Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Hoog isolerende en lichtdoorlatende schermconfiguraties
    Zwart, H.F. de; Stanghellini, C. ; Knaap, L.P.M. van der - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw / TNO (Nota / Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw ) - 38
    schermen - thermische schermen - energie - tomaten - kassen - convectie - warmteoverdracht - kastechniek - duurzame energie - energiebesparing - glastuinbouw - blinds - thermal screens - energy - tomatoes - greenhouses - convection - heat transfer - greenhouse technology - sustainable energy - energy saving - greenhouse horticulture
    Hoogisolerende schermsystemen bestaan uit meerdere lagen waarvan tenminste een laag van gealuminiseerd materiaal is gemaakt om de reflectie van de warmtestraling te maximaliseren. Dit is de hoofdconclusie die op grond van de analyse van de fysische processen rond convectieve- en stralingswarmteoverdracht bij schermen een rol spelen. Convectieve warmte-overdracht is de energie-overdracht die plaatsvindt middels de verplaatsing van lucht van de ene naar de andere temperatuur. Stralingsoverdracht is energie-overdracht tussen materie op grond van de emissie-coefficient van die materialen. Stralingsoverdracht is niet gekoppeld aan luchtbeweging en vindt plaats tussen alle oppervlakken in de kas. Het rapport bespreekt deze processen.
    Spatial model reduction for transport phenomena in environmental and agricultural engineering
    Dirkse, M.H. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerard Bot, co-promotor(en): Wilko van Loon; Hans Stigter. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048633 - 143
    transportprocessen - warmteoverdracht - massaoverdracht - simulatiemodellen - convectie - tweedimensionale stroming - warmtewisselaars - ruimtelijke verdeling - ruimtelijke variatie - systemen - systeemanalyse - elektrodialyse - computationele vloeistofdynamica - modelleren - procesbewaking - transport processes - heat transfer - mass transfer - simulation models - convection - two dimensional flow - heat exchangers - spatial distribution - spatial variation - systems - systems analysis - electrodialysis - computational fluid dynamics - modeling - process control
    Tijdens het ontwerpen van landbouwkundige en industriële installaties is het belangrijk om het energieverbruik van tevoren in te schatten. Simpele berekeningen volstaan om het energieverbruik globaal te schatten, maar vaak kan het energieverbruik significant worden verminderd door de vorm van het systeem slim te kiezen. De invloed van deze verbeteringen kan niet met simpele berekeningen worden voorspeld. Deze promotie gaat over een nieuwe methode om de invloed van de geometrie te analyseren. De methode is gebaseerd op toepassing van complexe functietheorie op stromingsproblemen; de zognaamde potentiaaltheorie. Als voorbeelden worden een warmtewisselaar en een omgekeerde elektrodialyse installatie onderzocht. Als de methode verder wordt uitontwikkeld, dan kan dit in de toekomst leiden tot besparingen van tijd en geld tijdens de ontwerpfase van technische installaties.
    Air tightness and heat leakage in insulated bodies
    Lukasse, L.J.S. ; Voort, A.J. van der; Ploegaert, J.P.M. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Report / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 586) - ISBN 9789067549912 - 10
    ventilatie - luchtdichte opslag - lekkage - warmteoverdracht - isolatie (insulation) - koeltransport - containers - transportvoertuigen - ventilation - airtight storage - leakage - heat transfer - insulation - refrigerated transport - containers - transporters
    Het effect van luchtbeweging op de gemeten K-waarde van koelvoertuigen
    Voort, A.J. van der; Lukasse, L.J.S. - \ 2005
    onbekend : Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 418) - ISBN 9789067549165 - 10
    trucks - koeltransport - luchtstroming - isolatie - warmteoverdracht - koudeopwekking - trucks - refrigerated transport - air flow - isolation - heat transfer - refrigeration
    Praktijkexperiment duurzame energieverzameling door middel van daksproeiers
    Zwart, H.F. de - \ 2004
    onbekend : Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group (Report / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 233) - ISBN 9789067548083 - 49
    energiegebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - zonne-energie - warmteopslag - watervoerende lagen - koelsystemen - warmteoverdracht - meting - binnenklimaat - glastuinbouw - energy consumption - sustainability - solar energy - heat retention - aquifers - cooling systems - heat transfer - measurement - indoor climate - greenhouse horticulture
