct progenitor lineages give rise to the fetal LC (FLC) population, one arising from the coelomic epithelium and the other from specialized vascular-associated cells along the gonad-mesonephros border. There is general agreement that the formation and functioning of the FLC population in rodents is gonadotrophin-responsive but not gonadotrophin-dependent. In contrast, although there is in primates some controversy on the role of gonadotrophins in the formation of the FLC population, there is consensus about the essential role of gonadotrophins in testosterone production. Like the FLC population, adult Leydig cells (ALC) in rodents arise from stem cells, which have their origin in the fetal testis. In contrast, in primates the ALC population is thought to originate from FLC, which undergo several cycles of regression and redifferentiation before giving rise to the mature ALC population, as well as from differentiation of stem cells/precursor cells. Despite this difference in origin, both in primates and rodents the formation of the mature and functionally active ALC population is critically dependent on the pituitary gonadotrophin, LH. From studies on rodents considerable knowledge has emerged on factors that are involved besides LH in the regulation of this developmental process. Whether the same factors also play a role in the development of the mature primate LC population awaits further investigation. CONCLUSION Distinct populations of LC develop along the life span of males, including fetal, neonatal (primates) and ALC. Despite differences in the LC lineages of rodents and primates, the end product is a mature population of LC with the main function to provide androgens necessary for the maintenance of spermatogenesis and extra-gonadal androgen actions.
Hormonal, Metabolic, and Inflammatory Profiles and Endometrial Cancer Risk Within the EPIC Cohort-A Factor Analysis
Dossus, L. ; Lukanova, A. ; Rinaldi, S. ; Allen, N. ; Cust, A.E. ; Becker, S. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Hansen, L. ; Overvad, K. ; Chabbert-Buffet, N. ; Mesrine, S. ; Clavel-Chapelon, F. ; Teucher, B. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2013
American Journal of Epidemiology 177 (2013)8. - ISSN 0002-9262 - p. 787 - 799.
growth-factor-i - postmenopausal women - insulin-resistance - adipose-tissue - c-peptide - nutrition - obesity - premenopausal - pathogenesis - adiponectin
A “Western” lifestyle characterized by physical inactivity and excess weight is associated with a number of metabolic and hormonal dysregulations, including increased circulating estrogen levels, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and chronic inflammation. The same hormonal and metabolic axes might mediate the association between this lifestyle and the development of endometrial cancer. Using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a prospective cohort study carried out in 10 European countries during 1992–2000, we conducted a factor analysis to delineate important components that summarize the variation explained by a set of biomarkers and to examine their association with endometrial cancer risk. Prediagnostic levels of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, estrone, estradiol, C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 2, adiponectin, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were measured in 233 incident endometrial cancer cases and 446 matched controls. Factor analysis identified 3 components associated with postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk that could be labeled “insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome,” “steroids,” and “inflammation” factors. A fourth component, “lipids,” was not significantly associated with endometrial cancer. In conclusion, besides the well-known associations of risk with sex hormones and insulin-regulated physiological axes, our data further support the hypothesis that inflammation factors play a role in endometrial carcinogenesis.
Potential of Treatment-Specific Protein Biomarker Profiles for Detection of Hormone Abuse in Cattle
Ludwig, S.K.J. ; Smits, N.G.E. ; Cannizzo, F.T. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (2013)19. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4514 - 4519.
recombinant bovine somatotropin - igf-binding proteins - flow-cytometric immunoassay - growth-factor-i - dexamethasone treatment - antibody-formation - veal calves - insulin - serum - bone
Targeted protein biomarker profiling is suggested as a fast screening approach for detection of illegal hormone treatment in meat production. The advantage of using biomarkers is that they mark the biological response and, thus, are responsive to a panel of substances with similar effects. In a preliminary feasibility study, a 4-plex protein biomarker flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA) previously developed for the detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) was applied to cattle treated with steroids, such as estradiol, dexamethasone, and prednisolone. Each treatment resulted in a specific plasma biomarker profile for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 2, osteocalcin, and anti-rbST antibodies, which could be distinguished from the profile of untreated animals. In summary, the 4-plex biomarker FCIA is, apart from rbST, also capable of detecting treatment with other growth-promoting agents and therefore clearly shows the potential of biomarker profiling as a screening method in veterinary control. It is proposed to perform additional validation studies covering high numbers of treated and untreated animals to support inclusion or adaptation of protein biomarker approaches in future monitoring regulations.
