Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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A comparative history of commercial transition in three West African slave trading economies, 1630 to 1860
Dalrymple-Smith, Angus - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema; E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk, co-promotor(en): M. van Rossum. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436199 - 283
slavery - history - colonialism - trade - commodities - gold - law - social change - economic change - west africa - slavernij - geschiedenis - kolonialisme - handel - basisproducten - goud - recht - sociale verandering - economische verandering - west-afrika

The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a result of the British decision to abolish their transatlantic slave trade in 1807 and subsequently persuading or forcing other nations to do the same. This thesis makes two principal contributions to this debate. Firstly, it reviews new evidence which shows that the commercial transition in West Africa’s most important slave exporting regions, the Gold Coast, the Bight of Biafra and the Bight of Benin, can be predicted by the patterns of trade established in previous centuries. It then presents a model of analysis which sets out which interrelated factors shaped their export economies and ultimately determined how they responded to the changing political and economic environment of the Atlantic world from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. This study offers an important comparative, long term quantitative perspective on the transition from slave exports to so-called ‘legitimate commerce’.

Chapter 1 shows that the speed and timing of the nineteenth century commercial transition differed considerably across the case study regions. Along the Gold Coast there was a sudden, and effectively total end to transatlantic slave trading after 1807. In the Bight of Biafra slave exports gradually declined until largely ceasing in the 1830s. Lastly in the Bight of Benin export slavery continued until the 1850s. The chapter argues that earlier studies have tended to ignore long term trends and also lack a comparative approach, as many are focused on individual regions. It then suggests a new model of analysis and dismisses two factors as irrelevant; the British slave trade patrol and changing demands for, or changing supply of, African slaves. The chapter argues that regional variations can be explained by five key factors: 1) the nature and duration of long-term trade relations; 2) the identity of the principal European trade partner; 3) certain aspects of the ecology of the different regions; 4) the regional political contexts; and 5) the development of institutions that either encouraged or discouraged elite participation in non-slave exports.

Chapter 2 provides a broad overview of each case study region’s patterns of trade from the fifteenth to the eighteenth Centuries based on secondary and primary qualitative sources. It then reviews quantitative evidence of commodity trading patterns from the earlier eighteenth century from British and Dutch commodity traders and slaving vessels that bought commodities. It argues that the expansion of slavery in the Bight of Biafra did not crowd out other forms of commerce. On the Gold Coast the early eighteenth century saw continued engagement in commodity exports while the slave trade expanded. However, by the 1780s, both slave and commodity exports seem to have begun to decline. In the Dahomean-controlled area of the Bight of Benin, there is no evidence of slavery crowding out other forms of commerce, as captives were always the only item of trade with the Atlantic world.

Chapter 3 investigates the extent to which the 18th century intensification of the trans-Atlantic slave trade boosted commercial agriculture in the coastal areas of West Africa and in particular in the case study regions. It explores the provisioning strategies of 187 British, French, Dutch and Danish slave voyages conducted between 1681 and 1807, and calls for a major downward adjustment of available estimates of the slave trade induced demand impulse. It shows that during the 18th century, an increasing share of the foodstuffs required to feed African slaves were taken on board in Europe instead of West Africa. However, there was considerable variation in provisioning strategies among slave trading nations and across main regions of slave embarkation. The Bight of Benin never significantly engaged in provisioning trade. Traders along the Gold Coast provided relatively large quantities of food to slaving vessels, but in the Bight of Biafra, British demand stimulated a considerable trade in foodstuffs. The chapter explains these trends and variation in terms of the relative (seasonal) security of European versus African food supplies, the falling relative costs of European provisions and the increasing risks in the late 18th century trade, putting a premium on faster embarkation times.

Chapter 4 uses a newly constructed dataset on the quantities and prices of African commodities on the coast and in British markets over the long eighteenth century and provides new insights into the changing nature of Britain’s non-slave trade. It improves on previous work by Johnson et al. (1990) and finds that earlier estimates of the volume and value of commodity trade have been underestimates and fail to account for regional changes in output. The data suggests that from the 1770s the focus of Britain’s commodity trade shifted from Senegambia to the Bight of Biafra and that in the later eighteenth century non-slave goods were primarily purchased by slave ships, not specialist bi-lateral traders. The chapter argues that these changes were motivated by a number of factors; conflicts between Atlantic powers, the prices of British trade goods and African imports, increasing levels of risk faced by British slave merchants and the fact that traders in the Bight of Biafra were both willing and able to supply desirable commodities.

