Reciprocal Interactions between Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and Human Gut Microbiota In Vitro
Liu, Zhibin ; Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Bruins, Marieke E. ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2020
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68 (2020)36. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 9804 - 9815.
16S rRNA sequencing - degradation pathway - epigallocatechin-3-gallate - gut microbiota - UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS
Interaction of tea phenolics with gut microbiota may play an integral role in the health benefits of these bioactive compounds, yet this interaction is not fully understood. Here, the metabolic fate of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and its impact on gut microbiota were integrally investigated viain vitro fermentation. As revealed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS), EGCG was promptly degraded into a series of metabolites, including 4-phenylbutyric acid, 3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, through consecutive ester hydrolysis, C-ring opening, A-ring fission, dehydroxylation, and aliphatic chain shortening. Microbiome profiling indicated that, compared to the blank, EGCG treatment resulted in stimulation of the beneficial bacteria Bacteroides, Christensenellaceae, and Bifidobacterium. Additionally, the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium varium, Bilophila, and Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited. Furthermore, changes in concentrations of metabolites, including 4-phenylbutyric acid and phenylacetic acid, were strongly correlated with changes in the abundance of specific gut microbiota. These reciprocal interactions between EGCG and gut microbiota may collectively contribute to the health benefits of EGCG.
Toxicological safety evaluation of pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila
Druart, Céline ; Plovier, Hubert ; Hul, Matthias Van; Brient, Alizée ; Phipps, Kirt R. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Cani, Patrice D. - \ 2020
Journal of Applied Toxicology (2020). - ISSN 0260-437X
Akkermansia muciniphila - beneficial microorganism - food ingredient - gut microbiota - safety - subchronic toxicity, genotoxicity
Gut microorganisms are vital for many aspects of human health, and the commensal bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila has repeatedly been identified as a key component of intestinal microbiota. Reductions in A. muciniphila abundance are associated with increased prevalence of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. It was recently discovered that administration of A. muciniphila has beneficial effects and that these are not diminished, but rather enhanced after pasteurization. Pasteurized A. muciniphila is proposed for use as a food ingredient, and was therefore subjected to a nonclinical safety assessment, comprising genotoxicity assays (bacterial reverse mutation and in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus tests) and a 90-day toxicity study. For the latter, Han Wistar rats were administered with the vehicle or pasteurized A. muciniphila at doses of 75, 375 or 1500 mg/kg body weight/day (equivalent to 4.8 × 109, 2.4 × 1010, or 9.6 ×
Pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila protects from fat mass gain but not from bone loss
Lawenius, Lina ; Scheffler, Julia M. ; Gustafsson, Karin L. ; Henning, Petra ; Nilsson, Karin H. ; Colldén, Hannah ; Islander, Ulrika ; Plovier, Hubert ; Cani, Patrice D. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Ohlsson, Claes ; Sjögren, Klara - \ 2020
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 318 (2020)4. - ISSN 0193-1849 - p. E480 - E491.
Akkermansia - bone mass - gut microbiota - osteoporosis - probiotic
Probiotic bacteria can protect from ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss in mice. Akkermansia muciniphila is considered to have probiotic potential due to its beneficial effect on obesity and insulin resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine if treatment with pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila (pAkk) could prevent ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with vehicle or pAkk for 4 wk, starting 3 days before ovx or sham surgery. Treatment with pAkk reduced fat mass accumulation confirming earlier findings. However, treatment with pAkk decreased trabecular and cortical bone mass in femur and vertebra of gonadal intact mice and did not protect from ovx-induced bone loss. Treatment with pAkk increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and increased expression of the calcium transporter Trpv5 in kidney suggesting increased reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys. Serum amyloid A 3 (SAA3) can suppress bone formation and mediate the effects of PTH on bone resorption and bone loss in mice and treatment with pAkk increased serum levels of SAA3 and gene expression of Saa3 in colon. Moreover, regulatory T cells can be protective of bone and pAkk-treated mice had decreased number of regulatory T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and bone marrow. In conclusion, treatment with pAkk protected from ovx-induced fat mass gain but not from bone loss and reduced bone mass in gonadal intact mice. Our findings with pAkk differ from some probiotics that have been shown to protect bone mass, demonstrating that not all prebiotic and probiotic factors have the same effect on bone.