Insulin-stimulating diets during the weaning-to-estrus interval do not improve fetal and placental development and uniformity in high-prolific multiparous sows
Wientjes, J.G.M. ; Soede, N.M. ; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. - \ 2013
Animal 7 (2013)8. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1307 - 1316.
nutritionally induced relationships - pancreatic beta-cells - growth-factor-i - primiparous sows - energy-source - luteinizing-hormone - birth-weight - reproductive characteristics - follicle development - ovulation interval
Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity are important for piglet survival. Insulin-stimulating sow diets before mating may improve subsequent piglet birth weights and litter uniformity, but the physiological mechanisms involved are not clear. This study evaluated effects of different levels of insulin-stimulating feed components (dextrose plus starch; fed twice daily) during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations, and on follicle development and subsequent luteal, fetal and placental development and uniformity at days 42 to 43 of pregnancy. During WEI, multiparous sows were isocalorically fed diets supplemented with 375 g/day dextrose plus 375 g/day corn starch (INS-H), with 172 g/day dextrose plus 172 g/day corn starch and 144 g/day animal fat (INS-L), or with 263 g/day animal fat (CON). Jugular vein catheters were inserted through the ear vein at 1.5 days before weaning to asses plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations. After estrus, all sows received a standard gestation diet until slaughter at days 42 to 43 of pregnancy. The dextrose plus starch-diets enhanced the postprandial insulin response in a dose-dependent manner (e.g. at day 2 insulin area under the curve was 4516 µU/444 min for CON, 8197 µU/444 min for INS-L and 10 894 µU/444 min for INS-H; s.e.m. = 694; P <0.001), but did not affect plasma IGF-1 concentrations during the first 3 days of WEI. Follicle development and subsequent luteal, fetal and placental development and uniformity were not affected by the dietary treatments, nor related to plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations during WEI. Pre-weaning plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were negatively related to sow body condition loss during lactation, but were not related to subsequent reproduction characteristics. This study shows that dietary dextrose plus starch are effective in stimulating insulin secretion (both postprandial peak and long-term concentration), but not IGF-1 secretion during the first 3 days after weaning in multiparous sows. The extreme insulin-stimulating diets during WEI did, however, not improve follicle development, or subsequent development and uniformity of fetuses and placentas in these high-prolific sows (27.0 ± 0.6 ovulations; 18.6 ± 0.6 vital fetuses)
Multiplex flow cytometric immunoassay for serum biomarker profiling of recombinant bovine somatotropin
Smits, N.G.E. ; Ludwig, S.K.J. ; Veer, G. van der; Bremer, M.G.E.G. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
The Analyst 138 (2013)1. - ISSN 0003-2654 - p. 111 - 117.
growth-factor-i - enzyme-immunoassay - antibody-formation - biological-fluids - binding-proteins - lactating cows - hormone - cattle - identification - osteocalcin
Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is licensed for enhancing milk production in dairy cows in some countries, for instance the United States, but is banned in Europe. Serum biomarker profiling can be an adequate approach to discriminate between treated and untreated groups. In this study a multiplex screening tool of a small set of biomarkers for pinpointing recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) (ab)use was developed and evaluated: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) and rbST-induced antibodies were selected as rbST dependent markers and combined in one parallel assay format. For this, the color-encoded microspheres were used in a suspension array, with a dedicated flow cytometer. Serum samples obtained from an animal experiment with rbST-treated and untreated dairy cows were measured with the developed triplex immunoassay and biomarker responses on rbST treatment were evaluated. This resulted in characteristic treatment-dependent responses for all three individual biomarkers. Combining these results with the statistical prediction model k-nearest neighbours (kNN), resulted in good discrimination of treated and untreated animals: an overall sensitivity (true positive rate) of 89.1% and an overall specificity (true negative rate) of 97.7% were reached. Therefore, this is the first multiplex method which can be applied with high confidence for screening of unknown herds of cattle pinpointing at rbST (ab)use.
