The influence of floor type before and after 10 weeks of age on osteochondrosis in growing gilts
Koning, D.B. de; Grevenhof, E.M. van; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Weeren, P.R. van; Hazeleger, W. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Science 92 (2014)8. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3338 - 3347.
different coping characteristics - leg weakness - finishing pigs - growth-rate - genetic-parameters - epiphyseal growth - production traits - stocking density - claw disorders - behavior
Osteochondrosis (OC) is a degenerative joint condition developing in a short time frame in young growing gilts that may cause lameness at an older age, affecting welfare and leading to premature culling of breeding sows. Causes of OC are multifactorial including both genetic and environmental factors. Floor type has been suggested to affect OC prevalence and effects might be age dependent during the rearing period. The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-dependent effects of floor type, conventional concrete partially slatted versus wood shavings as deep bedding, on OC prevalence in gilts (Dutch Large White × Dutch Landrace) at slaughter (24 wk of age; 106.5 [14.7 SD] kg of BW). At weaning (4 wk of age; 6.9 [1.3 SD] kg of BW), 212 gilts were subjected to 1 of 4 flooring regimens. Gilts were either subjected to a conventional floor from weaning until slaughter (CC), wood shavings as bedding from weaning until slaughter (WW), a conventional floor from weaning until 10 wk of age after which gilts were switched to wood shavings as bedding (CW), or wood shavings as bedding from weaning until 10 wk of age after which gilts were switched to a conventional floor (WC). After slaughter the elbow, hock, and knee joints were macroscopically examined for OC and scored on a 5 point scale where 0 indicates no OC and 4 indicates the severest form of OC. There was no significant difference (P > 0.4) between treatments on the overall OC prevalence for any joint assessed or at the animal level (all joints combined). At the animal level, however, gilts had greater odds to have OC scores 3 and 4 in the CW treatment (odds ratios [OR] = 2.3; P = 0.05), WC treatment (OR = 2.6; P = 0.02), and WW treatment (OR = 3.7; P <0.001) compared with gilts in the CC treatment. The results indicate that there are no age-dependent effects of floor types on overall OC prevalence. However, wood shavings as bedding seems to increase the odds for severe OC and might affect animal welfare in the long term.
Impact of nutrition on welfare aspects of broiler breeder flocks
Krimpen, M.M. van; Jong, I.C. de - \ 2014
Worlds Poultry Science Journal 70 (2014)1. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 139 - 150.
low-density diets - quantitative food restriction - ovarian follicular hierarchy - fed representative 1957 - feather-pecking line - laying hens - feed restriction - body-weight - growth-rate - gastrointestinal motility
To ensure health and reproductive performance, broiler breeders are feed restricted during the rearing period and, to a lesser extent, during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry and suffer from frustration of feeding motivation, which has a negative effect on bird welfare. The aim of the current paper is to give an overview of the role of feed (nutritional aspects as well as feeding management) as a possible tool to improve broiler breeder welfare. Possible strategies discussed are 1) dietary dilution, by reducing the energy content and/or increasing the NSP content, by adding soluble or insoluble fibres to the diet; 2) adding appetite suppressants (e.g. calcium propionate) to the diet; 3) changing feeding management (e.g., scattering feed in the litter). Some of these strategies, i.e. dietary dilution or adding appetite suppressants, positively affect behavioural patterns of the birds, by reducing stereotypic pecking and eating motivation, and increasing the time spent sitting. Appetite suppressants have however been criticised for causing birds to feel ill. These behavioural changes, however, can only be considered as indirect parameters of improved bird welfare and there is still a need for a reliable indicator of hunger. It is clear that nutritional strategies can be helpful in reducing hunger stress in broiler breeders. Nutrition, however, cannot fully solve the broiler breeder paradox. The main reason for this paradox is related to breeding goals that are focussed on improving feed conversion and increasing breast meat percentage. Future genetic selection should aim at uncoupling the link between (re)production and welfare or reducing the conflict between these outcomes.
Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling
Locatelli, R. ; Bousquet, P. ; Chevallier, F. ; Fortems-Cheney, A. ; Szopa, S. ; Saunois, M. ; Agusti-Panareda, A. ; Bergmann, D. ; Bian, H. ; Cameron-Smith, P. ; Chipperfield, M.P. ; Gloor, E. ; Houweling, S. ; Kawa, S.R. ; Krol, M.C. ; Patra, P.K. ; Prinn, R.G. ; Rigby, M. ; Saito, R. ; Wilson, C. - \ 2013
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 (2013)19. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 9917 - 9937.