Use of Physiologically Based Kinetic Modeling to Predict Rat Gut Microbial Metabolism of the Isoflavone Daidzein to S-Equol and Its Consequences for ERα Activation
Wang, Qianrui ; Spenkelink, Bert ; Boonpawa, Rungnapa ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Beekmann, Karsten - \ 2020
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 64 (2020)6. - ISSN 1613-4125
daidzein - gut microbiota - in vitro–in silico strategy - physiologically based kinetic modeling - S-equol
Scope: To predict gut microbial metabolism of xenobiotics and the resulting plasma concentrations of metabolites formed, an in vitro–in silico-based testing strategy is developed using the isoflavone daidzein and its gut microbial metabolite S-equol as model compounds. Methods and results: Anaerobic rat fecal incubations are optimized and performed to derive the apparent maximum velocities (Vmax) and Michaelis–Menten constants (Km) for gut microbial conversion of daidzein to dihydrodaidzein, S-equol, and O-desmethylangolensin, which are input as parameters for a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model. The inclusion of gut microbiota in the PBK model allows prediction of S-equol concentrations and slightly reduced predicted maximal daidzein concentrations from 2.19 to 2.16 µm. The resulting predicted concentrations of daidzein and S-equol are comparable to in vivo concentrations reported. Conclusion: The optimized in vitro approach to quantify kinetics for gut microbial conversions, and the newly developed PBK model for rats that includes gut microbial metabolism, provide a unique tool to predict the in vivo consequences of daidzein microbial metabolism for systemic exposure of the host to daidzein and its metabolite S-equol. The predictions reveal a dominant role for daidzein in ERα-mediated estrogenicity despite the higher estrogenic potency of its microbial metabolite S-equol.
Distal colonic transit is linked to gut microbiota diversity and microbial fermentation in humans with slow colonic transit
Müller, Mattea ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Canfora, Emanuel E. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Masclee, Ad A.M. ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Blaak, Ellen E. - \ 2020
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 318 (2020)2. - ISSN 0193-1857 - p. G361 - G369.
gastrointestinal transit - gut microbiota - short-chain fatty acids - stool consistency
Longer colonic transit time and hard stools are associated with increased gut microbiota diversity. Here, we investigate to what extent quantitative measures of (segmental) colonic transit time were related to gut microbiota composition, microbial metabolites, and gut-related parameters in a human cross-sectional study. Using radiopaque markers, (segmental) colonic transit time (CTT) was measured in 48 lean/overweight participants with long colonic transit but without constipation. Fecal microbiota composition was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Associations between gastrointestinal transit (segmental CTT and stool frequency and consistency), microbiota diversity and composition, microbial metabolites [short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids, and breath hydrogen], habitual diet, and gut-related host parameters [lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and fecal calprotectin] were investigated using univariate and multivariate approaches. Long descending (i.e., distal) colonic transit was associated with increased microbial α-diversity but not with stool consistency. Using unweighted and weighted UniFrac distance, microbiota variation was not related to (segmental) CTT but to demographics, diet, plasma LBP, and fecal calprotectin. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity related only to stool consistency. Rectosigmoid and descending colonic transit were negatively associated with fecal SCFA and plasma acetate, respectively. This study suggests that the distal colon transit may affect not only microbiota diversity but also microbial metabolism.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We extend previous findings showing that long distal colonic transit time influences microbial diversification and fermentation, whereas stool consistency is related to microbiota composition in humans with a long colonic transit. This study puts the importance of the (distal) colonic site in microbiota ecology forward, which should be considered in future therapeutic studies targeting, for instance, short-chain fatty acid production to improve metabolic health.