Part 1 establishes that the Gold Coast had a far long history of commodity trading and seemed to have been moving away from the slave trade at the end of the eighteenth century. The region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey always focused exclusively on slaves. The Bight of Biafra had a considerable non-slave export economy that was growing at the end of the eighteenth century. Part 2 of the thesis applies the model of analysis to the case study regions.

Chapter 5 argues that that for the Gold Coast and more particularly the Asante empire British abolition policies and the slave forts can explain the timing of the end of transatlantic slavery but not why it ended. Following the model of analysis, the chapter shows that the presence of gold determined both long term political development and the nature of the region’s trade relationship with the Atlantic. In addition, gold became essential as a means of marking status and wealth at all levels of society and for domestic exchange. This meant that slaves were always essential for the production of gold, meaning that there was an important competing domestic market for coerced labour. Over the eighteenth-century gold became scarcer leading to slaves being pulled out of the Atlantic market to focus on production. In addition, well-developed trade relations with the interior and a rise in demand from the Islamic states in the Sokoto caliphate led to an expansion of kola exports which demanded yet more labour. Most importantly, the chapter argues that both households and elite groups could profit more from commodity than slave exports which explains the rapid move away from the transatlantic slavery and towards the production of commodities.

In Chapter 6 it is argued that in the Bight of Biafra, the slave and commodity trades were not only compatible but complementary. The region’s riverine transport networks, long established coastal-interior trade relations and suitability for the growing of yams, palm oil and tropical hardwoods meant that the provisioning and commodity trades could function alongside slave exports. The relatively late opening of central Igboland to the Atlantic slave markets meant that the region did not see the influx of wealth in the seventeenth century that spurred the development of states in the other case study areas. Instead the region followed a different institutional path which saw the development small political entities linked together through the Aro trade network. Elites in the interior and at the coast were reliant on trade for both power and status, but not specifically the slave trade. As a result, abolition was not a serious economic shock as commodities and slaves had always been traded side by side. As in Gold Coast both commoners and elites benefited from commodity trading. Atlantic goods allowed many more people to purchase goods to improve their standards of living, while elites benefitted from the less volatile commodity trade. Furthermore, the British state also perhaps unintentionally supported the development of the palm oil trade through its customs policies. Eventually, this led to palm oil crowding out slave exports through greater demands for domestic labour.

Chapter 7 investigates why the region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey only ever exported slaves. It shows that this region possessed no gold and had less favourable geography for commodity exports than the Bight of Biafra. The early expansion of export slavery in the seventeenth century spurred the development of states and elites who were entirely dependent on slave exports to maintain their wealth and power. It led to the development of a militaristic culture and institutions based on large scale slave raiding that were highly effective as a means of controlling and harnessing elite violence, generating wealth and defending the state from powerful external threats and economic competition. The demands of the army and elites took much of the kingdom’s potential labour away from households. In addition, constant warfare led to a serious demographic decline across the region further reducing the amount of available labour. The chapter argues that it was never in the interests of elites to switch to an alternative economic system and there was, until the 1850s, always sufficient external demand. In the end abolition efforts were a necessary condition to ending the slave trade.

Chapter 8 concludes with a summary of the main contributions of thesis; the importance of long term patterns of trade in determining nineteenth century commercial transition and a modified model of analysis to explain the diverging trajectories of the different case study regions. It also argues that the impact of Britain’s abolition campaign should be reassessed. In the Gold Coast and the Bight of Biafra it was not an important factor in ending transatlantic slavery, while in the Bight of Benin it was. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research.

