Dietary supplement for energy and reduced appetite containing the β-agonist isopropyloctopamine leads to heart problems and hospitalisations
Bovee, Toine F.H. ; Mol, Hans G.J. ; Bienenmann-Ploum, Monique E. ; Heskamp, Henri H. ; Bruchem, Gerard D. van; Ginkel, Leendert A. van; Kooijman, Martin ; Lasaroms, Johan J.P. ; Dam, Ruud van; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. - \ 2016
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 33 (2016)5. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 749 - 759.
Biosensor - enforcement - health risks - internet - supplements - web shops
In 2013 the Dutch authorities issued a warning against a dietary supplement that was linked to 11 reported adverse reactions, including heart problems and in one case even a cardiac arrest. In the UK a 20-year-old woman, said to have overdosed on this supplement, died. Since according to the label the product was a herbal mixture, initial LC-MS/MS analysis focused on the detection of plant toxins. Yohimbe alkaloids, which are not allowed to be present in herbal preparations according to Dutch legislation, were found at relatively high levels (400–900 mg kg–1). However, their presence did not explain the adverse health effects reported. Based on these effects the supplement was screened for the presence of a β-agonist, using three different biosensor assays, i.e. the validated competitive radioligand β2-adrenergic receptor binding assay, a validated β-agonists ELISA and a newly developed multiplex microsphere (bead)-based β-agonist assay with imaging detection (MAGPIX®). The high responses obtained in these three biosensors suggested strongly the presence of a β-agonist. Inspection of the label indicated the presence of N-isopropyloctopamine. A pure standard of this compound was bought and shown to have a strong activity in the three biosensor assays. Analysis by LC-full-scan high-resolution MS confirmed the presence of this ‘unknown known’ β3-agonist N-isopropyloctopamine, reported to lead to heart problems at high doses. A confirmatory quantitative analysis revealed that one dose of the preparation resulted in an intake of 40–60 mg, which is within the therapeutic range of this compound. The case shows the strength of combining bioassays with chemical analytical techniques for identification of illegal pharmacologically active substances in food supplements.
Factors Impacting Food Safety Risk Perceptions
Tonsor, G.T. ; Schroeder, T.C. ; Pennings, J.M.E. - \ 2009
Journal of Agricultural Economics 60 (2009)3. - ISSN 0021-857X - p. 625 - 644.
mad-cow-disease - perceived risk - health risks - trust - information - preferences - behavior - attitude - determinants - acceptance
We developed and applied a model of consumer risk perceptions of beef food safety to better understand the underlying drivers of consumer demand for food safety. We show how consumer demographics, country-of-residence, as well as reliance on, and trust in, alternative food safety information sources affect risk perceptions of consumers in Canada, Japan and the United States. Consumers in all three countries have risk perceptions shaped by their level of reliance on observable and credence attribute information. Risk perceptions of consumers in each country are significantly higher for those less trusting of doctors. Moreover, personal and indirect food safety experiences substantially affect risk perceptions. These results are useful to decision-makers in developing more efficient supply chain management strategies and public policies aimed at building or sustaining consumer confidence in food safety