Postbiotics and Their Potential Applications in Early Life Nutrition and Beyond
Wegh, Carrie A.M. ; Geerlings, Sharon Y. ; Knol, Jan ; Roeselers, Guus ; Belzer, Clara - \ 2019
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 (2019)19. - ISSN 1661-6596
fermented infant formula - gut microbiota - postbiotics
Postbiotics are functional bioactive compounds, generated in a matrix during fermentation, which may be used to promote health. The term postbiotics can be regarded as an umbrella term for all synonyms and related terms of these microbial fermentation components. Therefore, postbiotics can include many different constituents including metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), microbial cell fractions, functional proteins, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), cell lysates, teichoic acid, peptidoglycan-derived muropeptides and pili-type structures. Postbiotics is also a rather new term in the '-biotics' field. Where consensus exists for the definitions of pre- and probiotics, this is not yet the case for postbiotics. Here we propose a working definition and review currently known postbiotic compounds, their proposed mechanisms, clinical evidence and potential applications. Research to date indicates that postbiotics can have direct immunomodulatory and clinically relevant effects and evidence can be found for the use of postbiotics in healthy individuals to improve overall health and to relief symptoms in a range of diseases such as infant colic and in adults atopic dermatitis and different causes of diarrhea.
The Gut Microbiota in the First Decade of Life
Derrien, Muriel ; Alvarez, Anne Sophie ; Vos, Willem M. de - \ 2019
Trends in Microbiology 27 (2019)12. - ISSN 0966-842X - p. 997 - 1010.
children - evolution - gut microbiota - health - intervention - plasticity
Appreciation of the importance of the gut microbiome is growing, and it is becoming increasingly relevant to identify preventive or therapeutic solutions targeting it. The composition and function of the gut microbiota are relatively well described for infants (less than 3 years) and adults, but have been largely overlooked in pre-school (3–6 years) and primary school-age (6–12 years) children, as well as teenagers (12–18 years). Early reports suggested that the infant microbiota would attain an adult-like structure at the age of 3 years, but recent studies have suggested that microbiota development may take longer. This development time is of key importance because there is evidence to suggest that deviations in this development may have consequences in later life. In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge concerning the gut microbiota, its evolution, variation, and response to dietary challenges during the first decade of life with a focus on healthy pre-school and primary school-age children (up to 12 years) from various populations around the globe. This knowledge should facilitate the identification of diet-based approaches targeting individuals of this age group, to promote the development of a healthy microbiota in later life.
The Preterm Gut Microbiota: An Inconspicuous Challenge in Nutritional Neonatal Care
Henderickx, Jannie G.E. ; Zwittink, Romy D. ; Lingen, Richard A. van; Knol, Jan ; Belzer, Clara - \ 2019
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 9 (2019). - ISSN 2235-2988 - 1 p.
development - gastrointestinal tract - growth - gut microbiota - health - immune system - preterm - very low birth weight
The nutritional requirements of preterm infants are unique and challenging to meet in neonatal care, yet crucial for their growth, development and health. Normally, the gut microbiota has distinct metabolic capacities, making their role in metabolism of dietary components indispensable. In preterm infants, variation in microbiota composition is introduced while facing a unique set of environmental conditions. However, the effect of such variation on the microbiota's metabolic capacity and on the preterm infant's growth and development remains unresolved. In this review, we will provide a holistic overview on the development of the preterm gut microbiota and the unique environmental conditions contributing to this, in addition to maturation of the gastrointestinal tract and immune system in preterm infants. The role of prematurity, as well as the role of human milk, in the developmental processes is emphasized. Current research stresses the early life gut microbiota as cornerstone for simultaneous development of the gastrointestinal tract and immune system. Besides that, literature provides clues that prematurity affects growth and development. As such, this review is concluded with our hypothesis that prematurity of the gut microbiota may be an inconspicuous clinical challenge in achieving optimal feeding besides traditional challenges, such as preterm breast milk composition, high nutritional requirements and immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract and immune system. A better understanding of the metabolic capacity of the gut microbiota and its impact on gut and immune maturation in preterm infants could complement current feeding regimens in future neonatal care and thereby facilitate growth, development and health in preterm infants.