Mission report Kenya : scoping Mission Marine Fisheries Kenya
Hoof, Luc van; Steins, Nathalie A. - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C038/17) - 136
marine fisheries - food security - aquaculture - seaweeds - trade - kenya - zeevisserij - voedselzekerheid - aquacultuur - zeewieren - handel
Mission report Tanzania : scoping mission marine fisheries Tanzania
Hoof, Luc van; Kraan, Marloes - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C004/17) - 66
zeevisserij - visserij - voedselzekerheid - zeewieren - samenwerking - handel - tanzania - marine fisheries - fisheries - food security - seaweeds - cooperation - trade
Upscaling sustainability initiatives in international commodity chains : Examples from cocoa, coffee and soy value chains in the Netherlands.
Ingram, V.J. ; Judge, L.O. ; Luskova, Martina ; Berkum, S. van; Berg, J. van den - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 67) - 125 p.
value chains, soy, cocoa, coffee, policy, trade, development policy, sustainability, upscaling - waardeketenanalyse - basisproducten - cacao - koffie - glycine soja - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - handel - nederland - value chain analysis - commodities - cocoa - coffee - sustainability - trade - netherlands
This study reports on the extent to which sustainability initiatives in the cocoa, coffee and soy value chains
have been scaled up by companies. We have investigated how the private sector can be further stimulated to engage in, sustain and increase their involvement in actions to increase the sustainability of commodity chains with links to the Netherlands. The report analyses the motives for companies to join sustainability initiatives and their reasons for not engaging. It concludes with several recommendations on how government and value-chain stakeholders could further stimulate the scaling up of sustainability initiatives
Investment opportunities in the Ethiopian Vegetables & Potatoes Seed sub-sector
Broek, J.A. van den; Ayana, Amsalu ; Desalegn, Lemma ; Hassena, Mohammed ; Blomne Sopov, M. ; Becx, G.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation
agricultural economics - agricultural sector - business economics - vegetables - potatoes - seeds - trade - investment - agricultural development - ethiopia - east africa - agrarische economie - landbouwsector - bedrijfseconomie - groenten - aardappelen - zaden - handel - investering - landbouwontwikkeling - ethiopië - oost-afrika
The opportunities for vegetable seed sales in Ethiopia are derived from the size and type of the product market. The product market for vegetables in Ethiopia has been growing rapidly, both in terms of crop portfolio, as well as size.
Opportunities for development of the Moringa sector in Bangladesh : Desk-based review of the Moringa value chains in developing countries and end-markets in Europe
Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Maden, E.C.L.J. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report CDI 15-102) - 50
markets - trade - international trade - moringa - exports - european union - bangladesh - south asia - asia - markten - handel - internationale handel - export - europese unie - zuid-azië - azië
Moringa trees in Bangladesh and in other developing countries have great potential in terms of nutrition security and income generation, but often seem to be underutilized. The European market does offer opportunities for those suppliers that are willing to, and capable of, meeting EU regulations. However, entering the EU market for some developing countries like Bangladesh seems to be farfetched at the time of writing. Firstly, awareness around the nutritional value and market potential of Moringa products needs to be raised so farmers and households begin to maximise the returns of Moringa trees. Secondly, a detailed cost and benefit analysis around a Moringa production company should be conducted. Thirdly, upcoming suppliers need to get acquainted with the regulations and standards required when targeting the export market. This also means that suppliers should establish, and nurture, trading relationships with EU importers or even intermediaries since the volume supplied is likely to be limited according to European terms.
Organising trade : a practice-oriented analysis of cooperatives and networks trading cereals in South Mali
Mangnus, E.P.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574311 - 178
coöperaties - voedselcoöperaties - graansoorten - handel - katoen - geschiedenis - platteland - landbouw - agrarische handel - mali - west-afrika - cooperatives - food cooperatives - cereals - trade - cotton - history - rural areas - agriculture - agricultural trade - mali - west africa

Abstract

Farmer organisations have become the centrepiece of pro-poor market development strategies in Africa. Assumed to facilitate scale, quality of produce and professionalism they are regarded as a solution for farmers that are hampered from economic opportunities. In Mali public as well as private actors encourage farmers to trade through one specific organisational form, namely cooperatives. Nevertheless, in reality the landscape is much more diverse. A wide array of organisations can be observed and the models stimulated by external actors do not always succeed in improving the position of farmers. Considering the gap in knowledge, this dissertation poses the following question:

How and in what ways do people organise trading of cereals in South Mali?