general-circulation model - atmospheric transport - tracer transport - co2 inversions - boundary-layer - vertical profiles - data assimilation - climate-change - growth-rate - part i
A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model inter-comparison exercise, are combined with a prior scenario of methane emissions and sinks, and integrated into the three-component PYVAR-LMDZ-SACS (PYthon VARiational-Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique model with Zooming capability-Simplified Atmospheric Chemistry System) inversion system to produce 10 different methane emission estimates at the global scale for the year 2005. The same methane sinks, emissions and initial conditions have been applied to produce the 10 synthetic observation datasets. The same inversion set-up (statistical errors, prior emissions, inverse procedure) is then applied to derive flux estimates by inverse modelling. Consequently, only differences in the modelling of atmospheric transport may cause differences in the estimated fluxes. In our framework, we show that transport model errors lead to a discrepancy of 27 Tg yr(-1) at the global scale, representing 5% of total methane emissions. At continental and annual scales, transport model errors are proportionally larger than at the global scale, with errors ranging from 36 Tg yr(-1) in North America to 7 Tg yr(-1) in Boreal Eurasia (from 23 to 48 %, respectively). At the model grid-scale, the spread of inverse estimates can reach 150% of the prior flux. Therefore, transport model errors contribute significantly to overall uncertainties in emission estimates by inverse modelling, especially when small spatial scales are examined. Sensitivity tests have been carried out to estimate the impact of the measurement network and the advantage of higher horizontal resolution in transport models. The large differences found between methane flux estimates inferred in these different configurations highly question the consistency of transport model errors in current inverse systems. Future inversions should include more accurately prescribed observation covariances matrices in order to limit the impact of transport model errors on estimated methane fluxes.
Analysis of global methane changes after the 1991 Pinatubo volcanic eruption
Banda, N. ; Krol, M.C. ; Weele, M. van; Noije, T. van; Rockmann, T. - \ 2013
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 (2013)4. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 2267 - 2281.
chemistry transport model - atmospheric methane - mount-pinatubo - growth-rate - tropospheric chemistry - isotopic composition - isoprene emissions - mt-pinatubo - variability - ch4
The global methane (CH4) growth rate showed large variations after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. Both sources and sinks of tropospheric CH4 were altered following the eruption, by feedback processes between climate and tropospheric photochemistry. Such processes include Ultra Violet (UV) radiative changes due to the presence of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulphate aerosols in the stratosphere, and due to stratospheric ozone depletion. Changes in temperature and water vapour in the following years caused changes in tropospheric chemistry, as well as in natural emissions. We present a sensitivity study that investigates the relative effects that these processes had on tropospheric CH4 concentrations, using a simple one-dimensional chemistry model representative for the global tropospheric column. To infer the changes in UV radiative fluxes, the chemistry model is coupled to a radiative transfer model. We find that the overall effect of natural processes after the eruption on the CH4 growth rate is dominated by the reduction in CH4 lifetime due to stratospheric ozone depletion. However, all the other processes are found to have non-negligible effects, and should therefore be taken into account in order to obtain a good estimate of CH4 concentrations after Pinatubo. We find that the overall effect was a small initial increase in the CH4 growth rate after the eruption, followed by a decrease of about 7 ppb yr(-1) by mid-1993. When changes in anthropogenic emissions are employed according to emission inventories, an additional decrease of about 5 ppb yr(-1) in the CH4 growth rate is obtained between the years 1991 and 1993. The results using the simplified single column model are in good qualitative agreement with observed changes in the CH4 growth rate. Further analysis, taking into account changes in the dynamics of the atmosphere, variations in emissions from biomass burning, and in biogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), requires the use of a full three-dimensional model.
Atmospheric CH4 in the first decade of the 21st century: Inverse modeling analysis using SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and NOAA surface measurements
Bergamaschi, P. ; Houweling, S. ; Segers, A. ; Krol, M.C. ; Frankenberg, C. ; Scheepmaker, R.A. ; Dlugokencky, E. ; Wofsy, S.C. ; Kort, E.A. ; Sweeney, C. ; Schuck, T. ; Brenninkmeijer, C. ; Chen, H. ; Beck, V. ; Gerbig, C. - \ 2013
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 (2013)13. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 7350 - 7369.
