Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?
Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J. ; Ripken, D. ; Hendriks, H.F. ; Masclee, A.A.M. - \ 2015
International Journal of Obesity 39 (2015). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 235 - 243.
glucagon-like peptide-1 - food-intake - hormone-release - energy-intake - antropyloroduodenal motility - gastrointestinal hormones - intestinal motility - duodenal glucose - plasma-levels - healthy-men
Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ileal infusion of sucrose and casein on food intake, release of GI peptides, gastric emptying rate and small-bowel transit time with safflower oil as positive control.Design:This randomized, single-blind, crossover study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26.4±2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8±0.4¿kg¿m-2) who were intubated with a naso-ileal catheter. Thirty minutes after the intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing control ((C) saline), safflower oil ((HL) 51.7¿kcal), low-dose casein ((LP) 17.2¿kcal) or high-dose casein ((HP) 51.7¿kcal), low-dose sucrose ((LC) 17.2¿kcal) and high-dose sucrose ((HC) 51.7¿kcal), over a period of 90¿min. Food intake was determined during an ad libitum meal. Visual analogue score questionnaires for hunger and satiety and blood samples were collected at regular intervals.Results:Ileal infusion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate resulted in a significant reduction in food intake compared with control (HL: 464.3±90.7¿kcal, P
A high-fat SFA, MUFA, or n3 PUFA challenge affects the vascular response and initiates an activated state of cellular adherence in lean and obese middle-aged men
Esser, D. ; Dijk, S.J. van; Oosterink, E. ; Müller, M.R. ; Afman, L.A. - \ 2013
The Journal of Nutrition 143 (2013)6. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 843 - 851.
triglyceride-rich lipoproteins - postprandial lipemia - nonfasting triglycerides - cardiovascular-disease - arterial stiffness - oxidative stress - healthy-men - young men - dietary - women
BMI and fatty acid type affect postprandial metabolic TG responses, but whether these factors also affect vascular, inflammatory, and leukocyte adherence responses remains unclear. We therefore compared those postprandial responses between lean and obese men after 3 high-fat challenges differing in fatty acid composition. In a crossover double-blind study, 18 lean (BMI: 18–25 kg/m2) and 18 obese (BMI >29 kg/m2) middle-aged men received 3 isocaloric high-fat milkshakes containing 95 g fat (88% of energy), either high in SFAs (54% of energy/total fat), MUFAs (83% of energy/total fat), or n3 (omega-3) PUFAs (40% of energy/total fat). Hemodynamics, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte cell surface adhesion markers, and plasma cytokines involved in vascular adherence, coagulation, and inflammation were measured before and after consumption of the milkshakes. In both groups and after all shakes were consumed, AIX decreased; plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) 1, sICAM3, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM) 1, and interleukin-8 increased; monocyte CD11a, CD11b, and CD621 expression increased; neutrophil CD11a, CD11b, and CD621 expression increased; and lymphocyte CD62l expression increased (P <0.05). Lymphocyte CD11a and CD11b expression decreased in lean participants after consumption of all shakes but did not change in obese participants (P <0.05). Obese participants had a less pronounced decrease in heart rate after the consumption of all shakes (P <0.05). MUFA consumption induced a more pronounced decrease in blood pressure and AIX compared with the other milkshakes in both lean and obese participants (P <0.05). High-fat consumption initiates an activated state of cellular adherence and an atherogenic milieu. This response was independent of fatty acid type consumed or of being lean or obese, despite the clear differences in postprandial TG responses between the groups and different milkshakes. These findings suggest that in addition to increased TGs, other mechanisms are involved in the high-fat consumption–induced activated state of cellular adherence.