The central aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of organisation of food trade in rural markets, by examining how and in what ways people in South Mali organise trade in cereals and sesame. Trading includes the procurement of cereals or sesame, organisation of finance, information gathering, bargaining, the organisation of transport and selling.

Organisation of trade has been studied from different angles. Studies taking a structural approach explain organisation as emerging from context. Studies that approach organisations from an instrumental perspective regard organisation as a means for efficiently solving a shared problem. Both strands provide insights for understanding organisational functioning and performance but leave open questions regarding how people organise to realise trading and why this results in organisational diversity. This thesis examines organising trade by adopting a practice-oriented approach, which has as entry point that organisation takes shape in the realization of everyday practice. Focus is on what people actually do to realise trading.

Two case study organisations are central to the study. Both are typical for how trade in rural Mali is organised. The first is a cooperative engaged in the trading of sesame in Miena, South-East Mali. The second is a cereal trading network in N’golobougou, in the centre of South Mali. Both provide an example of people collaborating and coordinating to perform trading and as such are excellent cases for tracing the formation of organisational traits that explain performance and diversity in trading cereals in South Mali.

Empirical Chapters

Chapter 2 presents a historical overview of how the organisation of trade of cereals and cotton at farmer level developed in Mali on extensive literature research. It focuses on the efforts of the Malian state to organise rural society, how producers responded, and how the interaction between the two shaped organisation. The analysis starts in the 18th century, in which cotton and cereal trade was intertwined and likewise organised. From the colonial period onwards, organisation dynamics in food and export crops evolved distinctly. For both sectors the most important events and changes are detailed. The chapter found that the political economy at stake influences the set of organisational options people can choose from and that imposed models rarely get adopted in practice.

Chapter 3 traces the emergence and development of the sesame cooperative in Miena. It builds on two strands of literature that emphasize the specific socio-historical context of an organisation. The first body highlights the resilience of existing relations and institutions by showing how these get reproduced in new organisations. The second body of literature claims that individuals involved in collective action have the capacity to influence which institutions get reproduced and which new ones get adopted, also called ‘blended’. To collect the data 35 in depth interviews with cooperative members, (ex) officials from the cotton company CMDT, local officers and NGO-workers active in the research location were collected over a period of three months. Time was spent at the weekly market, in village meetings and at peoples’ homes. Moreover 20 informal talks with villagers and traders on the market were afterwards noted down. Three distinct processes - the historical organisation of cotton farmers, the interaction between state and society and the local trade practices - are found to underlie the current functioning of the cooperative. This chapter shows how both the reproduction and blending happen purposively; in order to (continue) performance in trading.

Chapter 4 addresses the question: How do traders in Mali perform collectively? Following the methodological orientation, labelled as technography, the chapter zooms in on the use of skills and know-how by a group of people coordinating the collection and trade of cereals. Data were collected through 24 in-depth interviews with traders and 37 semi-structured interviews with pisteurs and interviews with key resource persons. Moreover, trade practices were observed during 10 market days in a row. The analysis shows that the success of the traders’ network can be explained by: (i) the use of skills and know-how for adapting to changing economic, social and environmental contexts; (ii) the network’s ability to select capable people and distribute the many trading tasks; and (iii) the network’s effective governance, based on a strict code of conduct specific to each role. The chapter shows how rules steering the distribution of tasks and collaboration in the traders’ network emerge out of the daily practice of trading.

Chapter 5 uses evidence from a network of cereal traders in the market of N’golobougou to examine how the characteristics of traders, their positions within different networks, and different kinds of relationships between traders influence performance in trading. 26 traders were extensively interviewed on the history, functioning and the size of their business. Semi-structured interviews focused on their relations in trading. A social network analysis (SNA) is applied to describe the positions of individual traders in the networks and the type of relations that link them. Qualitative analysis is used to understand the motivations underlying their position and collaboration. The findings demonstrate that trading is a complex and multifaceted activity. Within the network distinct networks have emerged to organise the collection of cereals, to arrange finance and to acquire information. Pre-existing social relations facilitate trading but do not guarantee individual success. Proven ability and reputation are equally important in cooperation and relate to the way powerful members of the network acquire a central position, which goes stepwise and takes time.