growth-rate - methane emissions - carbon-dioxide - northern-hemisphere - data assimilation - transport model - variability - chemistry - climate - troposphere
The causes of renewed growth in the atmospheric CH4 burden since 2007 are still poorly understood and subject of intensive scientific discussion. We present a reanalysis of global CH4 emissions during the 2000s, based on the TM5-4DVAR inverse modeling system. The model is optimized using high-accuracy surface observations from NOAA ESRL's global air sampling network for 2000-2010 combined with retrievals of column-averaged CH4 mole fractions from SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (starting 2003). Using climatological OH fields, derived global total emissions for 2007-2010 are 16-20 Tg CH4/yr higher compared to 2003-2005. Most of the inferred emission increase was located in the tropics (9-14 Tg CH4/yr) and mid- latitudes of the northern hemisphere (6-8 Tg CH4/yr), while no significant trend was derived for Arctic latitudes. The atmospheric increase can be attributed mainly to increased anthropogenic emissions, but the derived trend is significantly smaller than estimated in the EDGARv4.2 emission inventory. Superimposed on the increasing trend in anthropogenic CH4 emissions are significant inter-annual variations (IAV) of emissions from wetlands (up to +/- 10 Tg CH4/yr), and biomass burning (up to +/- 7 Tg CH4/yr). Sensitivity experiments, which investigated the impact of the SCIAMACHY observations (versus inversions using only surface observations), of the OH fields used, and of a priori emission inventories, resulted in differences in the detailed latitudinal attribution of CH4 emissions, but the IAV and trends aggregated over larger latitude bands were reasonably robust. All sensitivity experiments show similar performance against independent shipboard and airborne observations used for validation, except over Amazonia where satellite retrievals improved agreement with observations in the free troposphere.
A mechanism for reorientation of cortical microtubule arrays driven by microtubule severing
Lindeboom, J.J. ; Nakamura, M. ; Hibbel, A. ; Shundyak, K. ; Gutierrez, R. ; Ketelaar, T. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Mulder, B.M. - \ 2013
Science 342 (2013)6163. - ISSN 0036-8075
outer epidermal wall - plasma-membrane - arabidopsis hypocotyl - maize coleoptiles - gamma-tubulin - higher-plants - growth-rate - cell-wall - in-vitro - katanin
Environmental and hormonal signals cause reorganization of microtubule arrays in higher plants, but the mechanisms driving these transitions have remained elusive. The organization of these arrays is required to direct morphogenesis. We discovered that microtubule severing by the protein katanin plays a crucial and unexpected role in the reorientation of cortical arrays, as triggered by blue light. Imaging and genetic experiments revealed that phototropin photoreceptors stimulate katanin-mediated severing specifically at microtubule intersections, leading to the generation of new microtubules at these locations. We show how this activity serves as the basis for a mechanism that amplifies microtubules orthogonal to the initial array, thereby driving array reorientation. Our observations show how severing is used constructively to build a new microtubule array.
Genetic Variation and Combining Ability Analysis of Bruising Sensitivity in Agaricus bisporus
Gao, W. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Dolstra, O. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)10. - ISSN 1932-6203
schizophyllum-commune - growth-rate - inheritance - populations - improvement - mushrooms - selection - yield
Advanced button mushroom cultivars that are less sensitive to mechanical bruising are required by the mushroom industry, where automated harvesting still cannot be used for the fresh mushroom market. The genetic variation in bruising sensitivity (BS) of Agaricus bisporus was studied through an incomplete set of diallel crosses to get insight in the heritability of BS and the combining ability of the parental lines used and, in this way, to estimate their breeding value. To this end nineteen homokaryotic lines recovered from wild strains and cultivars were inter-crossed in a diallel scheme. Fifty-one successful hybrids were grown under controlled conditions, and the BS of these hybrids was assessed. BS was shown to be a trait with a very high heritability. The results also showed that brown hybrids were generally less sensitive to bruising than white hybrids. The diallel scheme allowed to estimate the general combining ability (GCA) for each homokaryotic parental line and to estimate the specific combining ability (SCA) of each hybrid. The line with the lowest GCA is seen as the most attractive donor for improving resistance to bruising. The line gave rise to hybrids sensitive to bruising having the highest GCA value. The highest negative SCA possibly indicates heterosis effects for resistance to bruising. This study provides a foundation for estimating breeding value of parental lines to further study the genetic factors underlying bruising sensitivity and other quality-related traits, and to select potential parental lines for further heterosis breeding. The approach of studying combining ability in a diallel scheme was used for the first time in button mushroom breeding. Citation: Gao W, Baars JJP, Dolstra O, Visser RGF, Sonnenberg ASM (2013) G
The influence of dietary restriction before and after 10 weeks of age on osteochondrosis in growing gilts
Koning, D.B. de; Grevenhof, E.M. van; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Weeren, P.R. van; Hazeleger, W. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2013
Journal of Animal Science 91 (2013)11. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 5167 - 5176.