Effectiveness of Probiotics in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders and Functional Constipation A Systematic Review
Wegh, Carrie A.M. ; Benninga, Marc A. ; Tabbers, Merit M. - \ 2018
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 52 (2018)supp. 1. - ISSN 0192-0790 - p. S10 - S26.
children - functional gastrointestinal disorders - gut microbiota - probiotics
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotics on functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) and functional constipation (FC). Methods: A systematic review was conducted, searching PubMed and Cochrane databases from inception to January 2018 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of probiotics in children aged 4 to 18 years with FAPD or children aged 0 to 18 years with FC. Results: A total of 657 citations were identified. Finally, 11 RCTs for FAPD and 6 RCTs for FC were included. Some evidence exists for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (n=3) in reducing frequency and intensity of abdominal pain in children with irritable bowel syndrome. There is no evidence to recommend L. reuteri DSM 17938 (n=5), a mix of Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum (n=1), Bifidobacterium lactis (n=1) or VSL#3 (n=1) for children with FAPD. No evidence exists to support the use of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus LCR35 (n=1), B. lactis DN173 010 (n=1), B. longum (n=1), L. reuteri DSM 17938 (n=1), a mix of B. infantis, B. breve and B. longum (n=1), or Protexin mix (n=1) for children with FC. In general, studies had an unclear or high risk of bias. Conclusions: Insufficient evidence exists for the use of probiotics in FAPD and FC, only L. rhamnosus GG seems to reduce frequency and intensity of abdominal pain but only in children with irritable bowel syndrome. A better understanding of differences in gut microbiota in health and disease might lead to better probiotic strategies to treat disease.
Effect of nutritional interventions with quercetin, oat hulls, β-glucans, lysozyme and fish oil on performance and health status related parameters of broilers chickens
Torki, M. ; Schokker, D. ; Duijster-Lensing, M. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2018
British Poultry Science 59 (2018)5. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 579 - 590.
Broiler - gene expression - gut microbiota - nutritional interventions - performance - rapeseed meal
1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of technical feed ingredients between 14 and 28 d of age on performance and health status of broilers (d 14–35) fed diets with a high inclusion rate of rapeseed meal as a nutritional challenge.
Green and Black Tea Phenolics : Bioavailability, Transformation by Colonic Microbiota, and Modulation of Colonic Microbiota
Liu, Zhibin ; Bruins, Marieke Elisabeth ; Ni, Li ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2018
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 66 (2018)32. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 8469 - 8477.
bioavailability - black tea phenolics - green tea catechins - gut microbiota - health benefits - microbial metabolism
Monomeric green tea catechin (GTC) and oligomeric, oxidized black tea phenolic (BTP) have shown promising health benefits, although GTC has been more extensively studied than BTP. We review the current knowledge on bioavailability, colonic transformation, and gut microbiota modulatory effects of GTC and BTP. As a result of their similar poor bioavailability in the small intestine and potentially similar metabolites upon colonic fermentation, it seems as if GTC and BTP have similar health effects, although it cannot be excluded that they have different gut microbiota modulatory effects and that BTP gives a poorer yield of bioactive phenolic metabolites upon colonic fermentation than GTC.
Effect of Synbiotic on the Gut Microbiota of Cesarean Delivered Infants : A Randomized, Double-blind, Multicenter Study
Chua, Mei Chin ; Ben-Amor, Kaouther ; Lay, Christophe ; Neo, Anne G.E. ; Chiang, Wei Chin ; Rao, Rajeshwar ; Chew, Charmaine ; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith ; Khemapech, Nipon ; Knol, Jan ; Chongsrisawat, Voranush - \ 2017
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 65 (2017). - ISSN 0277-2116 - p. 102 - 106.
