Food safety hazards in the European seaweed chain
Banach, J.L. ; Hoek-van den Hil, E.F. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2020
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 19 (2020)2. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 332 - 364.
contamination - food safety - hazard - seafood - seaweed
Seaweed is a source of protein that can help overcome the anticipated challenges of a growing world population and the current challenges for finding alternatives for animal proteins in the Western diet. Thus far, data on the safety of seaweed for feed and food purposes in the Western world are scattered. This study aimed to review the available knowledge on the presence of food safety hazards in seaweed, including factors influencing their presence, and to prioritize the hazards that may pose a risk to human health. Given current knowledge from the literature, data from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, and results from a stakeholder survey, 22 food safety hazards were ranked into major (4), moderate (5), and minor (13) hazards. Arsenic, cadmium, iodine, and Salmonella were identified as major hazards. Hazards, where data gaps exist, should be carefully assessed. These include pesticide residues, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, marine biotoxins, allergens, micro- and nanoplastics, other pathogenic bacteria, norovirus, and hepatitis E virus. It is recommended to collect more data on these hazards in future studies. Many factors can affect the presence of hazards including seaweed type, physiology, season, harvest and cultivation environment, geography including the location of cultivation, alongside further processing. Moreover, when seaweed is cultivated near industrialized or anthropogenic activities, these activities may negatively influence water quality, which can increase the likelihood of hazards in seaweed. Results of the ranking prioritized hazards can be used to prioritize monitoring programs and adjusted given future additional knowledge covering the data gaps.
Landslide model performance in a high resolution small-scale landscape
Sy, V. De; Schoorl, J.M. ; Keesstra, S.D. ; Jones, K.E. ; Claessens, L.F.G. - \ 2013
Geomorphology 190 (2013). - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 73 - 81.
physically-based model - soil redistribution - new-zealand - shallow landslides - sediment yield - dem resolution - stability - hazard - prediction
The frequency and severity of shallow landslides in New Zealand threatens life and property, both on- and off-site. The physically-based shallow landslide model LAPSUS-LS is tested for its performance in simulating shallow landslide locations induced by a high intensity rain event in a small-scale landscape. Furthermore, the effect of high resolution digital elevation models on the performance was tested. The performance of the model was optimised by calibrating different parameter values. A satisfactory result was achieved with a high resolution (1 m) DEM. Landslides, however, were generally predicted lower on the slope than mapped erosion scars. This discrepancy could be due to i) inaccuracies in the DEM or in other model input data such as soil strength properties; ii) relevant processes for this environmental context that are not included in the model; or iii) the limited validity of the infinite length assumption in the infinite slope stability model embedded in the LAPSUS-LS. The trade-off between a correct prediction of landslides versus stable cells becomes increasingly worse with coarser resolutions; and model performance decreases mainly due to altering slope characteristics. The optimal parameter combinations differ per resolution. In this environmental context the 1 m resolution topography resembles actual topography most closely and landslide locations are better distinguished from stable areas than for coarser resolutions. More gain in model performance could be achieved by adding landslide process complexities and parameter heterogeneity of the catchment.
Presence of Nano-Sized Silica during In Vitro Digestion of Foods Containing Silica as a Food Additive
Peters, R.J.B. ; Kramer, E.H.M. ; Oomen, A.G. ; Rivera, Z.H. ; Oegema, G. ; Tromp, P.C. ; Fokkink, R.G. ; Rietveld, A. ; Marvin, H.J.P. ; Weigel, S. ; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M. ; Bouwmeester, H. - \ 2012
ACS Nano 6 (2012)3. - ISSN 1936-0851 - p. 2441 - 2451.
gastrointestinal uptake - particle-size - bioaccessibility - model - contaminants - absorption - hazard
The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products subjected to in vitro digestion included (i) hot water, (ii) coffee with powdered creamer, (iii) instant soup, and (iv) pancake which either contained silica as the food additive E551, or to which a form of synthetic amorphous silica or 32 nm SiO2 particles were added. The results showed that, in the mouth stage of the digestion, nano-sized silica particles with a size range of 5–50 and 50–500 nm were present in food products containing E551 or added synthetic amorphous silica. However, during the successive gastric digestion stage, this nano-sized silica was no longer present for the food matrices coffee and instant soup, while low amounts were found for pancakes. Additional experiments showed that the absence of nano-sized silica in the gastric stage can be contributed to an effect of low pH combined with high electrolyte concentrations in the gastric digestion stage. Large silica agglomerates are formed under these conditions as determined by DLS and SEM experiments and explained theoretically by the extended DLVO theory. Importantly, in the subsequent intestinal digestion stage, the nano-sized silica particles reappeared again, even in amounts higher than in the saliva (mouth) digestion stage. These findings suggest that, upon consumption of foods containing E551, the gut epithelium is most likely exposed to nano-sized silica.
The respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde in the local lymph node assay: Sensitization by skin exposure, but not by inhalation
Triel, J.J. ; Bree, B.W.J. ; Roberts, D.W. ; Muijser, H. ; Duistermaat, E. ; Woutersen, R.A. ; Kuper, C.F. - \ 2011
Toxicology 279 (2011)1-3. - ISSN 0300-483X - p. 115 - 122.
trimellitic anhydride - occupational asthma - contact allergens - guinea-pigs - hypersensitivity - identification - induction - chemicals - hazard - mice
Previously, a selection of low molecular weight contact and respiratory allergens had tested positive in both a skin and a respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA), but formaldehyde was negative for sensitization by inhalation. To investigate whether this was due to intrinsic properties of aldehyde sensitizers, the structurally related allergen glutaraldehyde (GA) was tested. BALB/c mice were exposed by inhalation to 6 or 18 ppm GA (respiratory LLNA), both generated as a vapor and as an aerosol. Other groups received 0.25% or 2.5% GA on the skin of the ears (skin LLNA). Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were measured in the draining lymph nodes. GA was positive in the skin LLNA and its cytokine profile (IL-4/IFN-gamma) skewed towards a Th2-type immune response with increasing dose. Inhalation exposure did not result in increased lymphocyte proliferation or increased cytokine levels, despite comparable tissue damage (irritation) in the skin and respiratory tract. We hypothesize that the highly reactive and hydrophilic GA oligomerizes in the protein-rich mucous layer of the respiratory tract, which impedes sensitization but still facilitates local irritation. Within the context of risk assessment in respiratory allergy, our results stress the importance of prevention of skin - besides inhalation - exposure to aldehydes like GA.
Perceived risk and strategy efficacy as motivators of risk management strategy adoption to prevent animal diseases in pig farming
Valeeva, N.I. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Backus, G.B.C. - \ 2011
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 102 (2011)4. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 284 - 295.
mouth-disease - biosecurity - farmers - perceptions - dairy - hazard - herds - model
For Dutch fattening pig farms, this study explored (1) farmers’ perceptions towards animal disease risks and animal health risk management; (2) factors underlying farmers’ adoption of the two risk management strategies, namely, biosecurity measures and animal health programs. The risks included endemic and epidemic diseases. Data were obtained through a questionnaire (n = 164). A behavioral model was developed using the Health Belief Model and tested using structural equation modeling. Endemic and epidemic diseases were regarded as an operational and catastrophic risk, respectively. Farmers considered severity of epidemics as slightly more important, compared to endemics. For both disease categories, farmers valued biosecurity measures as a more effective strategy than animal health programs. In the behavioral model, perceived benefits in terms of strategy efficacy was the strongest direct predictor of strategy adoption. Other behavioral components had a minor indirect effect, namely, via perceived benefits, and only in case of biosecurity measures. The indirect effect path did, however, vary per disease category. For endemics, such a path captured the effect of perceived susceptibility on perceived benefits mediated by perceived severity. For epidemics, it only captured the effect of perceived severity on perceived benefits. The results also revealed the importance of innate risk characteristics of farmers in their adoption decisions. In particular, general self-protection behavior directly contributed to decisions to adopt a certain strategy. The obtained knowledge highlights possible ways of improvement of programs aimed at promoting effective risk management strategies.
