Behavioural strategies to control the amount of food selected and consumed
Poelman, M.P. ; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Velema, E. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Steenhuis, I.H.M. - \ 2014
Appetite 72 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 156 - 165.
weight-control behaviors - portion size - energy-intake - obesity epidemic - healthy women - young-adults - older-adults - meal intake - consumption - television
Several factors within the food environment may stimulate overconsumption. The present study aimed to (1) identify behavioural strategies to cope with this environment to control the amount of food consumed, (2) examine the feasibility and usefulness of the strategies, and (3) evaluate the association between the strategies and body mass index (BMI). After the literature was screened for evidence of factors that contribute to the consumption of large amounts of food, 32 behavioural strategies were identified to overcome these influences (study 1). Subjectively reported feasibility and usefulness of the 32 behavioural strategies in weight management were explored using a pretest post-test study (study 2: n = 52). Additionally, two cross-sectional questionnaire studies (study 3a: n = 120 and study 3b: n = 278) were conducted to evaluate the association between the 32 behavioural strategies and BMI. The strategies were subjectively reported as feasible and useful in weight management. Frequent use of strategies discriminated non-overweight from overweight individuals, but did not discriminate overweight from obese individuals. In conclusion, the findings provided preliminary evidence for the acceptability and validity of the strategies. The effectiveness of the strategies for controlling the amount consumed should be further investigated, especially in overweight and obese participants.
Human milk: a source of more life than we imagine
Jeurink, P.V. ; Bergenhenegouwen, J. van; Jimenez, E. ; Knippels, L.M.J. ; Fernandez, L. ; Garssen, J. ; Knol, J. ; Rodriguez, J.M. ; Martin, R. - \ 2013
Beneficial Microbes 4 (2013)1. - ISSN 1876-2883 - p. 17 - 30.
lactic-acid bacteria - human breast-milk - fragment-length-polymorphism - human skin microbiome - healthy women - infectious mastitis - dendritic cells - infant gut - staphylococcus-epidermidis - intestinal microbiota
The presence of bacteria in human milk has been acknowledged since the seventies. For a long time, microbiological analysis of human milk was only performed in case of infections and therefore the presence of non-pathogenic bacteria was yet unknown. During the last decades, the use of more sophisticated culture-dependent and -independent techniques, and the steady development of the -omic approaches are opening up the new concept of the 'milk microbiome', a complex ecosystem with a greater diversity than previously anticipated. In this review, possible mechanisms by which bacteria can reach the mammary gland (contamination versus active migration) are discussed. In addition, the potential roles of human milk for both infant and maternal health are summarised. A better understanding of the link between the milk microbiome and health benefit, the potential factors influencing this relationship and whether or not it can be influenced by nutrition is required to open new avenues in the field of pregnancy and lactation.
Consumption with Large Sip Sizes Increases Food Intake and Leads to Underestimation of the Amount Consumed
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
increased meal intake - energy-intake - portion size - bite size - cognitive-factors - healthy women - satiety - fat - satiation - appetite
Background A number of studies have shown that bite and sip sizes influence the amount of food intake. Consuming with small sips instead of large sips means relatively more sips for the same amount of food to be consumed; people may believe that intake is higher which leads to faster satiation. This effect may be disturbed when people are distracted. Objective The objective of the study is to assess the effects of sip size in a focused state and a distracted state on ad libitum intake and on the estimated amount consumed. Design In this 3×2 cross-over design, 53 healthy subjects consumed ad libitum soup with small sips (5 g, 60 g/min), large sips (15 g, 60 g/min), and free sips (where sip size was determined by subjects themselves), in both a distracted and focused state. Sips were administered via a pump. There were no visual cues toward consumption. Subjects then estimated how much they had consumed by filling soup in soup bowls. Results Intake in the small-sip condition was ~30% lower than in both the large-sip and free-sip conditions (P
Fortification Iron as Ferrous Sulfate Plus Ascorbic Acid Is More Rapidly Absorbed Than as Sodium Iron EDTA but Neither Increases Serum Nontransferrin-Bound Iron in Women
Troesch, B. ; Egli, I. ; Zeder, C. ; Hurrell, R.F. ; Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2011
The Journal of Nutrition 141 (2011)5. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 822 - 827.