Leptin and soluble leptin receptor in risk of Nutrition cohort
Aleksandrova, K. ; Boeing, H. ; Jenab, M. ; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B. ; Jansen, E. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Rinaldi, S. ; Fedirko, V. ; Romieu, I. ; Riboli, E. - \ 2012
Cancer Research 72 (2012)20. - ISSN 0008-5472 - p. 5328 - 5337.
rectal-cancer - postmenopausal women - insulin-resistance - plasma leptin - colon-cancer - healthy-men - obesity - humans - participants - adiponectin
Leptin, a peptide hormone produced primarily by the adipocytes, is hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) may regulate leptin's physiologic functions; however its relation to CRC risk is unknown. This study explored the association of leptin and sOB-R with risk of CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 1,129 incident CRC cases (713 colon, 416 rectal) were matched within risk sets to 1,129 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). After multivariable adjustment including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and baseline leptin concentrations, sOB-R was strongly inversely associated with CRC (RR comparing the highest quintile vs. the lowest, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.40–0.76; Ptrend = 0.0004) and colon cancer (RR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.28–0.63, Ptrend = 0.0001); whereas no association was seen for rectal cancer (RR adjusted for BMI and waist circumference, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.48–1.44, Ptrend = 0.38). In contrast, leptin was not associated with risk of CRC (RR adjusted for BMI and waist circumference, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.56–1.29, Ptrend = 0.23). Additional adjustments for circulating metabolic biomarkers did not attenuate these results. These novel findings suggest a strong inverse association between circulating sOB-R and CRC risk, independent of obesity measures, leptin concentrations, and other metabolic biomarkers. Further research is needed to confirm the potentially important role of sOB-R in CRC pathogenesis.
Use of satiety peptides in assessing the satiating capacity of foods
Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
Physiology and Behavior 105 (2012)2. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 483 - 488.
glucagon-like peptide-1 - energy-intake - promotes satiety - obese subjects - healthy-men - appetite - humans - cholecystokinin - glp-1 - pyy3-36
Foods differ in their satiating capacity. Satiety peptides may help to provide evidence for biological mechanisms behind these differences. The aim of this paper was to discuss the physiological relevance of three individual appetite peptides, i.e. CCK, GLP-1 and PYY, in assessing the satiating capacity of foods. A literature research was conducted on CCK, GLP-1, PYY and satiety; effective exogenous infusion studies and endogenous production studies, i.e. changes induced by foods, were identified. The relative changes in blood concentrations in these studies were compared in order to assess an indication of the physiological relevance of the peptides. Relative changes in the two types of studies investigating CCK overlapped, i.e. increases in serum were 3 to 14-fold in effective exogenous studies (n = 7) and 2 to 8-fold in endogenous production studies (n = 9). The relative changes in GLP-1 and PYY did not overlap; GLP-1: 4 to 16 fold in effective exogenous studies (n = 4) and no effect to 4 fold in endogenous production studies (n = 38). PYY: 3 to 11-fold in effective exogenous studies (n = 14) and no effect to 2-fold in endogenous production studies (n = 10). GLP-1 and PYY show effects on satiety at supra-physiological dosages, they are not likely to contribute individually to a difference in satiating capacity of foods and can therefore not be interpreted in isolation. The effects of CCK are likely to be in the physiological range and therefore may have an individual contribution to a difference in satiating capacity between foods
Ten Repeat Collections for Urinary Iodine from Spot Samples or 24-Hour Samples Are Needed to Reliably Estimate Individual Iodine Status in Women
Konig, F. ; Andersson, M. ; Hotz, K. ; Aeberli, I. ; Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2011
The Journal of Nutrition 141 (2011)11. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2049 - 2054.
biological variation - iodine/creatinine ratio - pregnant-women - dietary iodine - thyroid volume - healthy-men - excretion - population - creatinine - variability
Although the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is a good indicator of iodine status in populations, there is no established biomarker for individual iodine status. If the UIC were to be used to assess individuals, it is unclear how many repeat urine collections would be needed and if the collections should be spot samples or 24-h samples. In a prospective, longitudinal, 15-mo study, healthy Swiss women (n = 22) aged 52-77 y collected repeated 24-h urine samples (total n = 341) and corresponding fasting, second-void, morning spot urine samples (n = 177). From the UIC in spot samples, 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was extrapolated based on the age- and sex-adjusted iodine:creatinine ratio. Measured UIE in 24-h samples, estimated 24-h UIE, and UIC in spot samples were (geometric mean +/- SD) 103 +/- 28 mu g/24 h, 86 +/- 33 mu g/24 h, and 68 +/- 28 mu g/L, respectively, with no seasonal differences. Intra-individual variation (mean CV) was comparable for measured UIE (32%) and estimated UIE (33%). The CV tended to be higher for the spot UIC (38%) than for the estimated 24-h UIE (33%) (P = 0.12). In this population, 10 spot urine samples or 24-h urine samples were needed to assess individual iodine status with 20% precision. Spot samples would likely be preferable because of their ease of collection. However, the large number of repeated urine samples needed to estimate individual iodine status is a major limitation and emphasizes the need for further investigation of more practical biomarkers of individual iodine status. J. Nutr. 141: 2049-2054, 2011.