leg weakness - growth-rate - articular chondrocytes - genetic-parameters - epiphyseal growth - production traits - pigs - cartilage - lesions - pathogenesis
Osteochondrosis (OC) is one of the main causes of leg weakness causing premature culling in breeding sows and develops in a short time frame in young growing gilts. Dietary restriction may have different effects on OC prevalence depending on the age of the gilts. The aim of this study is to investigate age dependent effects of dietary restriction, ad libitum versus restricted (80% of ad libitum), on the occurrence of OC in gilts at slaughter (26 wk of age). At weaning (4 wk of age), 211 gilts were subjected to one of 4 treatments of feeding regime. Gilts were administered either ad libitum feeding from weaning until slaughter (AA); restricted feeding from weaning until slaughter (RR); ad libitum feeding from weaning until 10 wk of age, after which gilts were switched to restricted feeding (AR); or restricted feeding from weaning until 10 wk of age, after which gilts were switched to ad libitum feeding (RA). At slaughter, the elbow, hock, and knee joints were harvested. Joints were scored macroscopically for articular surface deformations indicative of OC. Gilts in the RA treatment had significantly higher odds to be affected with OC than gilts in the RR and AR treatments in the hock joint (OR = 3.3, P = 0.04 and OR = 8.5, P = 0.002, respectively), and at animal level (OR = 2.5, P = 0.001 and OR = 1.9, P = 0.01, respectively). Gilts in the AA treatment had higher odds to be affected with OC than gilts in the AR treatment in the hock joint (OR = 5.3, P = 0.01). The results indicate a possible pathway to reduce the prevalence of OC in breeding gilts which will have to last several parities. Switching from restricted feeding to ad libitum feeding after 10 wk of age increases OC prevalence as opposed to restricted feeding after 10 wk of age.
Scenario evaluation of open pond microalgae production
Slegers, P.M. ; Lösing, M.B. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Straten, G. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2013
Algal Research 2 (2013)4. - ISSN 2211-9264 - p. 358 - 368.
life-cycle assessment - phaeodactylum-tricornutum - growth-rate - tubular photobioreactors - thalassiosira-pseudonana - biodiesel production - mass-culture - temperature - model - light
To evaluate microalgae production in large scale open ponds under different climatologic conditions, a model-based framework is used to study the effect of light conditions, water temperature and reactor design on trends in algae productivity. Scenario analyses have been done for two algae species using measured weather data of the Netherlands and Algeria. The effects of temperature control, photo-inhibition and using monthly or yearly fixed biomass concentrations are estimated by a sensitivity analysis. The calculation-based results show that climate conditions such as solar irradiation and temperature dynamics play an important role in open raceway ponds. In moderate climate zones low and high temperatures over a season suppress growth. At high latitudes this effect is important as light levels vary much during the day and between seasons. Optimal biomass concentrations in ponds depend on location, pond depth and algae species. Pond design, location and algae species interact and productivity cannot be based solely on general or assumed efficiencies. It is essential to select algae species that have a suitable growth rate, light absorption coefficient and the ability to grow over a broad temperature range. The presented approach gives a framework to validate specific cultivation systems
Long-term mean annual microphytobenthos chlorophyll a variation correlates with air temperature
Jonge, V.N. de; Boer, W.F. de; Jong, D.J. de; Brauer, V.S. - \ 2012
Marine Ecology Progress Series 468 (2012). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 43 - 56.
ems-dollard estuary - northern wadden sea - intertidal microphytobenthos - severe winter - diatom populations - crangon-crangon - benthic diatoms - growth-rate - tidal-flat - phytoplankton
Long-term interannual variations in the mean microphytobenthos chlorophyll a (chl a) of the Ems estuary were investigated. Concentrations in the 1990s were on average 1.5 times higher than during the period from 1976 to 1978, but a trend in chl a over the entire period (1976 to 1999) was not found. In agreement with findings from the late 1970s, the mean chl a concentrations over the post 1990 period correlated significantly with the station elevation related exposure time. Over the entire 1976 to 1999 study period, the estuary mean annual chl a concentrations correlated strongly and significantly with the mean annual air temperature. Although the range of the variation in the mean annual air temperature of the studied years was only 7.5 to 10.2°C, it surprisingly corresponded with a ca. 2.5-fold variation in the mean annual microphytobenthos chl a. In addition to chl a, mean monthly C:chl a ratios from 1976 to 1977 also correlated positively with changes in temperature. Microphytobenthos carbon biomass [chl a × (C:chl a)] may, therefore, respond even stronger to air temperature than chl a does. The correlations are most likely a combination of direct temperature effects on microphytobenthos and stronger, probably complex, indirect temperature effects on the seasonal development and standing stock of young and adult grazers (bivalves) and their carnivores like the brown shrimp Crangon crangon.