Conclusions

Collaboration is crucial for trading under the circumstances of rural Mali. Both case studies highlight the role of key individuals who spotted opportunities and mobilised others to collaborate. Different trading activities require specific skills, know-how and tools and people tend to specialise. Most skills are acquired in practice; few of them can be taught by instruction. Accordingly to what is present in terms of capacities, people’s availability and know-how, and tools, groups will distribute tasks among their members.

People also need to coordinate how skills, know-how and tools are distributed over time and space. Trading in South Mali requires bridging of long distances, adaptation to seasonality, securing finance and transport, and finding buyers. The temporal dimension of trading is visible in how traders adapt to seasonality and to how it is adjusted to people’s availability in time. Trading is also spatially situated. Poor infrastructure and long travel distances are characteristic of rural South Mali. Both the cooperative as well as the trading network therefore have a layered structure of actors close to the field, actors in the central village or market where the sesame or cereals are collected, and actors in the city to which the sesame or cereals are transported.

People do not organise in a random constellation. The range of options they can choose from are importantly influenced by the institutions active in decision-making at village level, the relationship between state and rural communities, the social networks people operate in, and the historically developed rules and regulations in market transactions. Also, previous ways of organising play a role in today’s way of organising. The empirical analyses demonstrate that organising trade is ‘path dependent’. Nevertheless, people only reproduce those procedures, habits and actions that are deemed necessary to perform. They blend old and new ways of coordination and collaboration to allow the practice of trade to continue.

The findings in this thesis show that collaboration does not rely on social relations only. Cooperating to achieve a practical end, i.e. to trade, is also skill and competence based. Organisational sustainability depends on how grouped or networked actors coordinate actions in response to changing circumstances and opportunities. Hence, organisational diversity can be understood from the fact that organisation emerges from a situated practice.

Recommendations

Organisation in trade emerges gradually and adaptively from what is present in terms of skills, capacities, know-how and experience in trading. As this is situation specific it is essential to recognize the uniqueness of each organisational form and suggests reconsidering the one-size-fit-all approaches often promoted in development interventions. Imposed organisational structures may be enabling to some extent but they leave little room for exploring the range of possible ways to achieve trading. For understanding how people organise trade it is important to understand the way they perform the actual practice in the specific social and material circumstances. The empirical chapters argue in favour of tutor–apprentice relations between experienced actors and new members, leaving decision-making power and rule setting in the hands of the most experienced traders. Current development projects supporting links between farmers and buyers often aim to be ‘inclusive’ and ‘pro-poor’, meaning that they should be accessible to anyone. The field research shows that organisations in trade in Mali are very selective in membership to assure the group achieves its objectives. Governments and other development actors should be aware of the trade-offs between inclusive, democratic organisational models, and effectiveness and performance in trading.

De Nederlandse visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel : economische analyse van de sector, ontwikkelingen en trends
Beukers, R. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Report LEI 2014-026) - ISBN 9789086157099 - 87
visverwerkende industrie - handel - vis - economische analyse - tendensen - werkgelegenheid - omzet - import - export - fish industry - trade - fish - economic analysis - trends - employment - turnover - imports - exports
Dit onderzoek geeft inzicht in de economische situatie van de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel in Nederland door een analyse van de economische structuur van de sector en de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen. De bedrijven in de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel hadden in 2013 een gezamenlijke omzet van 3.6 miljard euro; een groei van 7% ten opzichte van de omzet in 2009. 70% van de totale omzet van Nederlandse visverwerkende bedrijven en visgroothandels werd behaald uit export; 30% werd gerealiseerd op de binnenlandse markt.
Meerwaarde voor vis
Zaalmink, W. ; Verweij, M. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI publicatie 2015-035 ) - 47
visserij - nederland - belgië - denemarken - circuits - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agro-industriële ketens - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - coöperaties - elektronische handel - winkels - consumenten - handel - fisheries - netherlands - belgium - denmark - sustainability - agro-industrial chains - farm results - cooperatives - electronic commerce - shops - consumers - trade
Deze brochure beschrijft inspirerende voorbeelden van enkele niet-alledaagse afzetmogelijkheden van vis, Het doel is visserijondernemers te stimuleren tot het ontwikkelen van economisch en ecologisch rendabele visketens.
Competitiveness of the EU egg industry. International comparison base year 2013
Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR LEI 2014-041) - ISBN 9789086156962 - 36
eieren - landbouwprijzen - handel - markten - eierproducten - productiekosten - europese unie - marktconcurrentie - voedselveiligheid - eggs - agricultural prices - trade - markets - egg products - production costs - european union - market competition - food safety
In this report the impact of reducing or removing import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2013 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder, the third countries can be competitive on the EU market. In a scenario with a 50% lower import tariff, all third countries have a lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector. In a scenario with zero import tariffs, all third countries have a considerably lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector.
Farmers, traders and a commodity exchange: institutional change in Ethiopian sesame markets
Meijerink, G.W. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789064648274 - 237
sesam - marketing - handel - markten - goederenbeurzen - ethiopië - sesame - marketing - trade - markets - commodity exchanges - ethiopia