Bifidobacterium breve M-16V - C-section - gut microbiota - prebiotics - probiotics - synbiotics
We determined the effect of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the gut microbiota of cesarean-born infants. Infants were randomized to receive a standard formula (control), the same with scGOS/lcFOS and B. breve M-16V (synbiotic), or with scGOS/lcFOS (prebiotic) from birth until week 16, 30 subjects born vaginally were included as a reference group. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a higher bifidobacteria proportion from day 3/5 (P<0.0001) until week 8 (P=0.041), a reduction of Enterobacteriaceae from day 3/5 (P=0.002) till week 12 (P=0.016) compared to controls. This was accompanied with a lower fecal pH and higher acetate. In the synbiotic group, B. breve M-16V was detected 6 weeks postintervention in 38.7% of the infants. This synbiotic concept supported the early modulation of Bifidobacterium in C-section born infants that was associated with the emulation of the gut physiological environment observed in vaginally delivered infants.
Metabolic in Vivo Labeling Highlights Differences of Metabolically Active Microbes from the Mucosal Gastrointestinal Microbiome between High-Fat and Normal Chow Diet
Oberbach, Andreas ; Haange, Sven Bastiaan ; Schlichting, Nadine ; Heinrich, Marco ; Lehmann, Stefanie ; Till, Holger ; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Kullnick, Yvonne ; Smidt, Hauke ; Frank, Karin ; Seifert, Jana ; Jehmlich, Nico ; Bergen, Martin Von - \ 2017
Journal of Proteome Research 16 (2017)4. - ISSN 1535-3893 - p. 1593 - 1604.
16S rRNA gene sequencing - gut microbiota - metaproteomics - mucus layer - protein-based stable isotope probing
The gastrointestinal microbiota in the gut interacts metabolically and immunologically with the host tissue in the contact zone of the mucus layer. For understanding the details of these interactions and especially their dynamics it is crucial to identify the metabolically active subset of the microbiome. This became possible by the development of stable isotope probing techniques, which have only sparsely been applied to microbiome research. We applied the in vivo stable isotope approach using 15N-labeled diet with subsequent identification of metabolically active bacterial species. Four-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to chow diet (CD, n =15) and high-fat diet (HFD, n =15). After 11 weeks, three animals from each group were sacrificed for baseline characterization of anthropometric and metabolic obesity. The remaining animals were exposed to either a 15N-labeled (n =9) or a 14N-unlabeled experimental diet (n =3). Three rats from each cohort (HFD and CD) were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 72 h. The remaining three animals from each cohort, which received the 14N-unlabeled diet, were sacrificed after 72 h. The colon was harvested and divided into three equal sections (proximal, medial, and distal), and the mucus layer of each specimen was sampled by scraping. We identified the active subset in an HFD model of obesity in comparison with lean controls rats using metaproteomics. In addition, all samples were investigated by 16S rRNA amplicon gene sequencing. The active microbiome of the HFD group showed an increase in bacterial taxa for Verrucomicrobia and Desulfovibrionaceae. In contrast with no significant changes in alpha diversity, time- and localization-dependent effects in beta-diversity were clearly observed. In terms of enzymatic functions the HFD group showed strong affected metabolic pathways such as energy production and carbohydrate metabolism. In vivo isotope labeling combined with metaproteomics provides a valuable method to distinguish the active from the non-active bacterial phylogenetic groups that are relevant for microbiota-host interaction. For morbid obesity such analysis may provide potentially new strategies for targeted pre- or probiotic treatments.
