Assessing self-regulation strategies: development and validation of the tempest self-regulation questionnaire for eating (TESQ-E) in adolescents
Vet, E. de; Ridder, Denise de; Stok, M. ; Brunso, K. ; Baban, A. ; Gaspar, T. - \ 2014
International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 11 (2014). - ISSN 1479-5868 - 15 p.
implementation intentions - international survey - obese children - young-adults - family meals - weight-loss - follow-up - behavior - healthy - delay
Background Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self-regulation questionnaire applied to eating (TESQ-E) for adolescents. Methods Study 1 reports a four-step approach to develop the TESQ-E questionnaire (n¿=¿1097). Study 2 was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents from nine European countries (n¿=¿11,392) that assessed the TESQ-E, eating-related behaviors, dietary intake and background characteristics. In study 3, the TESQ-E was administered twice within four weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability (n¿=¿140). Study 4 was a cross-sectional survey (n¿=¿93) that assessed the TESQ-E and related psychological constructs (e.g., motivation, autonomy, self-control). All participants were aged between 10 and 17 years. Results Study 1 resulted in a 24-item questionnaire assessing adolescent-reported use of six specific strategies for healthy eating that represent three general self-regulation approaches. Study 2 showed that the easy-to-administer theory-based TESQ-E has a clear factor structure and good subscale reliabilities. The questionnaire was related to eating-related behaviors and dietary intake, indicating predictive validity. Study 3 showed good test-retest reliabilities for the TESQ-E. Study 4 indicated that TESQ-E was related to but also distinguishable from general self-regulation and motivation measures. Conclusions The TESQ-E provides a reliable and valid measure to assess six theory-based self-regulation strategies that adolescents may use to ensure their healthy eating.
The impact of protein supplementation on cognitive performance in frail elderly
Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Tieland, C.A.B. ; Adam, J.J. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Loon, L.J.C. van; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
European Journal of Nutrition 53 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 803 - 812.
older-adults - alzheimers-disease - nutritional-status - dietary-protein - whey-protein - amino-acids - task-force - healthy - carbohydrate - decline
Purpose Maintenance of cognitive abilities is important for elderly to stay independent. With the aging of the population, the call for modifiable factors is emerging. Dietary protein might improve cognitive performance; however, this has hardly been studied. Therefore, we studied the impact of 24-week dietary protein supplementation on cognitive performance in pre-frail and frail elderly people. Methods Pre-frail and frail elderly subjects, according to the Fried criteria, randomly received a protein drink containing 15 g protein or a placebo drink twice a day. Cognitive performance was measured at baseline and after 24 weeks by means of a sensitive neuropsychological test battery. In addition, reaction time was assessed after both 12 and 24 weeks of intervention. Domain scores were calculated for the domains episodic memory, attention and working memory, information processing speed, and executive functioning. Analyses of covariance were used to determine differences between groups. Linear mixed models were used to determine differences in reaction time over time and per treatment. Results In total, 65 subjects (79 ± 8 years) with a median Mini-Mental State Examination score of 28 (interquartile range 26–30) were included. Reaction time improved more in the protein group (68 ms) than in the placebo group (18 ms, P = 0.03). Dietary protein had no significant effect on any of the cognitive domain scores. Conclusions Protein supplementation might improve reaction time performance in pre-frail and frail elderly, but did not improve other cognitive functions.
Texture and savoury taste influences on food intake in a realistic hot lunch time meal
Forde, C.G. ; Kuijk, N.L. van; Thaler, T. ; Graaf, C. de; Martin, N. - \ 2013
Appetite 60 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 180 - 186.