Farmers, traders and a commodity exchange -

institutional change in Ethiopian sesame markets

Gerdien W. Meijerink

When one thinks of Ethiopia, sesame is not the first that comes to mind. Sesame, however, is Ethiopia’s second most important agricultural export, and an important income source for many small-scale farmers. Ethiopia’s government established the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) to improve the marketing of sesame.

This study explores the impact of the ECX on the institutions undepinning sesame markets, by interviewing farmers and traders before and after the ECX became mandatory for sesame trade in 2009. It finds that the ECX improved transparency in sesame markets, and as a result improved farmers’ beliefs about opportunistic behaviour of traders, and farmers’ willingness to establish long-term relational contracting with traders. It finds however, that the ECX deteriorated the social capital relations between traders, resulting in a decrease in trade credit between traders.

Boeren, handelaren en een goederenbeurs -

Institutionele cerandering in Ethiopische sesam markten

Gerdien W. Meijerink

Denkend aan Ethiopië, is sesame niet het eerste dat opkomt. Toch is sesam het twee na belangrijkste export product van Ethiopië en een belangijkre bron van inkomsten voor veel kleinschalige boeren. De overheid van Ethiopië heeft de Ethiopische Goederen Beurs (ECX) opgericht om de marketing van sesame te verbeteren.

Deze study verkent de invloed van de ECX op de instituties die sesam markten ondersteunen, door boeren en handelaren te interviewen voor en na het verplicht worden van de ECX voor sesamenhandel in 2009. Het vindt dat de ECX de transparantie in sesam markten heeft verbeterd, waardoor het beeld dat boeren hebben over opportunistich gedrag door handelaren verbeterde, en waardoor boeren sneller geneigd zijn op langere termijn een contractrelatie met handelaren aan te gaan. Het vindt daarentegen ook dat de ECX sociaal kapitaal relaties tussen handelaren heeft doen verslechteren, waardoor er minder handelskrediet tussen handelaren verstrekt wordt.