Dietary exposure to flavouring substances: from screening methods to detailed assessments using food consumption data collected with EPIC-Soft software
Crispim, S.P. ; Geelen, A. ; Donne, C. Le; Vries, J.H.M. de; Sette, S. ; Raffo, A. ; Siebelink, E. ; Ocke, M.C. ; Veer, P. van 't; Leclercq, C. - \ 2010
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 27 (2010)4. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 433 - 446.
coumarin - licorice - health - hazard
This study aimed to compare different methods of assessing dietary exposure to flavourings in the context of a stepwise approach. The dietary exposure to four flavourings - raspberry ketone, glycyrrhizinic acid, coumarin, and caffeine - was determined. When dietary exposure exceeded the safety limits, the need for more detailed assessment using less aggregated data was judged necessary. First, screening methods - maximized survey-derived daily intake (MSDI), single-portion exposure technique (SPET), and modified theoretical added maximum daily intake (mTAMDI) - were applied. Next, individual food consumption data were used for creating models with different levels of detail to identify the foods: a model based on food groups and models based on food items. These were collected from 121 Dutch adults using a standardized 2 24-h dietary recall (EPIC-Soft) in the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) study. Three food item models were developed: without improvements of the flavouring descriptor built in the software; with improvements; and with use of non-specified flavour descriptors. Based on the results of at least one of the three screening methods, refined assessment was necessary for raspberry ketone, glycyrrhizinic acid, and caffeine. When applying the food group model, the need for refinement was indicated for the four flavourings. When applying the food item models, only glycyrrhizinic acid and caffeine presented dietary exposure above the safety limits. In the raspberry ketone case, dietary exposure increased when improvements in food description were considered. The use of non-specified flavour descriptors hardly changed the results. The collection of detailed food consumption data at the individual level is useful in the dietary exposure assessment of these flavourings
An integrated probabilistic framework for cumulative risk assessment of common mechanism chemicals in food: An example with organophosphorus pesticides
Bosgra, S. ; Voet, H. van der; Boon, P.E. ; Slob, W. - \ 2009
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 54 (2009)2. - ISSN 0273-2300 - p. 124 - 133.
carbamate insecticides - exposure assessment - chlorpyrifos - rat - cholinesterase - inhibition - mixtures - hazard - diet
This paper presents a framework for integrated probabilistic risk assessment of chemicals in the diet which accounts for the possibility of cumulative exposure to chemicals with a common mechanism of action. Variability between individuals in the population with respect to food consumption, concentrations of chemicals in the consumed foods, food processing habits and sensitivity towards the chemicals is addressed by Monte Carlo simulations. A large number of individuals are simulated, for which the individual exposure (iEXP), the individual critical effect dose (iCED) and the ratio between these values (the individual margin of exposure, iMoE) are calculated by drawing random values for all variable parameters from databases or specified distributions. This results in a population distribution of the iMoE, and the fraction of this distribution below 1 indicates the fraction of the population that may be at risk. Uncertainty in the assessment is treated as a separate dimension by repeating the Monte Carlo simulations many times, each time drawing random values for all uncertain parameters. In this framework, the cumulative exposure to common mechanism chemicals is addressed by incorporation of the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. The framework is demonstrated by the cumulative risk assessment of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). By going through this example, the various choices and assumptions underlying the cumulative risk assessment are made explicit. The problems faced and the solutions chosen may be more generic than the present example with OPs. This demonstration may help to familiarize risk assessors and risk managers with the somewhat more complex output of probabilistic risk assessment.
Modelling the location of shallow landslides and their effects on landscape dynamics in large watersheds: An application for Northern New Zealand
Claessens, L. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Veldkamp, A. - \ 2007
Geomorphology 87 (2007)1-2. - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 16 - 27.
physically-based model - digital elevation data - slope stability model - land-use - soil redistribution - dem resolution - prediction - hazard - forest - catchment
In this study we propose a model to assess the location of shallow landslides and their impact on landscape development within a timeframe of years to decades. Processes that need to be incorporated in the model are reviewed then followed by the proposed modelling framework. The capabilities of the model are explored through an application for a forested 17 km2 study catchment in Northern New Zealand for which digital elevation data are available with a grid resolution of 25 × 25 m. The model predicts the spatial pattern of landslide susceptibility within the simulated catchment and subsequently applies a spatial algorithm for the redistribution of failed material by effectively changing the corresponding digital elevation data after each timestep on the basis of a scenario of triggering rainfall events, relative landslide hazard and trajectories with runout criteria for failed slope material. The resulting model will form a landslide module within the dynamic landscape evolution model LAPSUS. The model forms a spatially explicit method to address the effects of shallow landslide erosion and sedimentation because digital elevation data are adapted between timesteps and on- and off-site effects over the years can be simulated in this way. By visualization of the modelling results in a GIS environment, the shifting pattern of upslope and downslope (in) stability, triggering of new landslides and the resulting slope retreat by soil material redistribution due to former mass movements can be simulated and assessed.