Cortisol and finfish welfare
Ellis, T. ; Yildiz, H.Y. ; López-Olmeda, J. ; Spedicato, M.T. ; Tort, L. ; Overli, O. ; Martins, C.I. - \ 2012
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 38 (2012)1. - ISSN 0920-1742 - p. 163 - 188.
bass dicentrarchus-labrax - trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - gilthead sea bream - juvenile rainbow-trout - sparus-aurata l. - salmo-gairdneri richardson - growth-factor-i - physiological stress-response - brain monoaminergic activity - goldfish carassius-auratus
Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and is relevant to fish welfare as it affects physiological and brain functions and modifies behaviour. However, we argue that cortisol has little value if welfare is viewed purely from a functional (or behavioural) perspective—the cortisol response itself is a natural, adaptive response and is not predictive of coping as downstream impacts on function and behaviour are dose-, time- and context-dependent and not predictable. Nevertheless, we argue that welfare should be considered in terms of mental health and feelings, and that stress in relation to welfare should be viewed as psychological, rather than physiological. We contend that cortisol can be used (with caution) as a tractable indicator of how fish perceive (and feel about) their environment, psychological stress and feelings in fish. Cortisol responses are directly triggered by the brain and fish studies do indicate cortisol responses to psychological stressors, i.e., those with no direct physicochemical action. We discuss the practicalities of using cortisol to ask the fish themselves how they feel about husbandry practices and the culture environment. Single time point measurements of cortisol are of little value in assessing the stress level of fish as studies need to account for diurnal and seasonal variations, and environmental and genetic factors. Areas in need of greater clarity for the use of cortisol as an indicator of fish feelings are the separation of (physiological) stress from (psychological) distress, the separation of chronic stress from acclimation, and the interactions between feelings, cortisol, mood and behaviour.
Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and colorectal cancer risk : a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
Aune, D. ; Chan, D.S.M. ; Lau, R. ; Vieira, R. ; Greenwood, D.C. ; Kampman, E. ; Norat, T. - \ 2012
Cancer Causes and Control 23 (2012)4. - ISSN 0957-5243 - p. 521 - 535.
growth-factor-i - plasma c-peptide - dietary carbohydrate - womens health - adenomatous polyps - binding-proteins - insulin index - large-bowel - men - colon
Background Dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load are thought to influence colorectal cancer risk through hyperinsulinemia. We review and quantitatively summarize in a meta-analysis the evidence from prospective cohort studies. Methods We searched the PubMed database for prospective studies of carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk, up to October 2011. Summary relative risks were estimated by the use of a random effects model. Results We identified 14 cohort studies that could be included in the meta-analysis of carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk. The summary RR for high versus low intake was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.87–1.14, I 2 = 31%) for carbohydrate, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99–1.16, I 2 = 28%) for glycemic index, and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.91–1.10, I 2 = 39%) for glycemic load. In the dose–response analysis, the summary RR was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84–1.07, I 2 = 58%) per 100 grams of carbohydrate per day, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99–1.15, I 2 = 39%) per 10 glycemic index units, and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.95–1.08, I 2 = 47%) per 50 glycemic load units. Exclusion of one or two outlying studies reduced the heterogeneity, but the results were similar. Conclusion This meta-analysis of cohort studies does not support an independent association between diets high in carbohydrate, glycemic index, or glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk
Lactation Weight Loss in Primiparous Sows: Consequences for Embryo Survival and Progesterone and Relations with Metabolic Profiles
Hoving, L.L. ; Soede, N.M. ; Feitsma, H. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2012
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 47 (2012)6. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 1009 - 1016.
growth-factor-i - dietary energy-source - feed-intake - reproductive-performance - hormone profiles - insulin - state - mobilization - restriction - pattern
Our objective was to study reproductive consequences of lactation bodyweight loss occurring in primiparous sows with mild feed restriction and to relate these lactation weight losses and its consequences to metabolic profiles during lactation and subsequent early gestation. After weaning, 47 first-litter sows were retrospectively assigned to a high– (HWL, >13.8%, n = 24) or low (LWL, =13.8%, n = 23)–weight loss group. Thirty-six animals received an indwelling jugular vein catheter to determine lactational and gestational profiles of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and urea and gestational profiles of progesterone. At day 35 after insemination, sows were euthanized and their reproductive tract collected. Pregnancy rate was 75% (18/24) for HWL and 96% (22/23) for LWL sows. High–weight loss sows had a lower number of implantation sites (17.2 ± 0.8 vs 19.5 ± 0.7, respectively, p = 0.03) and a lower embryonic survival (65.6 ± 3.4 vs 77.4 ± 2.9%, p = 0.02), resulting in fewer vital embryos (14.9 ± 0.9 vs 16.8 ± 0.7, p = 0.07) than LWL sows. Progesterone peak values were reached later in HWL than in LWL sows (day 13.4 ± 0.5 vs 12.0 ± 0.5, respectively, p = 0.05). Gestational concentrations of IGF-1, NEFA and urea were almost identical for HWL and LWL sows, whilst numerical differences were seen during lactation. The current study shows negative consequences of lactational weight loss in mildly feed-restricted primiparous sows for embryonic survival and shows that these consequences seem only mildly related with metabolic alterations during lactation and not with metabolic alterations during subsequent gestation.