TransCom model simulations of CH4 and related species: linking transport, surface flux and chemical loss with CH4 variability in the troposphere and lower stratosphere
Patra, P.K. ; Houweling, S. ; Krol, M.C. ; Bousquet, P. ; Belikov, D. - \ 2011
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11 (2011)24. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 12813 - 12837.
general-circulation model - biomass burning emissions - atmospheric methane - growth-rate - interannual variability - methyl chloroform - tracer transport - sf6 - gases - co2
A chemistry-transport model (CTM) intercomparison experiment (TransCom-CH4) has been designed to investigate the roles of surface emissions, transport and chemical loss in simulating the global methane distribution. Model simulations were conducted using twelve models and four model variants and results were archived for the period of 1990–2007. All but one model transports were driven by reanalysis products from 3 different meteorological agencies. The transport and removal of CH4 in six different emission scenarios were simulated, with net global emissions of 513±9 and 514±14 TgCH4 yr-1 for the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Additionally, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was simulated to check the interhemispheric transport, radon (222Rn) to check the subgrid scale transport, and methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) to check the chemical removal by the tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH). The results are compared to monthly or annual mean time series of CH4, SF6 and CH3CCl3 measurements from 8 selected background sites, and to satellite observations of CH4 in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Most models adequately capture the vertical gradients in the stratosphere, the average long-term trends, seasonal cycles, interannual variations (IAVs) and interhemispheric (IH) gradients at the surface sites for SF6, CH3CCl3 and CH4. The vertical gradients of all tracers between the surface and the upper troposphere are consistent within the models, revealing vertical transport differences between models. An average IH exchange time of 1.39±0.18 yr is derived from SF6 time series. Sensitivity simulations suggest that the estimated trends in exchange time, over the period of 1996–2007, are caused by a change of SF6 emissions towards the tropics. Using six sets of emission scenarios, we show that the decadal average CH4 growth rate likely reached equilibrium in the early 2000s due to the flattening of anthropogenic emission growth since the late 1990s. Up to 60% of the IAVs in the observed CH4 concentrations can be explained by accounting for the IAVs in emissions, from biomass burning and wetlands, as well as meteorology in the forward models. The modeled CH4 budget is shown to depend strongly on the troposphere-stratosphere exchange rate and thus on the model’s vertical grid structure and circulation in the lower stratosphere. The 15-model median CH4 and CH3CCl3 atmospheric lifetimes are estimated to be 9.99±0.08 and 4.61±0.13 yr, respectively, with little IAV due to transport and temperature.
Modeling lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungi in chemostatcultures. II: Validation of the chemostat model using yeast culturedata from literature
Meeuwse, P. ; Tramper, J. ; Rinzema, A. - \ 2011
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 34 (2011)8. - ISSN 1615-7591 - p. 951 - 961.
stage continuous-culture - gamma-linolenic acid - rhodotorula-glutinis - apiotrichum-curvatum - candida-curvata - growth-rate - oxygen - batch
A model that predicts cell growth, lipid accumulation and substrate consumption of oleaginous fungi in chemostat cultures (Meeuwse et al. in Bioproc Biosyst Eng. doi: 10.1007/s00449-011-0545-8 , 2011) was validated using 12 published data sets for chemostat cultures of oleaginous yeasts and one published data set for a poly-hydroxyalkanoate accumulating bacterial species. The model could describe all data sets well with only minor modifications that do not affect the key assumptions, i.e. (1) oleaginous yeasts and fungi give the highest priority to C-source utilization for maintenance, second priority to growth and third priority to lipid accumulation, and (2) oleaginous yeasts and fungi have a growth rate independent maximum specific lipid production rate. The analysis of all data showed that the maximum specific lipid production rate is in most cases very close to the specific production rate of membrane and other functional lipids for cells growing at their maximum specific growth rate. The limiting factor suggested by Ykema et al. (in Biotechnol Bioeng 34:1268-1276, 1989), i.e. the maximum glucose uptake rate, did not give good predictions of the maximum lipid production rate
The effects of housing system and feeding level on the joint-specific prevalence of osteochondrosis in fattening pigs
Grevenhof, E.M. van; Ott, S. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Weeren, P.R. van; Bijma, P. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2011
Livestock Science 135 (2011)1. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 53 - 61.
