Doses response of dietary viscosity on digestibility and faecal characteristics of striped catfish (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus)
Tu-Tran, L.C. ; Nguyen, Thanh Cong ; Verreth, Johan A.J. ; Schrama, Johan W. - \ 2020
Aquaculture Research 51 (2020)2. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 595 - 604.
digestibility - faecal waste - guar gum - striped catfish
The study analysed the dose–response relationship between dietary viscosity and nutrient digestibility, faecal waste characteristics in striped catfish and the long-term impacts of viscosity on performance of striped catfish. This was done in two experiments: Exp.1 lasted 29 days, in which six dietary viscosity levels were created by including different amount of guar gum (GG; 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) and Exp.2 lasted 60 days and assessed the long-term effects of three dietary GG levels (0, 0.5 and 3.0 g/kg) were checked. In Exp.1, digestibility of nutrients (except crude fat) decreased linearly with dietary viscosity. With increasing viscosity, removal efficiency of faeces from the water reduced linearly, whereas the total amount of faeces produced and the fraction of big-sized faecal particles (>2 mm). increased linearly. In Exp.1, viscosity did not affect performance. However, in Exp.2, the GG inclusion level of 3.0 g/kg (1.72 cP for the viscosity) affected fish performance. In conclusion, the best strategy for faecal waste management in striped catfish by dietary viscosity is to keep it as low as possible in the diet.
Strategy to identify and quantify polysaccharide gums in gelled food concentrates
Grün, C.H. ; Sanders, P. ; Burg, M. van der; Schuurbiers, E. ; Adrichem, L. van; Velzen, E.J.J. van; Roo, N. de; Brunt, K. ; Westphal, Y. ; Schols, H.A. - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 166 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 42 - 49.
locust bean gum - polymerase-chain-reaction - guar gum - capillary-electrophoresis - enzymatic determination - starch industry - raw-materials - xanthan gum - identification - additives
A strategy for the unambiguous identification and selective quantification of xanthan gum and locust bean gum (LBG) in gelled food concentrates is presented. DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed to be a fast, sensitive, and selective method that can be used as a first screening tool in intact gelled food concentrates. An efficient isolation procedure is described removing components that may interfere with subsequent analyses. NMR spectroscopy enabled the direct identification of xanthan gum and the discrimination between different galactomannans in the isolated polysaccharide fraction. An enzymatic fingerprinting method using endo-ß-mannanase, in addition to being used to differentiate between galactomannans, was developed into a selective, quantitative method for LBG, whereas monosaccharide analysis was used to quantify xanthan gum. Recoveries for xanthan gum and LBG were 87% and 70%, respectively, with in-between day relative standard deviations below 20% for xanthan gum and below 10% for LBG.
Time related alterations in digestibility and faecal characteristics as affected by dietary composition in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
Amirkolaie, A.K. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2015
Aquaculture Research 46 (2015)5. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 1078 - 1086.
trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - chain fatty-acids - apparent digestibility - soybean-meal - feces collection - feed ingredients - inclusion level - gut microbes - guar gum - fish
After being shifted to a new diet, time related alterations in digestibility, faecal waste production and faeces recovery in Nile tilapia were assessed in relation with dietary ingredient composition. Four experimental diets were formulated according to a 2 by 2 factorial design: two starch inclusion levels (20 or 40%) and two maize starch types (native versus gelatinized). After introduction to the experimental diets, faeces were collected weekly from Week 2 till 6 using settling tanks. Digestibility of ash, organic matter and dry matter increased with time (P <0.001). For organic and dry matter the time related alteration in digestibility were different between both starch types (P <0.05). All faecal waste characteristics altered with time (P <0.01). The incline in faeces recovery with time was affected by starch type (P <0.01); being the largest at the 40% gelatinized maize diet. In conclusion, the minimal length of the adaptation period in digestibility studies for obtaining unbiased digestibility estimates is dependent on diet composition, in this study with Nile tilapia 4 weeks for diets with gelatinized starch and 6 weeks with native starch.
Pectin is not pectin: A randomized trial on the effect of different physicochemical properties of dietary fiber on appetite and energy intake
Wanders, A.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Jonathan, M.C. ; Schols, H.A. ; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. - \ 2014
Physiology and Behavior 128 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 212 - 219.