Embryo survival, progesterone profiles and metabolic responses to an increased feeding level during second gestation in sows
Hoving, L.L. ; Soede, N.M. ; Feitsma, H. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2012
Theriogenology 77 (2012)8. - ISSN 0093-691X - p. 1557 - 1569.
dietary energy-source - growth-factor-i - early-pregnancy - reproductive-performance - primiparous sows - multiparous sows - parity sows - postweaning performance - conceptus growth - nursing behavior
This study describes reproductive and metabolic responses in sows fed at two different feeding levels from day 3–35 of second gestation. After insemination, 37 sows were assigned to one of two treatments: 1) Control: 2.5 kg/day of a gestation diet; 2) Plus Feed 3.25 kg/day of a gestation diet (+30%). Sow weight, back fat and loin muscle depth were measured at farrowing, weaning, start of treatment, day 14 after start treatment and end of treatment. Frequent blood samples were taken for progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), glucose and insulin, insulin-like-growth-factor-1 (IGF-1), non-esterified-fatty-acids (NEFA) and urea analysis. At day 35 after insemination sows were euthanized and their reproductive tract collected to assess ovarian, embryonic and placental characteristics. Plus Feed sows gained 5.4 kg more weight and 0.9 mm more back fat and tended to be heavier at slaughter compared to Control sows (193 vs. 182 kg, P = 0.06). No difference in loin muscle gain was found. Treatment also did not affect vital embryonic survival, which was 72.1 ± 3.9% for Control and 73.4 ± 3.2% for Plus Feed sows, resulting in, respectively, 15.9 ± 0.9 and 15.7 ± 0.7 vital embryos. No effect of treatment on any of the ovarian, embryonic or placental characteristics was found. Progesterone profiles during the first month of gestation, and LH characteristics at day 14 of gestation were not different between treatments. Progesterone concentration was lower (P <0.05) 3 h after feeding compared with the prefeeding level on days 7–11 after first progesterone rise for Plus Feed and on days 8–10 after first progesterone rise for Control sows. At day 15, preprandial glucose and insulin concentrations were not different between treatments, insulin peaked later (48 vs. 24 min) and at a higher concentration in Plus Feed than in Control sows. Furthermore, glucose area under the curve (AUC) tended to be lower (-171.7 ± 448.8 vs. 1257.1 ± 578.9 mg/6.2 h, P = 0.06, respectively) for Plus Feed vs. Control sows. IGF-1 concentration was not different between treatments, but NEFA concentrations were lower for Plus Feed vs. Control sows (149.5 ± 9.2 vs. 182.4 ± 11.9 µm/L, respectively, P = 0.04) and urea concentration tended to be higher in Plus Feed than in Control sows (4.3 ± 0.1 vs. 3.9 ± 0.1, respectively, P = 0.13). None of the metabolic parameteres were related to reproductive measures. In conclusion, feeding 30% more feed from day 3 till d 35 of second gestation increased weight gain and resulted in lower NEFA concentrations, but did not affect progesterone, LH or IGF-1 and embryonic and placental characteristics.
Nutritionally Induced Relationships Between Insulin Levels During the Weaning-to-Ovulation Interval and Reproductive Characteristics in Multiparous Sows: I. Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle Development, Oestrus and Ovulation
Wientjes, J.G.M. ; Soede, N.M. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. - \ 2012
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 47 (2012)1. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 53 - 61.
dietary energy-source - growth-factor-i - primiparous sows - feed-intake - lactation - glucose - gilts - pigs - performance - secretion
To get more insight in how insulin secretion patterns and corresponding insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels are related to luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, follicle development and ovulation, 32 multiparous sows were fed either a dextrose plus lactose-containing diet at 4 h intervals (DL; each 150 g/day) or an isocaloric control diet at 12 h intervals (CTRL; containing soybean oil) during the weaning-to-ovulation interval (WOI). Insulin parameters (basal, peak levels and mean insulin) and IGF-1 levels during the WOI were similar for both treatments, but the insulin secretion pattern differed (related with feeding frequency and meal sizes). Oestrus and ovulation characteristics were not influenced by treatment. The LH surge was higher in CTRL compared with DL sows (3.73 vs 3.00 ng/ml; p = 0.03). Average diameter (6.5 vs 6.1 mm; p = 0.08) and uniformity (CV: 11 vs 15%, p = 0.02) of follicles =3 mm at day 4 after weaning was higher in CTRL compared with DL sows. Basal insulin levels were positively related with follicle diameter at ovulation (ß = 0.05 mm/(µU/ml); p = 0.04) and negatively related with LH surge level (ß = -0.07 (ng/ml)/(µU/ml); p = 0.01). Insulin area under the curve (AUC) (ß = 0.037 (ng/ml)/1000 µU; p = 0.02) and IGF-1 levels (ß = 0.002 (ng/ml)/(ng/ml); p <0.01) were positively related to basal LH level around the LH surge. From these data, we conclude that insulin and IGF-1 levels during the WOI are related to LH secretion and follicle development. Not only the absolute level of insulin seems important, but also the pattern within a day in which insulin is secreted seems to affect LH secretion and development of pre-ovulatory follicles.