Allostasis and Resilience of the Human Individual Metabolic Phenotype
Ghini, V. ; Saccenti, E. ; Tenori, L. ; Assfalg, M. ; Luchinat, C. - \ 2015
Journal of Proteome Research 14 (2015)7. - ISSN 1535-3893 - p. 2951 - 2962.
nmr metabolomics - gut microbiota - health - stress - biomarkers - nutrition - disease - urine - load - discovery
The urine metabotype of 12 individuals was followed over a period of 8-10 years, which provided the longest longitudinal study of metabolic phenotypes to date. More than 2000 NMR metabolic profiles were analyzed. The majority of subjects have a stable metabotype. Subjects who were exposed to important pathophysiological stressful conditions had a significant metabotype drift. When the stress conditions ceased, the original metabotypes were regained, while an irreversible stressful condition resulted in a permanent metabotype change. These results suggest that each individual occupies a well-defined region in the broad metabolic space, within which a limited degree of allostasis is permitted. The insurgence of significant stressful conditions causes a shift of the metabotype to another distinct region. The spontaneous return to the original metabolic region when the stressful conditions are removed suggests that the original metabotype has some degree of resilience. In this picture, precision medicine should aim at reinforcing the patient's metabolic resilience, that is, his or her ability to revert to his or her specific metabotype rather than to a generic healthy one
The olfactory receptor OR51E1 is present along the gastrointestinal tract of pigs and is modulated by intestinal microbiota
Priori, D. ; Clavenzani, P. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Lalles, J.P. ; Trivisil, P. ; Bosi, P. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)6. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 17 p.
enterotoxigenic escherichia-coli - butyrate-producing bacteria - fatty-acid receptor - net absorption - weaned pigs - odorant receptor - taste receptors - gene-expression - gut microbiota - serotonin
The relevance of the butyrate-sensing olfactory receptor OR51E1 for gastrointestinal (GIT) functioning has not been considered so far. We investigated in young pigs the distribution of OR51E1 along the GIT, its relation with some endocrine markers, its variation with age and after interventions affecting the gut environment and intestinal microbiota. Immuno-reactive cells for OR51E1 and chromogranin A (CgA) were counted in cardial (CA), fundic (FU), pyloric (PL) duodenal (DU), jejunal (JE), ileal (IL), cecal (CE), colonic (CO) and rectal (RE) mucosae. OR51E1 co-localization with serotonin (5HT) and peptide YY (PYY) were evaluated in PL and CO respectively. FU and PL tissues were also sampled from 84 piglets reared from sows receiving either or not oral antibiotics (amoxicillin) around parturition, and sacrificed at days 14, 21, 28 (weaning) and 42 of age. JE samples were also obtained from 12 caesarean-derived piglets that were orally associated with simple (SA) or complex (CA) microbiota in the postnatal phase, and of which on days 26–37 of age jejunal loops were perfused for 8 h with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC), Lactobacillus amylovorus or saline (CTRL). Tissue densities of OR51E1+ cells were in decreasing order: PL=DU>FU=CA>JE=IL=CE=CO=RE. OR51E1+ cells showed an enteroendocrine nature containing gastrointestinal hormones such as PYY or 5HT. OR51E1 gene expression in PL and FU increased during and after the suckling period (p
Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting exhibit poor pre-operative intakes of fruit, vegetables, dietary fibre, fish and vtiman D
Ruiz-Nunez, B. ; Hurk, Y.A.C. van den; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015). - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1466 - 1476.