Oxidation of dietary stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids in growing pigs follows a biphasic pattern
Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Heugten, E. van; Milgen, J. van; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2011
The Journal of Nutrition 141 (2011)9. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1657 - 1663.
fatty-acids - energy-metabolism - adipose-tissue - healthy-men - chain-length - carbohydrate - whole - digestibility - protein - women
Abstract We used the pig as a model to assess the effects of dietary fat content and composition on nutrient oxidation and energy partitioning in positive energy balance. Pigs weighing 25 kg were assigned to either: 1) a low fat–high starch diet, or 2) a high saturated-fat diet, or 3) a high unsaturated-fat diet. In the high-fat treatments, 20% starch was iso-energetically replaced by 10.8% lard or 10.2% soybean oil, respectively. For 7 d, pigs were fed twice daily at a rate of 1200 kJ digestible energy · kg-0.75 · d-1. Oral bolus doses of [U-13C] glucose, [U-13C] a-linoleate, [U-13C] stearate, and [U-13C] oleate were administered on d 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively, and 13CO2 production was measured. Protein and fat deposition were measured for 7 d. Fractional oxidation of fatty acids from the low-fat diet was lower than from the high-fat diets. Within diets, the saturated [U-13C] stearate was oxidized less than the unsaturated [U-13C] oleate and [U-13C] linoleate. For the high unsaturated-fat diet, oxidation of [U-13C] oleate was higher than that of [U-13C] linoleate. In general, recovery of 13CO2 from labeled fatty acids rose within 2 h after ingestion but peaked around the next meal. This peak was induced by an increased energy expenditure that was likely related to increased eating activity. In conclusion, oxidation of dietary fatty acids in growing pigs depends on the inclusion level and composition of dietary fat. Moreover, our data suggest that the most recently ingested fatty acids are preferred substrates for oxidation when the direct supply of dietary nutrients has decreased and ATP requirements increase
Dairy consumption and patterns of mortality of Australian adults
Bonthuis, M. ; Hughes, M.C.B. ; Ibiebele, T.I. ; Green, A.C. ; Pols, J.C. van der - \ 2010
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64 (2010)6. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 569 - 577.
food-frequency questionnaire - coronary-heart-disease - conjugated linoleic-acid - growth-factor-i - fatty-acids - dietary-fat - personal characteristics - healthy-men - vitamin-d - cancer
Background/Objectives: Dairy foods contain various nutrients that may affect health. We investigated whether intake of dairy products or related nutrients is associated with mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and all causes. Subjects/Methods: We carried out a 16-year prospective study among a community-based sample of 1529 adult Australians aged 25-78 years at baseline. Habitual intakes of dairy products (total, high/low-fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and full-fat cheese), calcium and vitamin D were estimated as mean reported intake using validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) self-administered in 1992, 1994 and 1996. National Death Index data were used to ascertain mortality and cause of death between 1992 and 2007. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results: During an average follow-up time of 14.4 years, 177 participants died, including 61 deaths due to CVD and 58 deaths due to cancer. There was no consistent and significant association between total dairy intake and total or cause-specific mortality. However, compared with those with the lowest intake of full-fat dairy, participants with the highest intake (median intake 339 g/day) had reduced death due to CVD (HR: 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-0.79; P for trend = 0.04) after adjustment for calcium intake and other confounders. Intakes of low-fat dairy, specific dairy foods, calcium and vitamin D showed no consistent associations. Conclusions: Overall intake of dairy products was not associated with mortality. A possible beneficial association between intake of full-fat dairy and cardiovascular mortality needs further assessment and confirmation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64, 569-577; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.45; published online 7 April 2010
Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild abdominal obesity
Bos, M.B. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Dijk, S.J. van; Hoelen, D. ; Siebelink, E. ; Heijligenberg, R. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2010
Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 20 (2010)8. - ISSN 0939-4753 - p. 591 - 598.