double stable-isotope - ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - revised recommendations - breakfast meal - healthy women - absorption - plasma - transferrin - infants - quantification
The absorption profile of iron fortificants may be a determinant of their ability to generate nontransferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and, thus, their potential safety. Ferrous iron may be absorbed more rapidly than chelated ferric iron, but differences at the fortification level cannot be distinguished with nonisotopically labeled serum iron curves. Using stable isotope appearance curves (SIAC) in serum, we measured iron absorption profiles from FeSO(4) with ascorbic acid (AA) and from NaFeEDTA, as well as the serum hepcidin and NTBI response following the meals. Healthy women (n = 16) were given 6 mg oral iron as labeled FeSO(4) and NaFeEDTA with a maize porridge using a crossover design. SIAC, NTBI, and serum hepcidin were measured over 8 h after the meal. Iron from FeSO(4) plus AA was more rapidly absorbed, resulting in a 35% greater relative AUC during the first 2 h than for NaFeEDTA (P <0.001). Median (95% CI) fractional iron absorption from the FeSO(4)- and NaFeEDTA-fortified meals was 15.2% (11.0-19.5) and 6.0% (5.0-9.2), respectively (P <0.001). In response to the FeSO(4)-fortified meal, here was an similar to 60% increase in median serum hepcidin (P <0.05) but no significant change in NTBI. There was no significant change in serum hepcidin or NTBI after the NaFeEDTA-fortified meal. SIAC are a useful new tool to compare iron absorption profiles from different iron compounds in fortified foods. Even with the use of a very well absorbed ferrous iron compound, iron fortification in this population does not increase NTBI, suggesting a low risk for adverse health consequences. J. Nutr. 141: 822-827, 2011.
The effect of texture differences on satiation in 3 pairs of solid foods
Zijlstra, N. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
Appetite 55 (2010)3. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 490 - 497.
physical state - healthy women - energy-intake - body-weight - meal intake - eating rate - carbohydrate - viscosity - satiety - others
This study explored the effect of texture differences on satiation (ad libitum food intake) in 3 pairs of solid foods. Test products were specially developed luncheon meat, meat replacers and sweets. Each food consisted of a "hard" and "soft" version, expected to lead to different eating rates and consequently to differences in oral sensory exposure time. One hundred and six subjects participated in 7 sessions. During the first sessions, subjects consumed the products ad libitum while watching a movie in a cinema. During the last session, eating rate of all products was measured. Mean intake did not differ significantly between the hard and soft version for any of the products, but subjects who ate more of the soft luncheon meat significantly outnumbered subjects who ate more of the hard version. Eating rate was significantly slower for the hard than for the soft luncheon meat (21±10 vs. 25±13g/min); no differences were found for the other food types. Ad libitum intake was twice as high in the highest versus the lowest quartile of eating rate (p
Isolation of bifidobacteria from breast milk and assessment of the bifidobacterial population by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative real-time PCR
Martin, R. ; Jimenez, E. ; Heilig, G.H.J. ; Fernandez, L. ; Marin, M.L. ; Zoetendal, E.G. ; Rodriguez, J.M. - \ 2009
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75 (2009)4. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 965 - 969.