cardiovascular-disease risk - low-grade inflammation - heart-disease - fatty-acids - eicosapentaenoic acid - gut microbiota - brain-function - life-style - metaanalysis - consumption
CHD may ensue from chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Diet is a modifiable risk factor for both, and its optimisation may reduce post-operative mortality, atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline. In the present study, we investigated the usual dietary intakes of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), emphasising on food groups and nutrients with putative roles in the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. From November 2012 to April 2013, we approached ninety-three consecutive patients (80 % men) undergoing elective CABG. Of these, fifty-five were finally included (84 % men, median age 69 years; range 46–84 years). The median BMI was 27 (range 18–36) kg/m2. The dietary intake items were fruits (median 181 g/d; range 0–433 g/d), vegetables (median 115 g/d; range 0–303 g/d), dietary fibre (median 22 g/d; range 9–45 g/d), EPA+DHA (median 0·14 g/d; range 0·01–1·06 g/d), vitamin D (median 4·9 µg/d; range 1·9–11·2 µg/d), saturated fat (median 13·1 % of energy (E%); range 9–23 E%) and linoleic acid (LA; median 6·3 E%; range 1·9–11·3 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes below recommendations were 62 % (fruits; recommendation 200 g/d), 87 % (vegetables; recommendation 150–200 g/d), 73 % (dietary fibre; recommendation 30–45 g/d), 91 % (EPA+DHA; recommendation 0·45 g/d), 98 % (vitamin D; recommendation 10–20 µg/d) and 13 % (LA; recommendation 5–10 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes above recommendations were 95 % (saturated fat; recommendation <10 E%) and 7 % (LA). The dietary intakes of patients proved comparable with the average nutritional intake of the age- and sex-matched healthy Dutch population. These unbalanced pre-operative diets may put them at risk of unfavourable surgical outcomes, since they promote a pro-inflammatory state. We conclude that there is an urgent need for intervention trials aiming at rapid improvement of their diets to reduce peri-operative risks.
Impact of a novel protein meal on the gastrointesinal microbiota and host transciptome of larval zebrafish Danio rerio
Rurangwa, E. ; Sipkema, D. ; Kals, J. ; Veld, M. ter; Forlenza, M. ; Bacanu, G.M. ; Smidt, H. ; Palstra, A.P. - \ 2015
Frontiers in Physiology 6 (2015). - ISSN 1664-042X - 27 p.
large gene lists - intestinal microbiota - gut microbiota - digestive physiology - solea-senegalensis - metal uptake - sp-nov - fish - expression - iron
Larval zebrafish was subjected to a methodological exploration of the gastrointestinal microbiota and transcriptome. Assessed was the impact of two dietary inclusion levels of a novel protein meal (NPM) of animal origin (ragworm Nereis virens) on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Microbial development was assessed over the first 21 days post egg fertilisation (dpf) through 16S rRNA gene-based microbial composition profiling by pyrosequencing. Differentially expressed genes in the GIT were demonstrated at 21 dpf by whole transcriptome sequencing (mRNAseq). Larval zebrafish showed rapid temporal changes in microbial colonization but domination occurred by one to three bacterial species generally belonging to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The high iron content of NPM may have led to an increased relative abundance of bacteria that were related to potential pathogens and bacteria with an increased iron metabolism. Functional classification of the 328 differentially expressed genes indicated that the GIT of larvae fed at higher NPM level was more active in transmembrane ion transport and protein synthesis. mRNAseq analysis did not reveal a major activation of genes involved in the immune response or indicating differences in iron uptake and homeostasis in zebrafish fed at the high inclusion level of NPM
Severity of atopic disease inversely correlates with intestinal microbiota diversity and butyrate-producing bacteria
Nylund, L. ; Nermes, M. ; Isolauri, E. ; Salminen, S. ; Vos, W.M. de; Satokari, R. - \ 2015
Allergy 70 (2015)2. - ISSN 0105-4538 - p. 241 - 244.