On the state of business: trade, entrepreneurship and real economic governance in South Sudan
Twijnstra, R.W. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): K. Titeca. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739971 - 196
economische ontwikkeling - ondernemerschap - handel - governance - economie - bedrijven - staatsorganisatie - onafhankelijkheid - politiek - zuid soedan - economic development - entrepreneurship - trade - governance - economics - businesses - state organization - independence - politics - south sudan
This thesis provides an insight into the everyday realities of economic life and regulation in the Republic of South Sudan for the period between 2010 and 2013, encompassing its independence from the Sudan in July 2011 and the period of economic austerity following the January 2012 oil shutdown . By looking at negotiation patterns between individuals and groups of traders, entrepreneurs, tax collectors and procurement officers from the local to the national level, this thesis explores how people within the state and people interacting with the state make sense of, contest and enact the state in this region that now comprises the world’s 193rd ,and therefore the youngest, internationally recognised independent country.
Improving the shallot and hot pepper cultivation system in the coastal plain of Northern Java
Putter, H. de; Witono, A. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (vegIMPACT report 1) - 18
sjalotten - peper - teelt - groenteteelt - indonesië - handel - boerenmarkten - marketing - rentabiliteit - inkomen - jaarrondproductie - aanbod - shallots - pepper - cultivation - vegetable growing - indonesia - trade - farmers' markets - profitability - income - all-year-round production - supply
This report aims to improve cultivation and to enhance farmers' income in the Brebes region of Northern Java. First, a brief description of vegetable cultivation in the Brebes region is given. Also profits of vegetable cultivation are discussed and bottlenecks in the current cultivation system. In shallot and hot pepper cultivation a main constraint is the alternating change in land use. With rice cultivation the land is levelled and flooded and with vegetable cultivation raised beds are made. As a result problems are present with soil fertility, hence high fertilizer rates are applied and poor crop growth is present. Another constraint is the small field size per farm, where only at a few days a year harvest takes place. As a result individual farmers are not able to supply year round large quantities and therefore are unable to make arrangements with traders. In case farmers can organize themselves as a group they can produce year round a good quantity making it interesting for traders to make arrangements with this farmers’ group. Based on the conclusions it is proposed to start up activities to address the following topics: - Permanent vegetable crop cultivation system. - Year round supply of product and direct linking to a market.
Noordzeevissers verkopen hun vis zelf via internet : VersvandeVisser.nl
Eijk, H. van; Wubben, R. ; Taal, C. - \ 2013
Utrecht : InnovatieNetwerk (Rapport / Innovatienetwerk 13.2.318) - ISBN 9789050595025 - 71
vis - markten - zeevisserij - zeevissen - handel - internet - logistiek - fish - markets - marine fisheries - marine fishes - trade - logistics
Vissers kunnen via internet, met een eigen ‘webmarket’, een aanzienlijk hogere omzet en een hogere marge per kilogram vis realiseren in vergelijking met de bestaande verkoopmethode via de visafslag. Met deze nieuwe afzetmogelijkheid in de keten voeren de vissers zelf de regie. De directe relatie met de klant die zo wordt gecreëerd, stelt de visser in staat om meer klantgericht te gaan opereren. De in dit rapport kort uitgewerkte businesscase, webmarket “VersvandeVisser.nl”, verschaft Nederlandse Noordzeevissers inzicht 2 in de rollen, kosten en opbrengsten per ketenschakel. Hiermee is inzichtelijk gemaakt waar mogelijkheden voor vissers liggen om zelf binnen de keten een grotere rol te spelen in het vermarkten van duurzaam gevangen vis, waardoor betere opbrengsten kunnen worden gerealiseerd. Door aan te sluiten op een al opgezette webmarkettool, ’VersvandeKweker.nl’, zou in samenwerking met de visafslag in Scheveningen (UFA, United Fish Auctions) en andere partijen, een pilot moeten worden gestart om rechtstreeks (via internet) verse vis en garnalen aan consumenten en zakelijke klanten te verkopen.
Innovatieve governance-arrangementen : op zoek naar vernieuwing in het groene domein
Selnes, T. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 340) - 104
natuurbeleid - governance - handel - bedrijven - burgers - biodiversiteit - natuurbescherming - nature conservation policy - trade - businesses - citizens - biodiversity - nature conservation
Bestaande overheidsarrangementen voor natuur en het beschermen van biodiversiteit staan onder druk. Nationaal gezien vermindert de steun voor overheidsbeleid en klinkt de roep om meer vermaatschappelijking. Internationaal gezien speelt bij het verduurzamen van productie- en handelsstromen het bedrijfsleven een belangrijke rol en is er een roep naar meer overheid. In dit onderzoek zoeken we voor het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) nieuwe governance-arrangementen. Voor het natuurbeleid liggen er kansen om bijvoorbeeld de energie van maatschappelijke krachten als burgers, bedrijven en NGOs beter te kanaliseren. Om handel te verduurzamen, dient onder meer de aandacht te verschuiven van handelsketens naar meer context gerichte samenwerking en versterking van instituties. Hiermee kan het uitvoerend vermogen, het leervermogen en de legitimiteit versterkt worden
Dutch business opportunities in the Russian agrifood sector; Animal protein sector and Moscow Metropolitan fresh food chain
Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Valeeva, N.I. ; Berkum, S. van - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI memorandum 13-018) - 87
voedselproductie - verse producten - voedselketens - dierlijke eiwitten - beleid inzake voedsel - handel - consumptie - bedrijven - rusland - nederland - kennis - food production - fresh products - food chains - animal proteins - food policy - trade - consumption - businesses - russia - netherlands - knowledge
This report studies the Russian animal protein sector and the Moscow Metropolitan Food Security. It aims at identifying the opportunities for Dutch business to do businesses through exports or via local investments. Public available government policies, papers and interviews with stakeholders are the information sources for this study. Russia has a population of 140m and a robust GDP growth. Doing business indicators indicate several deficiencies in the economic environment in the country, yet the outlook for agricultural development and food consumption patterns show ample business opportunities.
Competitiveness of the EU egg industry
Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI-report : Markets & chains ) - ISBN 9789086155989 - 51
eieren - eipoeder - import - heffingen - invoerrechten - landbouwprijzen - prijzen - europese unie - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - hennen - dierenwelzijn - handel - markten - eggs - dried egg - imports - levies - import levies - agricultural prices - prices - european union - poultry - animal production - hens - animal welfare - trade - markets
Egg producers in the EU have to comply with legislation dealing with environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. From 1 January 2012 keeping hens in conventional cages was prohibited and egg producers had to change to either enriched cages or alternative housing systems. The result of all this legislation is an increase in the cost of producing eggs. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricultural products. These multi- or bilateral negotiations are designed to further liberalise trade by either further reducing import tariffs or removing them altogether. In this report the impact of lowering import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg industry is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2012 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder, the third countries can be competitive on the EU market. In a scenario with a 50% lower import tariff, all third countries have a lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg industry.
Economics of the gum arabic value chain in Senegal
Mujawamariya, G. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger; M.F.C. D'Haase. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733689 - 246
ontwikkelingseconomie - waardeketenanalyse - arabische gom - ontwikkelingslanden - handel - economische analyse - goederenmarkten - senegal - west-afrika - development economics - value chain analysis - gum arabic - developing countries - trade - economic analysis - commodity markets - senegal - west africa