leg weakness - finishing pigs - growth-rate - genetic-parameters - production traits - space allowance - slaughter pigs - protein-levels - arthrosis - swine
Osteochondrosis (OC) is seen as the main cause of leg weakness in pigs, leading to welfare problems and economic losses. Environmental factors in pig husbandry, such as the housing system and feeding strategy are expected to influence the prevalence of OC. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of housing system and feeding strategy on the prevalence and severity of OC. In the experiment 345 pigs were used. At an age of 69 days intact boars and gilts were separated and assigned to groups of five or six individuals. A two by two factorial design of housing system and feeding strategy was applied. The housing system was either a conventional concrete floor partial slatted, or a deep litter floor with extra space allowance. The feeding strategy was either ad libitum or restricted to 80% of ad libitum. Pigs were slaughtered at the age of 161–176 days. In total, five joints of the left front and hind limbs were macroscopically assessed for OC on a five-point scale, ranged from no OC through (semi-)loose cartilage fragments. The prevalence of OC in the experimental population was 41.4%, and 12.4% of the individuals had severe lesions. The tarsocrural joint was most affected (30.2%) by OC. OC scores between the different joints were not correlated. Medial sections of joints were most affected (63–100%). Boars were more affected than gilts in the elbow joint. Conventionally housed pigs were more affected than deep litter housed pigs. Ad libitum fed pigs had more OC than restrictedly fed pigs. OC was most prevalent with 57.5% in the pigs on the conventional floor with ad libitum feeding. OC was least prevalent with 33.7% in pigs kept in deep litter housing with restricted feeding. The sex, housing system and feeding strategy did not affect OC in the femoropatellar, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints. Our results demonstrate that the OC prevalence can be reduced by applying deep litter floors with extra space allowance and/or restricted feeding in fattening pigs
Hydrogenotrophic Sulfate Reduction in a Gas-Lift Bioreactor Operated at 9 degrees C
Nevatalo, L.M. ; Bijmans, M.F.M. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Kaksonen, A.H. ; Puhakka, J.A. - \ 2010
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20 (2010)3. - ISSN 1017-7825 - p. 615 - 621.
reducing bacteria - retention time - carbon-dioxide - growth-rate - sp-nov - reactor - temperature - methanogenesis - oxidation - sulfide
The viability of low-temperature sulfate reduction with hydrogen as electron donor was studied with a bench-scale gas-lift bioreactor (GLB) operated at 9 degrees C. Prior to the GLB experiment, the temperature range of sulfate reduction of the inoculum was assayed. The results of the temperature gradient assay indicated that the inoculum was a psychrotolerant mesophilic enrichment culture that had an optimal temperature for sulfate reduction of 31 degrees C, and minimum and maximum temperatures of 7 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. In the GLB experiment at 9 degrees C, a sulfate reduction rate of 500-600 mg l(-1) d(-1), corresponding to a specific activity of 173 mg SO42- g VSS-1 d(-1), was obtained. The electron flow from the consumed H-2-gas to sulfate reduction varied between 27% and 52%, whereas the electron flow to acetate production decreased steadily from 15% to 5%. No methane was produced. Acetate was produced from CO2 and H-2 by homoacetogenic bacteria. Acetate supported the growth of some heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria. The sulfate reduction rate in the GLB was limited by the slow biomass growth rate at 9 degrees C and low biomass retention in the reactor. Nevertheless, this study demonstrated the potential sulfate reduction rate of psychrotolerant sulfate-reducing mesophiles at suboptimal temperature.
The use of blood gas parameters to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers
As, P. van; Elferink, M.G. ; Closter, A.M. ; Vereijken, A. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Decuypere, E. ; Groenen, M.A.M. - \ 2010
Poultry Science 89 (2010). - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 1684 - 1691.
carbon-dioxide tensions - growth-rate - chickens - lines - traits - hematocrit - resistant - failure - weight
Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder found in modern broilers that have insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. Commercial breeding programs have heavily focused on high growth rate, which led to fast-growing chickens, but as a negative consequence, the incidence of ascites syndrome increased. However, not all birds with a high growth rate will suffer from ascites syndrome, which might indicate a genetic susceptibility to ascites. Information on blood gas parameters measured early in life and their relation to ascites susceptibility is expected to contribute to identification on the cause of ascites syndrome. In this study, several physiological parameters, such as blood gas parameters [pH, partial pressure of CO2 in venous blood (pvCO2), and partial pressure of O2 in venous blood], hematocrit, electrolytes (Na+, Ca2+, and K+), metabolites (lactate and glucose), were measured at d 11 to 12 of age from 100 female and 100 male broilers. From d 14 onward, the birds were challenged to provoke the development of ascites syndrome. Our results showed that high pvCO2 values together with low pH values (males) or high pH values (females) in the venous blood of juvenile broilers coincided with ascites. Therefore, blood pvCO2 and pH in both juvenile male and female broilers seem to be critical factors in ascites pathophysiology and can be used as phenotypic traits to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers at d 11 to 12. A prediction model was built on a subpopulation of the broilers without any loss in sensitivity (0.52) and specificity (0.78) when applied to the validation population. The parameter sex was included in the prediction model because levels of pvCO2 and pH that associated with ascites susceptibility are different between males and females. Commercial breeders can include these phenotypic traits in their genetic selection programs to reduce the incidence of ascites syndrome.