glucose-tolerance - controlled-trials - randomized-trial - heart-disease - risk-factors - healthy-men - cholesterol - metaanalysis - resistance - determinants
Background and aims - Diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) such as a Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving insulin sensitivity and serum lipids. Besides being high in MUFA, a Mediterranean diet also contains abundant plant foods, moderate wine and low amounts of meat and dairy products, which may also play a role. We compared the effects of a high MUFA-diet with a diet high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the additional effect of a Mediterranean diet on insulin sensitivity and serum lipids. Methods and results - A randomized parallel controlled-feeding trial was performed, in 60 non-diabetics (40–65 y) with mild abdominal obesity. After a two week run-in diet high in SFA (19 energy-%), subjects were allocated to a high MUFA-diet (20 energy-%), a Mediterranean diet (MUFA 21 energy-%), or the high SFA-diet, for eight weeks. The high MUFA and the Mediterranean diet did not affect fasting insulin concentrations. The high MUFA-diet reduced total cholesterol (-0.41 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.74, -0.09) and LDL-cholesterol (-0.38 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.65, -0.11) compared with the high SFA-diet, but not triglyceride concentrations. The Mediterranean diet increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations (+0.09 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.0, 0.18) and reduced the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (-0.39, 95% CI -0.62, -0.16) compared with the high MUFA-diet. Conclusion - Replacing a high SFA-diet with a high MUFA or a Mediterranean diet did not affect insulin sensitivity, but improved serum lipids. The Mediterranean diet was most effective, it reduced total and LDL-cholesterol, and also increased HDL-cholesterol and reduced total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio.
A saturated fatty acid-rich diet induces an obesity-linked proinflammatory gene expression profile in adipose tissue of subjects at risk of metabolic syndrome
Dijk, S.J. van; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Bos, M.B. ; Hoelen, D.W. ; Heijligenberg, R. ; Bromhaar, M.G. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Vries, J.H.M. de; Müller, M.R. ; Afman, L.A. - \ 2009
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (2009)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1656 - 1664.
inflammation-related genes - activated receptor-alpha - blood mononuclear-cells - nonobese pima-indians - insulin-resistance - healthy-men - glucose-metabolism - weight-loss - plasma - accumulation
Background: Changes in dietary fat composition could lower the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Adipose tissue is an interesting tissue in this respect because of its role in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of a saturated fatty acid (SFA)– and a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)–rich diet on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and gene expression profiles of adipose tissue in subjects at risk of metabolic syndrome. Design: A parallel controlled-feeding trial was conducted in 20 abdominally overweight subjects. Subjects received an SFA diet or an MUFA diet for 8 wk. Plasma and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained, and insulin sensitivity was measured by using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Adipose tissue samples underwent whole-genome microarray and histologic analysis. Plasma and adipose tissue fatty acid composition and concentrations of serum cholesterol and plasma cytokine were determined. Results: Consumption of the SFA diet resulted in increased expression of genes involved in inflammation processes in adipose tissue, without changes in morphology or insulin sensitivity. The MUFA diet led to a more antiinflammatory gene expression profile, which was accompanied by a decrease in serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations and an increase in plasma and adipose tissue oleic acid content. Conclusions: Consumption of an SFA diet resulted in a proinflammatory "obesity-linked" gene expression profile, whereas consumption of an MUFA diet caused a more antiinflammatory profile. This suggests that replacement of dietary SFA with MUFA could prevent adipose tissue inflammation and may reduce the risk of inflammation-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00405197.