formula-fed infants - 16s ribosomal-rna - streptococcus-thermophilus - gut microbiota - healthy women - human skin - diversity - bacterial - diarrhea - identification
The objective of this work was to elucidate if breast milk contains bifidobacteria and whether they can be transmitted to the infant gut through breastfeeding. Twenty-three women and their respective infants provided samples of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 4 to 7 after birth. Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates from specific media with typical bifidobacterial shapes were identified to the genus level by F6PPK (fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase) assays and to the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bifidobacterial communities in breast milk were assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and their levels were estimated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRTi-PCR). Bifidobacteria were present in 8 milk samples and 21 fecal samples. Bifidobacterium breve, B. adolescentis, and B. bifidum were isolated from milk samples, while infant feces also contained B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum. PCR-DGGE revealed the presence of one to four dominant bifidobacterial bands in 22 milk samples. Sequences with similarities above 98% were identified as Bifidobacterium breve, B. adolescentis, B. longum, B. bifidum, and B. dentium. Bifidobacterial DNA was detected by qRTi-PCR in the same 22 milk samples at a range between 40 and 10,000 16S rRNA gene copies per ml. In conclusion, human milk seems to be a source of living bifidobacteria for the infant gut
Relationship of C-reactive protein with components of the metabolic syndrome in normal-weight and overweight elderly
Hoekstra, T. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Kluft, C. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2005
Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 15 (2005)4. - ISSN 0939-4753 - p. 270 - 278.
plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 - insulin-resistance syndrome - necrosis-factor-alpha - adipose-tissue - cardiovascular-disease - postmenopausal women - obese subjects - healthy women - risk-factors - cytokines
C-reactive protein (CRP) is known to be elevated in the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to explore in more detail the relationship between CRP and other components of the metabolic syndrome in a general population of 605 Dutch elderly individuals aged 65¿84 years. Methods and results Data were collected on body mass index (BMI), plasma CRP, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), serum insulin, serum lipids, blood pressure, lifestyle and medical history. CRP was log-transformed (ln-CRP) to improve normality. Associations of ln-CRP with components of the metabolic syndrome were studied by multivariate linear regression analysis, in strata of gender and overweight status, with adjustment for age, physical activity, and smoking habits. A total of 322 subjects (53%) were overweight (BMI ¿25 kg/m2). Conclusions In normal-weight women, ln-CRP was significantly associated with BMI, PAI-1, serum insulin, and HDL-cholesterol. In overweight women, however, these relationships were weak and not statistically significant. Findings were similar in men, although less pronounced than in women. Our data suggest that the role of CRP in the metabolic syndrome is modified by the amount of body fat.
Quantifying folate bioavailability: a critical appraisal of methods
Boonstra, A. ; Verhoef, P. ; West, C.E. - \ 2004
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 7 (2004)5. - ISSN 1363-1950 - p. 539 - 545.
neural-tube defects - plasma homocysteine concentrations - deuterium-labeled monoglutamyl - coronary-heart-disease - folic-acid - relative bioavailability - supplemental folate - alzheimers-disease - controlled-trial - healthy women
Purpose of review Dietary reference intakes for folate rely on a good estimate of folate bioavailability from the general diet. In this review, current methods for quantifying the bioavailability of dietary folate and specific folate vitamers in humans are reviewed. Emphasis is on isotopic labeling techniques that have been developed during the past 15 years. Recent findings Most reported studies applied single-dose designs, in which blood or urine concentrations of folate are measured for several hours after oral folate administration. To obtain a measurable biochemical response, however, relatively high doses of folic acid are administered and individuals are often saturated with large doses of folic acid prior to study. The effect of this on folate absorption and metabolism is poorly understood. Therefore, study designs in which multiple oral doses are administered are preferred. Several such studies, both with unlabeled and isotopically labeled folic acid, are discussed. Although many studies have been performed on the bioavailability of specific folate compounds and of folate from single foods, reliable data in which the bioavailability of folate from total diets have been measured are currently lacking. Summary A multiple oral dose design is the best approach for measuring folate bioavailability because there are several serious drawbacks to designs based on the use of a single oral dose. Studies on folate bioavailability from total diets are urgently required in order to evaluate current recommendations for folate intake.