Effects of dietary carbohydrate sources on plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-I levels in multiparous sows
Wientjes, J.G.M. ; Soede, N.M. ; Aarsse, F. ; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 96 (2012)3. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 494 - 505.
growth-factor-i - volatile fatty-acid - primiparous sows - energy-source - luteinizing-hormone - incretin responses - physical-activity - lactase activity - embryo survival - estrus interval
Effects of different carbohydrate sources on plasma glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were compared to subsequently be able to study effects of insulin-stimulating diets on follicle development in sows. The following feed components were tested in 12 sows during six consecutive test periods of 9.5 days: dextrose (DEX), sucrose (SUC), lactose (LAC), dextrose plus lactose (DL), sucrose plus lactose (SL), dextrose plus sugarbeet pulp (DSBP) and control (CON). On day 2, 5 and 9 of each test period, plasma glucose (only at day 9), insulin and IGF-I profiles were determined. Despite similar glucose profiles for all diets, the postprandial insulin response was higher for DL and SL compared with CON and LAC; the other diets were intermediate. Plasma IGF-I levels were higher in CON, LAC and SL compared with DSBP, but differences were only marginal. It was concluded that dextrose and sucrose have the potential to stimulate fast and high insulin peaks, especially when combined with additional lactose. Despite the high dextrose in the DSBP diet, the insulin response was flattened, probably due to the viscosity of sugarbeet pulp. The results show that modulation of plasma insulin levels by dietary carbohydrates seems possible in anabolic sows, but IGF-I levels are less easily modified.
Intestinal gene expression in pigs: effects of reduced feed intake during weaning and potential impact of dietary components
Bauer, E. ; Metzler-Zebeli, B.U. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Mosenthin, R. - \ 2011
Nutrition Research Reviews 24 (2011)2. - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 155 - 175.
total parenteral-nutrition - glucagon-like peptide-2 - chain fatty-acids - growth-factor-i - nf-kappa-b - oligopeptide transporter pept-1 - ischemia-reperfusion injury - inflammatory-bowel-disease - messenger-rna expression - activated receptor-gamma
The weaning transition is characterised by morphological, histological and microbial changes, often leading to weaning-associated disorders. These intestinal changes can partly be ascribed to the lack of luminal nutrition arising from the reduced feed intake common in pigs after weaning. It is increasingly becoming clear that changes in the supply with enteral nutrients may have major impacts on intestinal gene expression. Furthermore, the major dietary constituents, i.e. carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids, participate in the regulation of intestinal gene expression. However, nutrients may also escape digestion by mammalian enzymes in the upper gastrointestinal tract. These nutrients can be used by the microflora, resulting in the production of bacterial metabolites, for example, SCFA, which may affect intestinal gene expression indirectly. The present review provides an insight on possible effects of reduced feed intake on intestinal gene expression, as it may occur post-weaning. Detailed knowledge on effects of reduced feed intake on intestinal gene expression may help to understand weaning-associated intestinal dysfunctions and diseases. Examples are given of intestinal genes which may be altered in their expression due to supply with specific nutrients. In that way, gene expression could be modulated by dietary means, thereby acting as a potential therapeutic tool. This could be achieved, for example, by influencing genes coding for digestive or absorptive proteins, thus optimising digestive function and metabolism, but also with regard to immune response, or by influencing proliferative processes, thereby enhancing mucosal repair. This would be of special interest when designing a diet to overcome weaning-associated problems
Advances in research on the prenatal development of skeletal muscle in animals in relation to the quality of muscle-based food. II -Genetic factors related to animal performance and advances in methodology
Rehfeldt, C. ; Pas, M.F.W. te; Wimmers, K. ; Brameld, J.M. ; Nissen, P.M. ; Berri, C. ; Valente, L.M.P. ; Power, D.M. ; Picard, B. ; Stickland, N.C. ; Oksbjerg, N. - \ 2011
Animal 5 (2011)05. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 718 - 730.
trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - growth-factor-i - receptor signal-transduction - charr salvelinus-alpinus - breast meat quality - salmon salmo-salar - heavy-chain genes - igf-i - fiber types - rainbow-trout
Selective breeding is an effective tool to improve livestock. Several selection experiments have been conducted to study direct selection responses as well as correlated responses in traits of skeletal muscle growth and function. Moreover, comparisons of domestic with wild-type species and of extreme breeds provide information on the genetic background of the skeletal muscle phenotype. Structural muscular components that differed with increasing distance in lean growth or meat quality in mammals were found to be myofibre number, myofibre size, proportions of fibre types as well as the numbers and proportions of secondary and primary fibres. Furthermore, markers of satellite cell proliferation, metabolic enzyme activities, glycogen and fat contents, the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms, of activated AMPKa and other proteins in skeletal muscle tissue and circulating IGF1 and IGF-binding proteins have been identified to be involved in selection responses observed in pigs, cattle and/or chicken. The use of molecular methods for selective breeding of fish has only recently been adopted in aquaculture and studies of the genetic basis of growth and flesh quality traits are scarce. Some of the molecular markers of muscle structure/metabolism in livestock have also been identified in fish, but so far no studies have linked them with selection response. Genome scans have been applied to identify genomic regions exhibiting quantitative trait loci that control traits of interest, for example, muscle structure and meat quality in pigs and growth rate in chicken. As another approach, polymorphisms in candidate genes reveal the relationship between genetic variation and target traits. Thus, in large-scale studies with pigs’ associations of polymorphisms in the HMGA2, CA3, EPOR, NME1 and TTN genes with traits of carcass and meat quality were detected. Other studies revealed the significance of mutations in the IGF2 and RYR1 genes for carcass lean and muscle fibre traits in pigs. Mutations in the myostatin (MSTN) gene in fish were also examined. Advances in research of the genetic and environmental control of traits related to meat quality and growth have been made by the application of holistic ‘omics’ techniques that studied the whole muscle-specific genome, transcriptome and proteome in relation to muscle and meat traits, the development of new methods for muscle fibre typing and the adaptation of biophysical measures to develop parameters of muscle fibre traits as well as the application of in vitro studies. Finally, future research priorities in the field are defined.
Reproductive cycles in pigs
Soede, N.M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2011
Animal Reproduction Science 124 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0378-4320 - p. 251 - 258.
growth-factor-i - porcine corpora-lutea - dietary energy-source - 2 feeding levels - luteinizing-hormone - primiparous sows - follicular development - estrous-cycle - ovulation rate - pulsatile release
The oestrous cycle in pigs spans a period of 18–24 days. It consists of a follicular phase of 5–7 days and a luteal phase of 13–15 days. During the follicular phase, small antral follicles develop into large, pre-ovulatory follicles. Being a polytocous species, the pig may ovulate from 15 to 30 follicles, depending on age, nutritional status and other factors. During the luteal phase, follicle development is less pronounced, although there is probably a considerable turnover of primordial to early antral follicles that fail to further develop due to progesterone inhibition of gonadotrophic hormones. Nevertheless, formation of the early antral follicle pool during this stage probably has a major impact on follicle dynamics in the follicular phase in terms of number and quality of follicles. Generally, gilts are mated at their second or third estrous cycle after puberty. After farrowing, pigs experience a lactational anoestrus period, until they are weaned and the follicular phase is initiated, resulting in oestrus and ovulation 4–7 days after weaning. This paper describes the major endocrine processes during the follicular and luteal phases that precede and follow ovulation. The role of nutrition and metabolic status on these processes are briefly discussed
Dairy consumption and patterns of mortality of Australian adults
Bonthuis, M. ; Hughes, M.C.B. ; Ibiebele, T.I. ; Green, A.C. ; Pols, J.C. van der - \ 2010
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64 (2010)6. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 569 - 577.