gut microbiota - dermatitis - infants
The reports on atopic diseases and microbiota in early childhood remain contradictory and both decreased and increased microbiota diversity have been associated with atopic eczema. In this study, the intestinal microbiota signatures associated with the severity of eczema in 6-month-old infants were characterized. Further, the changes in intestinal microbiota composition related to the improvement of this disease 3 months later were assessed. The severity of eczema correlated inversely with microbiota diversity (r=-0.54, P=0.002) and with the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria (r= -0.52, P=0.005). During the 3 months follow-up, microbiota diversity increased (P
Inulin-type fructans modulate intestinal Bifidobacterium species populations and decrease fecal short-chain fatty acids in obese women
Salazar, N. ; Dewulf, E.M. ; Neyrinck, A.M. ; Bindels, L.B. ; Cani, P.D. ; Mahillon, J. ; Vos, W.M. de; Thissen, J.P. ; Gueimonde, M. ; Reyes-Gavilán, C.G. de los; Delzenne, N.M. - \ 2015
Clinical Nutrition 34 (2015)3. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 501 - 507.
gradient gel-electrophoresis - protein-coupled receptor - gut microbiota - mice - prebiotics - increases - glucose - diet - pcr - fermentation
Background & aims : Inulin-type fructans (ITF) prebiotics promote changes in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to determine variations on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in obese women treated with ITF and to explore associations between Bifidobacterium species, SCFA and host biological markers of metabolism. Methods Samples were obtained in a randomized, double blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial, with 30 obese women randomly assigned to groups that received either 16 g/day ITF (n = 15) or maltodextrin (n = 15) for 3 months. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of Bifidobacterium spp. was performed in feces by PCR-DGGE and q-PCR, and SCFA profile was analyzed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation analysis was performed between the different variables analyzed. Results The species Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis were significantly increased at the end of the treatment in the prebiotic group (p <0.01) with being B. longum negatively correlated with serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin (p <0.01). Total SCFA, acetate and propionate, that positively correlated with BMI, fasting insulinemia and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) (p <0.05), were significantly lower in prebiotic than in placebo group after the treatment period. Conclusions ITF consumption selectively modulates Bifidobacterium spp. and decreases fecal SCFA concentration in obese women. ITF could lessen metabolic risk factors associated with higher fecal SCFA concentration in obese individuals.
Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation by beta 2 -> 1-Fructans Protects Barrier Function of T84 Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a Chain Length-Dependent Manner
Vogt, L.M. ; Meyer, D. ; Pullens, G. ; Faas, M.M. ; Venema, K. ; Ramasamy, U. ; Schols, H.A. ; Vos, P. - \ 2014
The Journal of Nutrition 144 (2014)7. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1002 - 1008.
cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury - kinase-c isoforms - dietary fiber - bronchial-asthma - tyrosine kinase - dendritic cells - gut microbiota - celiac-disease - fatty-acids - pkc-alpha
Dietary fiber intake is associated with lower incidence and mortality from disease, but the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects are unclear. We hypothesized that beta 2 -> 1-fructan dietary fibers confer protection on intestinal epithelial cell barrier function via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and we studied whether beta 2 -> 1-fructan chain-length differences affect this process. T84 human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers were incubated with 4 beta 2 -> 1-fructan formulations of different chain-length compositions and were stimulated with the proinflammatory phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was analyzed by electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) as a measure for tight junction-mediated barrier function. To confirm TLR2 involvement in barrier modulation by beta 2 -> 1-fructans, ECIS experiments were repeated using TLR2 blocking antibody. After preincubation of T84 cells with short-chain beta 2 -> 1-fructans, the decrease in TEER as induced by PMA (62.3 +/- 5.2%, P <0.001) was strongly attenuated (15.2 8.8%, P <0.01). However, when PMA was applied first, no effect on recovery was observed during addition of the fructans. By blocking TLR2 on the T84 cells, the protective effect of short-chain beta 2 -> 1-fructans was substantially inhibited. Stimulation of human embryonic kidney human TLR2 reporter cells with beta 2 -> 1-fructans induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, confirming that beta 2 -> 1-fructans are specific ligands for TLR2. To conclude, beta 2 -> 1-fructans exert time-dependent and chain length-dependent protective effects on the T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier mediated via TLR2. These results suggest that TLR2 located on intestinal epithelial cells could be a target of beta 2 -> 1-fructan-mediated health effects.