A Gum arabic has an important international market due to its use in various industries. Senegal is a small producing country whose exports are low probably due to problems of developing internal markets resulting from the lack of price incentives. The study’s main aim is to link the market side to the collection side in order to investigate factors influencing the performance of the supply chain of gum arabic. The study is conducted in the Sylvopastoral zone and Eastern Region of Senegal where Acacia senegal trees are found and gum arabic is commercially exploited.

The main findings of the study are that, productivity-enhancing methods have to be adopted; market incentives are fundamental for the continuation of collection; traders in the gum markets are not necessarily exploitative; quality as required by the user may not be directly linked to the visible quality attributes in the field; and that the transition from communal organisation of collection to efficient private collection systems depends mainly on the assessment of economic benefits and costs. However, the importance attached to environmental and social considerations has to be recognised especially in the drylands where gum arabic is collected.

Crowd-sourcing organisational intelligence: capturing the rich experiences of farmers’ organisations
Ton, G. - \ 2012
Farming Matters 28 (2012)2. - ISSN 2210-6499 - p. 20 - 21.
boerenorganisaties - financieren - sponsorschap - handel - coöperaties - ontwikkelingslanden - farmers' associations - financing - sponsorship - trade - cooperatives - developing countries
Although the 2012 UN International Year of Cooperatives is half‑way through, it has already contributed much to showing the importance of farmers’ organisations. Collective action by farmers is very much needed, especially when farms are (or will become) too small to be attractive to trading partners.
Bestrijden Alternaria vermindert dode bloemknoppen bij peer
Wenneker, M. ; Vink, P. ; Bruggen, A.S. van - \ 2011
De Fruitteelt 96 (2011)32. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 16 - 17.
appels - peren - fruitteelt - veilingen - markten - internet - handel - apples - pears - fruit growing - auctions - markets - trade
Binnenkort kunnen fruittelers via de digitale fruitmarktplaats www.service2fruit.com hun appels en peren verkopen en kunnen kopers biedingen uitbrengen op de aangeboden partijen. Een partij in een uithoek van Nederland kan dan opeens in het middelpunt staan en toegankelijk worden voor alle kopers. Op dit moment wordt achter de schermen proefgedraaid met de site die eind augustus wordt gelanceerd.
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