bite size - energy-intake - portion size - questionnaire - satiation - weight - young - consumption - intensity - healthy
Background: Previous studies with model foods have shown that softer textures lead to higher eating rates and higher ad libitum food intake and higher intensity of salt taste has been shown to result in a lower ad libitum food intake. These observations have yet to be replicated in the context of realistic solid hot meal components. Aim: The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of texture and taste on the ad libitum intake of a realistic hot lunchtime meal. Methods: The meals consisted of potatoes, carrots, steak and gravy varied according to a 2 (texture: mashed vs. whole) x 2 (taste: standard taste vs. strong taste) design. The texture dimension referred to mashed potatoes, mashed carrots and pieces of steak vs. whole boiled potatoes, whole boiled carrots and whole steak. The taste was varied by manipulating the taste intensity of the gravy to be either standard or high intensity savoury taste. The current study used a between groups, single course ad libitum design whereby subjects were recruited for a one off meal study, during which their food intake was measured. The four groups consisted of about 40 subjects (mashed, standard, n = 37; mashed, savoury n = 39; whole, standard n = 40; and whole, savoury n = 41) matched for age (average age = 44.8 +/- 5.3), gender (on average 19 males and 20 females), normal BMI (average 22.6 +/- 1.7) and dietary restraint score (DEBQ score = 1.74 +/- 0.6). Results: The results showed that the estimated means of the intake of the two mashed conditions was 563.2 +/- 20.3 g and intake of whole meal was 527.5 +/- 20.0 g (p = 0.23). The texture effect was significant in the higher savoury condition with an average of 91 g less food consumed in the solid-savoury meal than in the mashed savoury meal. This effect was not replicated in the standard gravy condition, with no significant difference between solid and mashed textures. This was reflected in an interaction effect that was approaching significance (p = 0.051). The estimated mean eating rate in the two mashed conditions was 57.0 +/- 2.5 g and was significantly higher than the whole meal condition (47.2 +/- 2.5 g (p <0.05), with no difference in eating rate between the standard and savoury gravy conditions. Discussion: Although interpretation was made difficult by the between groups design and the interaction between taste * texture, the results nonetheless confirm the effect of texture on eating rate and ad libitum intake for solid savoury meal components. The impact of taste on ad libitum intake of a solid meal remains unclear. We conclude that people consumed more of the meal when the food was simultaneously mashed and savoury. Food texture may be used to produce slower eating rates that result in a reduced overall energy intake within a realistic hot lunchtime meal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Genome sequence of the naturally plasmid-free Lactobacillus plantarum strain NC8 (CCUG 61730)
Axelsson, L. ; Rud, I. ; Naterstad, K. ; Blom, H. ; Renckens, B. ; Boekhorst, L.J.S. ; Kleerebezem, M. ; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Siezen, R.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Bacteriology 194 (2012)9. - ISSN 0021-9193 - p. 2391 - 2392.
inducible gene-expression - lactic-acid bacteria - sakei - fermentations - diversity - vectors - healthy - mucosa - wcfs1
Lactobacillus plantarum is a highly versatile lactic acid bacterium found in various ecological niches, such as fermented vegetable, meat, and dairy products and the gastrointestinal tract. We sequenced the genome of L. plantarum NC8, a naturally plasmid-free strain, which has been used as a model strain in many laboratories worldwide.
Development of systems biology-oriented biomarkers by permuted stepwise regression for the monitoring of seasonal allergic rhinitis treatment effects
Baars, E.W. ; Nierop, A.F.M. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Immunological Methods 378 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0022-1759 - p. 62 - 71.
surrogate end-points - regulatory t-cells - gene polymorphisms - cytokine - immunotherapy - definitions - responses - patterns - children - healthy
Background: The immune system, a complex set of integrated responses, often cannot be explained, predicted, or monitored by examining its separate components as biomarkers. Combining different components may therefore be a suitable approach to develop relevant biomarkers reflecting immune system functioning in an appropriate way. Methods: Here we compute and test pattern variables that should reflect immune system functioning on the systems level. Computation was based on a dataset (from a randomized controlled trial comparing two routes of administration) of allergen-specifically induced expression levels of cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) and symptom severity scores from 22 seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) patients measured before and after six weeks of treatment with medicinal products containing Citrus and Cydonia. By means of stepwise regression analyses we explored and tested pattern variables of the immunological data using permuted stepwise regression (PStR) to distinguish optimally between (immunological) baseline and post-baseline data for the whole treatment group (22 patients) and the two separate treatment groups (11 patients in each group). The validity of the stepwise selection method for the computed pattern variables was tested by means of random permutation tests and evaluated with the cross-validated correct rate of classification (CV correct). Results: For the total group a pattern variable was computed with three variables: IL-10 (day 7), TNF-alpha (day 1) and IL-10 (day 1) (CV correct: 091; p
The effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety
Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Mars, M. ; Finlayson, G. ; Blundell, J.E. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
The British journal of nutrition 106 (2011)5. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 779 - 788.
sensory specific satiety - appetite control - whey-protein - humans - carbohydrate - liking - thermogenesis - preferences - healthy - fat
It is posed that protein intake is tightly regulated by the human body. The role of sensory qualities in the satiating effects of protein, however, requires further clarification. Our objective was to determine the effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety. We used a cross-over design whereby sixty healthy, unrestrained subjects (twenty-three males and thirty-seven females) with a mean age of 20·8 (sd 2·1) years and a mean BMI of 21·5 (sd 1·6) kg/m2 were offered one of four isoenergetic preloads (rice meal) for lunch: two low in protein (about 7 % energy derived from protein) and two high in protein (about 25 % energy from protein). Both had a sweet and savoury version. At 30 min after preload consumption, subjects were offered an ad libitum buffet, consisting of food products differing in protein content (low/high) and taste (sweet/savoury). In addition, the computerised Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ) was run to assess several components of food reward. The results showed no effect of protein content of the preloads on subsequent food choice. There was an effect of taste; after eating the savoury preloads, choice and intake of sweet products were higher than of savoury products. No such preference was seen after the sweet preloads. No differences in satiety were observed. To conclude, within one eating episode, within-meal protein content in these quantities seems not to have an effect on subsequent food choice. This appears to be mostly determined by taste, whereby savoury taste exerts the strongest modulating effect. The results of the LFPQ provided insight into underlying processes
Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?