Physiological responses to folate overproduction in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1
Wegkamp, A. ; Mars, A.E. ; Faijes, M. ; Molenaar, D. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Klaus, M.J. ; Hanson, A.D. ; Vos, W.M. de; Smid, E.J. - \ 2010
Microbial Cell Factories 9 (2010). - ISSN 1475-2859 - 14 p.
lactic-acid bacteria - lactococcus-lactis - escherichia-coli - streptococcus-cremoris - growth-rate - folic-acid - expression - protein - biosynthesis - recombinant
Background Using a functional genomics approach we addressed the impact of folate overproduction on metabolite formation and gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. We focused specifically on the mechanism that reduces growth rates in folate-overproducing cells. Results Metabolite formation and gene expression were determined in a folate-overproducing- and wild-type strain. Differential metabolomics analysis of intracellular metabolite pools indicated that the pool sizes of 18 metabolites differed significantly between these strains. The gene expression profile was determined for both strains in pH-regulated chemostat culture and batch culture. Apart from the expected overexpression of the 6 genes of the folate gene cluster, no other genes were found to be differentially expressed both in continuous and batch cultures. The discrepancy between the low transcriptome and metabolome response and the 25% growth rate reduction of the folate overproducing strain was further investigated. Folate production per se could be ruled out as a contributing factor, since in the absence of folate production the growth rate of the overproducer was also reduced by 25%. The higher metabolic costs for DNA and RNA biosynthesis in the folate overproducing strain were also ruled out. However, it was demonstrated that folate-specific mRNAs and proteins constitute 8% and 4% of the total mRNA and protein pool, respectively. Conclusion Folate overproduction leads to very little change in metabolite levels or overall transcript profile, while at the same time the growth rate is reduced drastically. This shows that Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 is unable to respond to this growth rate reduction, most likely because the growth-related transcripts and proteins are diluted by the enormous amount of gratuitous folate-related transcripts and proteins.
Comparative Analysis of Transcriptome and Fitness Profiles Reveals General and Condition-Specific Cellular Functions Involved in Adaptation to Environmental Change in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Zakrzewska, A. ; Boorsma, A. ; Beek, A. van; Hageman, J.A. ; Westerhuis, J.A. ; Hellingwerf, K.J. ; Brul, S. ; Klis, F.M. ; Smits, J. - \ 2010
OMICS - A Journal of Integrative Biology 14 (2010)5. - ISSN 1536-2310 - p. 603 - 614.
perturbing compound chitosan - translational responses - regulatory elements - genetic interaction - genomic expression - candida-albicans - global analysis - multiple levels - growth-rate - yeast
The transcriptional responses of yeast cells to a wide variety of stress conditions have been studied extensively. In addition, deletion mutant collections have been widely used to measure the combined effect of gene loss and stress on growth (fitness). Here we present a comparative analysis of 1,095 publicly available transcription and genome-wide fitness profiles in yeast, from different laboratories and experimental platforms. We analyzed these data, using T-profiler, to describe the correlation in behavior of a priori defined functional groups. Two-mode clustering analysis of the fitness T-profiles revealed that functional groups involved in regulating ribosome biogenesis and translation offer general stress resistance. These groups are closely related to growth rate and nutrient availability. General stress sensitivity was found in deletion mutant groups functioning in intracellular vesicular transport, actin cytoskeleton organization, and cell polarity, indicating that they play an key role in maintaining yeast adaptability. Analysis of the phenotypic and transcriptional variability of our a priori defined functional groups showed that the quantitative effect on fitness of both resistant and sensitive groups is highly condition-dependent. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for combinatorial drug design
Identification of markers associated with bacterial blight resistance loci in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)
Agbicodo, A.C.M.E. ; Fatokun, C.A. ; Bandyopadhyay, R. ; Wydra, K. ; Diop, N.N. ; Muchero, W. ; Ehlers, J.D. ; Roberts, P.A. ; Close, T.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Linden, C.G. van der - \ 2010
Euphytica 175 (2010)2. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 215 - 226.