body-weight - food-intake - guar gum - satiety - viscosity - glucose - meal - satiation - glycemia - humans
An increased intake of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced appetite and reduced energy intake. Research on the effects of seemingly identical classes of dietary fiber on appetite has, however, resulted in conflicting findings. The present study investigated the effects of different fiber properties, including methods of supplementation, on appetite and energy intake. This was a randomized crossover study with 29 subjects (21 ± 2 y, BMI: 21.9 ± 1.8 kg/m2) consuming dairy based liquid test products (1.5 MJ, 435 g) containing either: no pectin, bulking pectin (10 g), viscous pectin (10 g), or gelled pectin (10 g). The gelled pectin was also supplemented as capsules (10 g), and as liquid (10 g). Physicochemical properties of the test products were assessed. Appetite, glucose, insulin and gastric emptying were measured before ingestion and after fixed time intervals. Energy intake was measured after 3 h. Preload viscosity was larger for gelled > viscous > bulking > no pectin, and was larger for gelled > liquid > capsules. Appetite was reduced after ingestion of gelled pectin compared to bulking (p <0.0001), viscous (p = 0.005) and no pectin (p <0.0001), without differences in subsequent energy intake (p = 0.32). Gastric emptying rate was delayed after gelled pectin (82 ± 18 min) compared to no pectin (70 ± 19 min, p = 0.015). Furthermore, gelled (p = 0.002) and viscous (p <0.0001) pectin lowered insulin responses compared to no pectin, with minor reductions in glucose response. Regarding methods of supplementation, appetite was reduced after ingestion of the gelled test product compared to after capsules (p <0.0001) and liquid (p <0.0001). Energy intake was lower after ingestion of capsules compared to liquid (- 12.4%, p = 0.03). Different methods of supplementation resulted in distinct metabolic parameters. Results suggest that different physicochemical properties of pectin, including methods of supplementation, impact appetite and energy intake differently. Reduced appetite was probably mediated by preload physical properties, whereas inconsistent associations with metabolic parameters were found.
Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den - \ 2013
Physiology and Behavior 110-111 (2013). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 148 - 157.
chain fatty-acids - glucagon-like peptide-1 - resistant starch - growing pigs - appetite regulation - guar gum - gastrointestinal peptides - nonstarch polysaccharides - hindgut fermentation - weight regulation
Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1 h, 3 h and 7 h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber, possibly due to its slow rate of fermentation and high production of butyrate
The effects of bulking, viscous and gel-forming dietary fibres on satiation
Wanders, A.J. ; Jonathan, M.C. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Mars, M. ; Schols, H.A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)7. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1330 - 1337.
food-intake - weight regulation - energy density - body-weight - guar gum - viscosity - satiety - appetite - humans - meal
The objective was to determine the effects of dietary fibre with bulking, viscous and gel-forming properties on satiation, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. We conducted a randomised crossover study with 121 men and women. Subjects were healthy, non-restrained eaters, aged 18–50 years and with normal BMI (18·5–25 kg/m2). Test products were cookies containing either: no added fibre (control), cellulose (bulking, 5 g/100 g), guar gum (viscous, 1·25 g/100 g and 2·5 g/100 g) or alginate (gel forming, 2·5 g/100 g and 5 g/100 g). Physico-chemical properties of the test products were confirmed in simulated upper gastrointestinal conditions. In a cinema setting, ad libitum intake of the test products was measured concurrently with oral exposure time per cookie by video recording. In a separate study with ten subjects, 4 h gastric emptying rate of a fixed amount of test products was assessed by 13C breath tests. Ad libitum energy intake was 22 % lower for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (3·1 (sd 1·6) MJ) compared to control (4·0 (sd 2·2) MJ, P <0·001). Intake of the other four products did not differ from control. Oral exposure time for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (2·3 (sd 1·9) min) was 48 % longer than for control (1·6 (sd 0·9) min, P = 0·01). Gastric emptying of the 5 g/100 g alginate product was faster compared to control (P <0·05). We concluded that the addition of 5 g/100 g alginate (i.e. gel-forming fibre) to a low-fibre cookie results in earlier satiation. This effect might be due to an increased oral exposure time
Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials
Wanders, A.J. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Graaf, C. de; Hulshof, T. ; Jonathan, M.C. ; Kristensen, M. ; Mars, M. ; Schols, H.A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2011
Obesity Reviews 12 (2011)9. - ISSN 1467-7881 - p. 724 - 739.
placebo-controlled trial - impaired glucose-tolerance - human fecal bacteria - chain fatty-acids - guar gum - food-intake - resistant starch - metabolic-control - serum-lipids - double-blind
Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and body weight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre–control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or body weight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and body weight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, ß-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and body weight were relatively small, and distinct dose–response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration.
Type of dietary fibre (soluble versus insoluble) influences digestion, faeces characteristics and faecal waste production in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
Amirkolaie, A.K. ; Leenhouwers, J.I. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2005
Aquaculture Research 36 (2005)12. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 1157 - 1166.
broiler-chickens - nutrient digestibility - gastrointestinal-tract - rainbow-trout - feed-intake - guar gum - growth - carboxymethylcellulose - viscosity - cellulose
The physico-chemical properties of nutrients influence the physical characteristics of faeces and thus may affect waste removal efficiency. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of type of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) on digesta viscosity, faeces recovery and nutrient digestibility in Nile tilapia. Insoluble (cellulose) and soluble (guar gum) NSPs were included separately and combined at a level of 8%, thereby formulating four experimental diets. The diets were assigned to 16 tanks with 35 fish each, with four replicates for each diet. Cellulose inclusion did not influence digesta viscosity, growth and digestibility of protein and starch and tended to increase faeces recovery (P=0.06). Guar gum inclusion increased digesta viscosity and reduced the growth and digestibility of protein, fat and starch (P