food-frequency questionnaire - coronary-heart-disease - conjugated linoleic-acid - growth-factor-i - fatty-acids - dietary-fat - personal characteristics - healthy-men - vitamin-d - cancer
Background/Objectives: Dairy foods contain various nutrients that may affect health. We investigated whether intake of dairy products or related nutrients is associated with mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and all causes. Subjects/Methods: We carried out a 16-year prospective study among a community-based sample of 1529 adult Australians aged 25-78 years at baseline. Habitual intakes of dairy products (total, high/low-fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and full-fat cheese), calcium and vitamin D were estimated as mean reported intake using validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) self-administered in 1992, 1994 and 1996. National Death Index data were used to ascertain mortality and cause of death between 1992 and 2007. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results: During an average follow-up time of 14.4 years, 177 participants died, including 61 deaths due to CVD and 58 deaths due to cancer. There was no consistent and significant association between total dairy intake and total or cause-specific mortality. However, compared with those with the lowest intake of full-fat dairy, participants with the highest intake (median intake 339 g/day) had reduced death due to CVD (HR: 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-0.79; P for trend = 0.04) after adjustment for calcium intake and other confounders. Intakes of low-fat dairy, specific dairy foods, calcium and vitamin D showed no consistent associations. Conclusions: Overall intake of dairy products was not associated with mortality. A possible beneficial association between intake of full-fat dairy and cardiovascular mortality needs further assessment and confirmation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64, 569-577; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.45; published online 7 April 2010
Estrous behavior in dairy cows: identification of underlying mechanisms and gene functions
Boer, H.M.T. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Beerda, B. ; Woelders, H. - \ 2010
Animal 4 (2010)3. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 446 - 453.
gonadotropin-releasing-hormone - signal-transduction pathways - growth-factor-i - prostaglandin-d synthase - central-nervous-system - sexual-behavior - female rats - mathematical-model - follicle development - domestic ruminants
Selection in dairy cattle for a higher milk yield has coincided with declined fertility. One of the factors is reduced expression of estrous behavior. Changes in systems that regulate the estrous behavior could be manifested by altered gene expression. This literature review describes the current knowledge on mechanisms and genes involved in the regulation of estrous behavior. The endocrinological regulation of the estrous cycle in dairy cows is well described. Estradiol (E2) is assumed to be the key regulator that synchronizes endocrine and behavioral events. Other pivotal hormones are, for example, progesterone, gonadotropin releasing hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Interactions between the latter and E2 may play a role in the unfavorable effects of milk yield-related metabolic stress on fertility in high milk-producing dairy cows. However, a clear understanding of how endocrine mechanisms are tied to estrous behavior in cows is only starting to emerge. Recent studies on gene expression and signaling pathways in rodents and other animals contribute to our understanding of genes and mechanisms involved in estrous behavior. Studies in rodents, for example, show that estrogen-induced gene expression in specific brain areas such as the hypothalamus play an important role. Through these estrogen-induced gene expressions, E2 alters the functioning of neuronal networks that underlie estrous behavior, by affecting dendritic connections between cells, receptor populations and neurotransmitter releases. To improve the understanding of complex biological networks, like estrus regulation, and to deal with the increasing amount of genomic information that becomes available, mathematical models can be helpful. Systems biology combines physiological and genomic data with mathematical modeling. Possible applications of systems biology approaches in the field of female fertility and estrous behavior are discussed
Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2009
Endocrine Reviews 30 (2009)4. - ISSN 0163-769X - p. 376 - 408.
endemic goiter region - growth-factor-i - binding protein-3 levels - messenger-ribonucleic-acid - total parenteral-nutrition - universal salt iodization - vitamin-a supplementation - blood spot thyroglobulin - maternal thyroid status - school-aged children
Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. However, about 50% of Europe remains mildly iodine deficient, and iodine intakes in other industrialized countries, including the United States and Australia, have fallen in recent years. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy and infancy may impair growth and neurodevelopment of the offspring and increase infant mortality. Deficiency during childhood reduces somatic growth and cognitive and motor function. Assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goiter, newborn TSH, and blood thyroglobulin. But assessment of iodine status in pregnancy is difficult, and it remains unclear whether iodine intakes are sufficient in this group, leading to calls for iodine supplementation during pregnancy in several industrialized countries. In most countries, the best strategy to control iodine deficiency in populations is carefully monitored universal salt iodization, one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. Achieving optimal iodine intakes from iodized salt (in the range of 150–250 µg/d for adults) may minimize the amount of thyroid dysfunction in populations. Ensuring adequate iodine status during parenteral nutrition has become important, particularly in preterm infants, as the use of povidone-iodine disinfectants has declined. Introduction of iodized salt to regions of chronic iodine deficiency may transiently increase the incidence of thyroid disorders, but overall, the relatively small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency
Nutrient Prioritization in Dairy Cows Early Postpartum: Mismatch Between Metabolism and Fertility
Leroy, J.L.M.R. ; Vanholder, T. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Garcia-Ispierto, I. ; Bols, P.E.J. - \ 2008
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 43 (2008)suppl. 2. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 96 - 103.