A reappraisal of the impact of dairy foods and milk fat on cardiovascular disease risk
German, J.B. ; Gibson, R.A. ; Krauss, R.M. ; Nestel, P. ; Lamarche, B. ; Staveren, W.A. van; Steijns, J.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Lock, A.L. ; Destaillats, F. - \ 2009
European Journal of Nutrition 48 (2009)4. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 191 - 203.
coronary-heart-disease - high-density-lipoprotein - randomized controlled-trials - dietary-fat - blood-pressure - vitamin-d - ischemic-stroke - saturated fat - healthy-men - intraparenchymal hemorrhage
Background This review provides a reappraisal of the potential effects of dairy foods, including dairy fats, on cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Commodities and foods containing saturated fats are of particular focus as current public dietary recommendations are directed toward reducing the intake of saturated fats as a means to improve the overall health of the population. A conference of scientists from different perspectives of dietary fat and health was convened in order to consider the scientific basis for these recommendations. Aims This review and summary of the conference focus on four key areas related to the biology of dairy foods and fats and their potential impact on human health: (a) the effect of dairy foods on CVD in prospective cohort studies; (b) the impact of dairy fat on plasma lipid risk factors for CVD; (c) the effects of dairy fat on non-lipid risk factors for CVD; and (d) the role of dairy products as essential contributors of micronutrients in reference food patterns for the elderly. Conclusions Despite the contribution of dairy products to the saturated fatty acid composition of the diet, and given the diversity of dairy foods of widely differing composition, there is no clear evidence that dairy food consumption is consistently associated with a higher risk of CVD. Thus, recommendations to reduce dairy food consumption irrespective of the nature of the dairy product should be made with caution.
Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women
Dalmeijer, G.W. ; Olthof, M.R. ; Verhoef, P. ; Bots, M.L. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der - \ 2008
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62 (2008). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 386 - 394.
plasma homocysteine concentrations - food-frequency questionnaire - ischemic-heart-disease - folic-acid - vascular-disease - healthy-men - myocardial-infarction - relative validity - stroke - vitamin-b-6
Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16 165 women aged 49¿70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in the PROSPECT¿EPIC cohort, which is 1 of the 2 Dutch contributions to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Each participant completed a validated food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was calculated with the Dutch National Food Database. Betaine and choline intakes were calculated with the USDA database containing choline and betaine contents of common US foods. Data on coronary heart disease (CHD) events and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) events morbidity data were obtained from the Dutch Centre for Health Care Information. Results: During a median follow-up period of 97 months, 717 women were diagnosed with CVD. After adjustment, neither folate, nor betaine, nor choline intakes were associated with CVD (hazard ratios for highest versus lowest quartile were 1.23 (95% confidence interval 0.75; 2.01), 0.90 (0.69; 1.17), 1.04 (0.71; 1.53), respectively). In a subsample of the population, high folate and choline intakes were statistically significantly associated with lower homocysteine levels. High betaine intake was associated with slightly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion: Regular dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline were not associated with CVD risk in post-menopausal Dutch women. However, the effect of doses of betaine and choline beyond regular dietary intake ¿ for example, via supplementation or fortification ¿ remains unknown.
Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after lifestyle intervention are related to changes in serum fatty acid profile and desaturase activities: the SLIM study
Corpeleijn, E. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Jansen, E.H.J.M. ; Mensink, M.R. ; Saris, W.H.M. ; Bruin, T.W.A. de; Blaak, E.E. - \ 2006
Diabetologia 49 (2006)10. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 2392 - 2401.
stearoyl-coa desaturase-1 - skeletal-muscle phospholipids - metabolic syndrome - dietary-fat - lipid-metabolism - gene-expression - healthy-men - fish-oil - resistance - niddm
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle intervention-induced changes in serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are related to improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the Study on Lifestyle Intervention and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Maastricht (SLIM), 97 men and women with IGT were randomised to a combined diet and exercise programme (47 intervention) or a control group (50 control subjects). At baseline and after 1 year the following assessments were made: an OGTT, an exercise test to determine maximal aerobic capacity, anthropometry, and analysis of the serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters. RESULTS: The lifestyle programme was effective in reducing the intake of total and saturated fat, increasing physical activity, reducing obesity and improving insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Regression analysis of the total population showed that an increase in the C20:4 n-6/C20:3 n-6 ratio (estimated Delta5-desaturase activity) and reductions in the C18:3 n-6/C18:2 n-6 ratio (estimated Delta6-desaturase activity) and the C16:1 n-7/C16:0 ratio (estimated Delta9-desaturase activity or stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1) were significantly associated with a decrease in homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. After adjustment for lifestyle changes (change in percentage body fat, aerobic capacity and saturated fat intake), these associations were partly reduced, but remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Lifestyle-induced changes in fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and desaturase activities were independently related to changes in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes.