Kleef, E. van; Shimizu, M. ; Wansink, B. - \ 2011
International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 8 (2011). - ISSN 1479-5868 - 10 p.
physical-activity - social-behavior - self-esteem - healthy - weight - adolescents - validation - activation - mechanisms - children
Background: Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods: Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results: Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions: These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating
Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach
Wijnands, L.M. ; Pielaat, A. ; Dufrenne, J.B. ; Zwietering, M.H. ; Leusden, F.M. van - \ 2009
Journal of Applied Microbiology 106 (2009)1. - ISSN 1364-5072 - p. 258 - 267.
acid tolerance response - gastrointestinal transit - hemolysin bl - low-ph - healthy - prevalence - strains - growth - spores - foods
Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic and psychrotrophic strains isolated from food and faeces from healthy and ill individuals, in simulated gastric conditions was determined using decimal reduction times at low pH (DpH). Subsequently inactivation rates were calculated. Inclusion of the inactivation rates into models describing the course of the gastric pH after the consumption of meal of solid food and the transfer of food from the stomach to the small intestine resulted in numbers of viable Bacillus cereus vegetative cells able to pass the stomach. Conclusions: According to the model, 3¿26% of the ingested vegetative cells from Bacillus cereus may survive the gastric passage, dependent on the growth phase of the vegetative cells, the type of strains, and the age of the consumer. Significance and Impact of the Study: Vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus may be involved in the onset of diarrhoeal disease to a greater extent than expected since up to 26% of the ingested cells survive simulated gastric conditions.
Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior
Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Graaf, C. de; Dijksterhuis, G.B. - \ 2008
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 40 (2008)5. - ISSN 1499-4046 - p. 311 - 316.
planned behavior - vegetable consumption - eating behavior - self-efficacy - decisions - attitudes - healthy - humans
Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed a questionnaire that evaluated several dietary constructs. Setting Worksite cafeterias. Participants Office employees in the Netherlands (N = 585, 65% male, mean age 39.6 years [standard deviation = 9.2], 83% highly educated). Main Outcome Measures Snack choice intentions and actual snack choices (healthful vs unhealthful). Demographic and dietary constructs. Analysis Student t tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression (P <.05). Results Forty-nine percent of the participants (n = 285) intended to choose a healthful snack. Of this group, 27% (n = 78) chose an unhealthful snack instead. Ninety-two percent (n = 276) of the unhealthful intenders did indeed choose an unhealthful snack. None of the dietary constructs significantly predicted the failure to enact a healthful snack choice intention. Conclusions and Implications Although a substantial discrepancy between healthful intentions and actual snack choice was demonstrated, the evaluated constructs do not adequately measure the psychological process by which intention is converted into practice. Further studies are required to further investigate this process.
Spores from mesophilic Bacillus cereus strains germinate better and grow faster in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions than spores from psychrotrophic strains
Wijnands, L.M. ; Dufrenne, J.B. ; Zwietering, M.H. ; Leusden, F.M. van - \ 2006
International Journal of Food Microbiology 112 (2006)3. - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 120 - 128.
hemolysin bl - enterotoxin - foods - psychrotolerant - enumeration - stability - healthy - cells - women - men
The species Bacillus cereus, known for its ability to cause food borne disease, consists of a large variety of strains. An important property for discrimination of strains is their growth temperature range. Psychrotrophic strains can grow well at refrigerator temperatures but grow at 37 °C with difficulty. Mesophilic strains on the other hand are unable to grow below 10 °C, but grow well at 37 °C. Spores of six psychrotrophic and six mesophilic strains were investigated for their ability to survive and grow in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids, mimicking the conditions in the gastro-intestinal tract. The germination potential of psychrotrophic and mesophilic spores in simulated intestinal fluid does not differ much. Under conditions simulating the gastro-intestinal passage, 5 out of 6 mesophilic strains showed growth, and only 2 out of 6 psychrotrophic strains. Temperature (37 °C) and simulated gastro-intestinal conditions together influenced germination and growth