negative-energy balance - ovarian-follicle development - nonesterified-fatty-acids - affecting embryo survival - proliferation in-vitro - body condition score - obese gene-product - growth-factor-i - milk-production - lactating cows
For several decades, researchers worldwide report a decrease in fertility in high-yielding dairy cows, most probably based on conflicting metabolic and reproductive needs. The dairy herd manager's success at improving milk production has been accompanied by a negative trend for the most visible reproductive parameters such as calving intervals, number of days open and number of inseminations needed per pregnancy. In parallel, many research groups studied the metabolic and endocrine factors that influence follicular growth and the developmental competence of oocytes and embryos. In the past, herd managers and reproductive biologists each tried to tackle the same problems with limited consultation. More recently, the situation has improved significantly and theriogenologists, nutritionists and veterinarians now conduct research in multidisciplinary teams. This review paper starts in a general way by discussing nutrient prioritization towards the udder to guarantee milk production and by describing interactions between the somatotropic and gonadotropic axis. It then focuses on the consequences of the negative energy balance on follicular growth and environment, oocyte and embryo quality, not only by summarizing the currently accepted hypotheses but also based on clear scientific evidence at the follicular level. All this, with one question in mind: is there a mismatch between metabolism and fertility and what can the dairy manager learn from research to tackle the problem of reduced fertility?
Porcine Luteal Function in Relation to IGF-1 Levels Following Ovulation During Lactation or After Weaning
Langendijk, P. ; Brand, H. van den; Gerritsen, R. ; Quesnel, H. ; Soede, N.M. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2008
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 43 (2008)2. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 131 - 136.
growth-factor-i - corpora-lutea - estrous-cycle - ovarian-function - feed-intake - hormone - sows - progesterone - pregnancy - pigs
This study presents relationships between peripheral progesterone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations during the early luteal phase in sows. Data were derived from three experiments, one with primiparous weaned sows (n = 21) and two with multiparous sows that either ovulated during lactation (n = 23) or after weaning (n = 12). The sows that ovulated during lactation did so due to an intermittent suckling regime (inhibition of suckling for 12 h each day from day 14 of lactation) or due to treatment with PG600. IGF-1 concentrations varied considerably among experiments, and were the lowest in the multiparous sows, regardless of whether they were weaned or lactating: 68 ± 5 and 85 ± 8 ng/ml in the two experiments with multiparous sows vs 188 ± 15 ng/ml in the primiparous sows. Progesterone concentrations were lowest for the lactating sows. Overall, the increase in progesterone during the early luteal phase was strongly correlated with IGF-1 concentrations (r = 0.7). However, the correlation was low in multiparous lactating sows (r = 0.28; p <0.10) and nonsignificant in multiparous weaned sows (r = 0). The weaned multiparous sows had IGF-1 levels comparable to lactating multiparous sows, but higher progesterone levels. In conclusion, these data show a positive relationship between peripheral IGF-1 and progesterone concentrations in vivo during the early luteal phase. In lactating sows, IGF-1 concentrations are probably a limiting factor for progesterone secretion, although other factors may be involved
The Adverse Effects of Mild-to-Moderate Iodine Deficiency during Pregnancy and Childhood: A Review
Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2007
Thyroid 17 (2007)9. - ISSN 1050-7256 - p. 829 - 835.
growth-factor-i - binding protein-3 levels - endemic goiter area - thyroid-function - mental performance - controlled-trial - hormone-binding - school-children - factors igfs - supplementation
Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal brain development, and the fetus, newborn, and young child are particularly vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The iodine requirement increases during pregnancy and recommended intakes are in the range of 220¿250 ¿g/day. Monitoring iodine status during pregnancy is a challenge. New recommendations from World Health Organization suggest that a median urinary iodine concentration between 150 and 250 mcg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnancy. Based on this range, it appears that many pregnant women in Western Europe have inadequate intakes. A recent Swiss study has suggested that thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration in the newborn is a sensitive indicator of mild iodine deficiency in late pregnancy. The potential adverse effects of mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are uncertain. Controlled trials of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women suggest beneficial effects on maternal and newborn serum thyroglobulin and thyroid volume, but no effects on maternal and newborn total or free thyroid hormone concentrations. There are no long-term data on the effect of iodine supplementation on birth outcomes or infant development. New data from well-controlled studies indicate that iodine repletion in moderately iodine-deficient school-age children has clear benefits: it improves cognitive and motor function; it also increases concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor¿binding protein 3, and improves somatic growth.