quantitative trait loci - yield-related traits - seed-filling period - grain-yield - growth-rate - developmental behavior - genotypic variation - genetic dissection - agronomic traits - tiller number
Cowpea bacterial blight (CoBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola (Xav), is a worldwide major disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Among different strategies to control the disease including cultural practices, intercropping, application of chemicals, and sowing pathogen-free seeds, planting of cowpea genotypes with resistance to the pathogen would be the most attractive option to the resource poor cowpea farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Breeding resistance cultivars would be facilitated by marker-assisted selection (MAS). In order to identify loci with effects on resistance to this pathogen and map QTLs controlling resistance to CoBB, eleven cowpea genotypes were screened for resistance to bacterial blight using 2 virulent Xav18 and Xav19 strains isolated from Kano (Nigeria). Two cowpea genotypes Danila and Tvu7778 were identified to contrast in their responses to foliar disease expression following leaf infection with pathogen. A set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) comprising 113 individuals derived from Danila (resistant parent) and Tvu7778 (susceptible parent) were infected with CoBB using leaf inoculation method. The experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions (2007 and 2008) and disease severity was visually assessed using a scale where 0 = no disease and 4 = maximum susceptibility with leaf drop. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic map with 282 SNP markers constructed from the same RIL population was used to perform QTL analysis. Using Kruskall-Wallis and Multiple-QTL model of MapQTL 5, three QTLs, CoBB-1, CoBB-2 and CoBB-3 were identified on linkage group LG3, LG5 and LG9 respectively showing that potential resistance candidate genes cosegregated with CoBB resistance phenotypes. Two of the QTLs CoBB-1, CoBB-2 were consistently confirmed in the two experiments accounting for up to 22.1 and to 17.4% respectively for the first and second experiments. Whereas CoBB-3 was only discovered for the first experiment (2007) with less phenotypic variation explained of about 10%. Our results represent a resource for molecular marker development that can be used for marker assisted selection of bacterial blight resistance in cowpea
Genetic and phenotypic relationships between blood gas parameters and ascites-related traits in broilers
Closter, A.M. ; As, P. van; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Vereijken, A.L.J. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2009
Poultry Science 88 (2009)3. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 483 - 490.
pulmonary-artery occlusion - right ventricular failure - carbon-dioxide tensions - body-weight - chicken lines - growth-rate - physiological variables - hypertension syndrome - selection-strategies - ambient-temperature
Ascites, also called pulmonary hypertension syndrome, is a metabolic disorder in chickens that have an insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. The tendency of broilers to develop ascites is heritable, and successful selection against this susceptibility would benefit from good and easy-to-measure indicator traits. Blood gas parameters have been suggested as indicator traits for ascites susceptibility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability of blood gas parameters and the genetic and phenotypic correlations between blood gas parameters, heart ratio (postmortem indicator for ascites), and BW at 2 different ages. For this purpose, blood gas parameters, including the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood (pvCO2), the partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood (pvO2), and blood oxygen saturation, were measured at an average age of 22 d in nearly 3,000 broilers. To challenge the resistance of the birds to ascites, they were kept under cold conditions. Heritability for heart ratio was 0.43, and the heritability estimates were low: 0.02 for pvCO2, 0.03 for pvO2, and 0.07 for blood oxygen saturation. The estimated heritability for pH was 0.15, for bicarbonate was 0.19, and for total carbon dioxide content was 0.19. The genetic correlations between heart ratio and total carbon dioxide content (0.31 ± 0.15) and between heart ratio and bicarbonate (0.31 ± 0.15) were moderate and positive. For pvO2, the genetic correlation with heart ratio was stronger and negative (–0.62 ± 0.21); however, this correlation could not be estimated accurately because of the low heritability of pvO2. For pvCO2, the genetic correlation with the heart ratio was close to zero (–0.04 ± 0.45). Phenotypic correlations between traits were, in general, similar to the genetic correlations. Heritabilities for blood gas parameters and the genetic correlations between blood gas parameters and the heart ratio estimated in the present study do not support the suggestion that blood gas parameters measured during wk 3 or 4 are useful traits to select against the susceptibility for ascites
The ecological stoichiometry of toxins produced by harmful cyanobacteria: an experimental test of the carbonnutrient balance hypothesis
Waal, D.B. van de; Verspagen, J.M.H. ; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W. ; Donk, E. van; Visser, P.M. ; Huisman, J. - \ 2009
Ecology Letters 12 (2009)2. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1326 - 1335.
limited microcystis-aeruginosa - planktothrix-agardhii - inorganic carbon - growth-rate - light - nitrogen - phytoplankton - population - metabolism - blooms
The elemental composition of primary producers reflects the availability of light, carbon and nutrients in their environment. According to the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis, this has implications for the production of secondary metabolites. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a family of toxins, known as microcystins, produced by harmful cyanobacteria. The strain Microcystis aeruginosa HUB 5-2-4, which produces several microcystin variants of different N:C stoichiometry, was cultured in chemostats supplied with various combinations of nitrate and CO2. Excess supply of both nitrogen and carbon yielded high cellular N:C ratios accompanied by high cellular contents of total microcystin and the nitrogen-rich variant microcystin-RR. Comparable patterns were found in Microcystis-dominated lakes, where the relative microcystin-RR content increased with the seston N:C ratio. In total, our results are largely consistent with the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis, and warn that a combination of rising CO2 and nitrogen enrichment will affect the microcystin composition of harmful cyanobacteria