Betaine concentration as a determinant of fasting total homocysteine concentrations and the effect of folic acid supplementation on betaine concentrations
Boonstra, A. ; Holm, P.I. ; Ueland, P.M. ; Olthof, M.R. ; Clarke, R. ; Verhoef, P. - \ 2005
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81 (2005)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1378 - 1382.
liver folate content - plasma homocysteine - choline deficiency - randomized-trials - healthy-men - serum - risk - homocystinuria - metaanalysis - disease
Background: Remethylation of homocysteine to methionine can occur through either the folate-dependent methionine synthase pathway or the betaine-dependent betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase pathway. The relevance of betaine as a determinant of fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) is not known, nor is it known how the 2 remethylation pathways are interrelated. Objective: The objectives of the study were to examine the relation between plasma betaine concentration and fasting plasma tHcy concentrations and to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation on betaine concentrations in healthy subjects. Design: A double-blind randomized trial of 6 incremental daily doses of folic acid (50¿800 µg/d) or placebo was carried out in 308 Dutch men and postmenopausal women (aged 50¿75 y). Fasted blood concentrations of tHcy, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and folate were measured at baseline and after 12 wk of vitamin supplementation. Results: Concentrations of tHcy were inversely related to the betaine concentration (r = ¿0.17, P <0.01), and the association was independent of age, sex, and serum concentrations of folate, creatinine, and cobalamin. Folic acid supplementation increased betaine concentration in a dose-dependent manner (P for trend = 0.018); the maximum increase (15%) was obtained at daily doses of 400¿800 µg/d. Conclusions: The plasma betaine concentration is a significant determinant of fasting tHcy concentrations in healthy humans. Folic acid supplementation increases the betaine concentration, which indicates that the 2 remethylation pathways are interrelated
Serum carotenoids and vitamins in relation to markers of endothelial function and inflammation
Broekmans, W. ; Klopping-Ketelaars, I.A.A. ; Bots, M.L. ; Kluft, C. ; Princen, H. ; Hendriks, H.F.J. ; Tijburg, L.B.M. ; Poppel, G. van; Kardinaal, A.F.M. - \ 2004
European Journal of Epidemiology 19 (2004)10. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 915 - 921.
coronary-heart-disease - low-density-lipoprotein - c-reactive protein - cardiovascular-disease - myocardial-infarction - beta-carotene - adhesion molecules - risk-factors - healthy-men - lycopene concentration
Background: Endothelial cell dysfunction may be related to an increase in cellular oxidative stress. Carotenoids and vitamins could have an antioxidant-mediated tempering influence on endothelial function and inflammation, thereby reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods: We measured serum carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol and Vitamin C concentrations in 379 subjects sampled from the general population. High-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (Fbg) and leukocytes were measured as markers of inflammation. Furthermore, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM- 1) and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD; n = 165) were measured as markers of endothelial function. Relationships between serum carotenoids and vitamins and markers of endothelial function and inflammation were analysed after adjustment for confounding. Results: In the total study group, lutein and lycopene were inversely related to sICAM- 1 with regression-coefficients of -0.38 +/- 0.19 (p = 0.04) and) 0.16 +/- 0.08 (p = 0.04) per 1 mumol/l, respectively. beta-Carotene was inverse related to leukocytes (-0.23 +/- 0.07; p = 0.007) and CRP (-1.09 +/- 0.30; p = 0.0003) per 1 mumol/l. Vitamin C was inverse related to CRP (-0.01 +/- 0.005; p = 0.04) per 1 mumol/l, whereas alpha-tocopherol was positively related to CRP (0.03 +/- 0.01; p = 0.02) per 1 mu/l. Zeaxanthin was inversely related to FMD (31.2 +/- 15.3; p = 0.04) per 1 mumol/l. Conclusion: The inverse relations between carotenoids, Vitamin C and sICAM- 1, CRP and leukocytes may help to explain the possible protective effect of carotenoids and Vitamin C on atherosclerosis through an influence on inflammatory processes and endothelial function.
Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and flow-mediated dilatation are related to the estimated risk of coronary heart disease independently from each other
Witte, D.R. ; Broekmans, W. ; Kardinaal, A.F.M. ; Klopping-Ketelaars, I.A.A. ; Poppel, G. van; Bots, M.L. ; Kluft, C. ; Princen, J.M.G. - \ 2003
Atherosclerosis 170 (2003)1. - ISSN 0021-9150 - p. 147 - 153.
endothelium-dependent vasodilation - hemodialysis-patients - postmenopausal women - hdl-cholesterol - artery disease - healthy-men - dysfunction - atherosclerosis - markers - plasma
Background: Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) are measures of distinct functions of the endothelium, reflecting nitric oxide (NO)-mediated and pro-inflammatory status, respectively. The comparative value of the two measures in relation to cardiovascular risk is unknown. Objective: To study and quantify the relation between these two measures, and their relative value in relation to the risk of coronary heart disease as estimated by the Framingham risk function. Methods: We performed a single centre population-based study of 85 men and 81 women, aged 18¿73 years. Endothelial function was assessed biochemically by sICAM-1 and functionally by FMD. In addition traditional cardiovascular risk factors, CRP, leukocyte count, homocysteine and fibrinogen were determined. Analyses were performed with multivariate linear regression, adjusted for age, gender, and CRP. Results: Median sICAM-1 levels were 217.0 ¿g/l (interquartile range: 174.0¿348.5). Mean FMD was 4.5% (S.D.: 3.9). The regression coefficient for the association between sICAM-1 and FMD was ¿3.3 ¿g/l (95% CI: ¿6.0;¿0.6) per percentage rise in FMD, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, oral contraceptives (OC) use, classical risk factors and CRP. After adjustment for CRP and sICAM-1, the estimated risk of coronary heart disease in the next 10 years varied from 1.55% (95%CI: 0.89; 2.70) in the highest quintile of FMD to 3.92% (95% CI: 2.23; 6.92) in the lowest quintile. For sICAM-1, estimated risk, adjusted for FMD and CRP varied from 1.50% (95%CI: 0.85; 2.64) in the lowest quintile of sICAM-1 to 4.15% (95%CI: 2.35; 7.34) in the highest quintile. P-values for trends were 0.02 and 0.01 for quintiles of FMD and quintiles of sICAM-1, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicate that sICAM-1 and FMD are related in healthy individuals, independently of cardiovascular risk factors and CRP, and that they are both related to the estimated risk of coronary heart disease, independently of each other.
Trans Fatty Acids, HDL-cholesterol, and Cardiovascular Disease. Effects of Dietary Changes on Vascular Reactivity
Roos, N.M. de; Schouten, E.G. ; Katan, M.B. - \ 2003
European Journal of Medical Research 8 (2003). - ISSN 0949-2321 - p. 355 - 357.
flow-mediated vasodilation - healthy-men - replacement - women
A high consumption of trans fatty acids increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigeted whether this increase in risk was due to the decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol by trans fatty acids, because low concentrations of serum HDL-cholesterol also increase risk of CVD. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was used as an endpoint in dietary interventions that were designed to change the concentration of serum HDL-cholesterol within 4 weeks in healthy volunteers. Replacement of 10% of energy from saturated by trans fatty acids decreased serum HDL-cholesterol by 21 % and impaired FMD. However, a replacement of monounsaturated fats by carbohydrates did not impair FMD, although it decreased serum HDL-cholesterol by 13%. Acute postprandial impairments of FMD by either trans fats or saturated fats were not found, suggesting that long-term effects are responsible for the detrimental effect of trans fats on health. However, the role of serum HDL-cholesterol appears to be less than we expected.