    Kassen hebben in de zomer veel warmte over en komen in de winter warmte tekort. Wanneer de overtollige warmte in de zomer verzameld en opgeslagen kan worden zou de kas in de winter met duurzame energie verwarmd kunnen worden. Omdat het om grote hoeveelheden warmte gaat kunnen de zomerse overschotten niet in bovengrondse buffers worden opgeslagen, maar moeten hier ondergrondse watervoerende lagen worden gebruikt (aquifers, zie KADER 3). Warmteopslag in aquifers kan door water tussen twee putten heen en weer te pompen, waarbij de ene put zo’n 5 °C kouder dan de gemiddelde bodemteperatuur is en de andere zo’n 5 °C warmer. De warmte en koudeverliezen blijven hierdoor beperkt. Het zal duidelijk zijn dat voor de toepassing van warmte met een temperatuur van rond de 15 °C een warmtepomp gebruikt moet worden (Zie KADER 1). Deze warmtepomp koelt het water uit de warme put af naar zo’n 5 °C en maakt hiermee een bron met koud water. Om in de winter van het volgende jaar opnieuw van de warmtepomp gebruik te kunnen maken moet dit koude water weer worden opgewarmd. A&F in Wageningen heeft onderzoek gedaan naar de mogelijkheid om deze opwarming te realiseren met standaard dekbesproeiingssystemen. Dit zijn relatief goedkope systemen die ook nu al op veel kassen gebruikt worden. Het belangrijkste verschil tussen het nu onderzochte systeem in de bestaande systemen is dat bij gangbare sproeiers kaskoeling plaatsvindt door verdamping van water, en in het voorgestelde nieuwe systeem de lage temperatuur van het opgespoten water koeling aan de kas geeft. Zo worden drie vliegen in één klap geslagen namelijk: 1. de sproeiers geven een groter koelvermogen 2. er wordt duurzame energie verzameld, waarmee in de winter gas kan worden bespaard 3. het verdampingsverlies wordt beperkt.
    Modeling heat exchanges at the land-atmosphere interface using multi-angular thermal infrared measurements
    Jia, L. - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Reinder Feddes. - Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 9789085040415 - 199
    luchttemperatuur - warmteoverdracht - remote sensing - kroondak - oppervlakte van het gebladerte - temperatuur - bodemtemperatuur - modellen - aardoppervlak - air temperature - heat transfer - remote sensing - canopy - foliage area - temperature - soil temperature - models - land surface
    Keywords: heat transfer, remote sensing, land surface, soil-foliage canopies, anisotropy, foliage temperature, soil temperature, dual-source model.

    This thesis describes the use of multi - angular radiometric observations of the terrestrial biosphere to characterize and understand thermal heterogeneity towards better models of heat exchange at the land - atmosphere interface. The models and algorithms described in this thesis have been evaluated using data collected during field experiments inChina,USAandSpain. Radiative and convective processes in the canopy space are described first using a 3D model to deal with realistic canopy architecture. Penetration and interception of direct, diffuse and emitted radiance are treated separately taking into account the spatial organization of canopy elements and the angular distribution of leaves. This model is used to analyze the relation between the anisotropy of exitance and the thermal heterogeneity of vegetation canopies. Simpler models of TopOfCanopy (TOC) radiance as a linear mixture of radiance emitted by either four or two canopy components are proposed in view of current Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) bi- angular observations of emittance by space - borne radiometers such as Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR)-2 and Advanced ATSR (AATSR). Comparison with multi-angular, multi - temporal measurements of exitance proved that the two - components model does reproduces observed anisotropy. The initial 3D model is then used to derive analytically four-, dual- and single heat source models to parameterize heat transfer at the land - atmosphere interface. Assumptions necessary to arrive at these parameterizations are identified to document how the parameterizations account for the radiative and convective processes described in detail by the initial 3D model. Field measurements proved that the dual source model agrees with sensible heat flux density better than single source models, independently of the parameterization of the heat transfer resistance. As regards single source models, the best results were obtained with a parameterization of the resistance dependent on the anisotropy of exitance. A novel algorithm has been developed to retrieve soil and foliage component temperatures from the bi-angular observations provided by the ATSR-2 and AATSR systems. This algorithms makes optimal use of information contained in the four spectral channels in the VISible, Near InfraRed and Short Wave InfraRed regions and in the two spectral channels in the Thermal InfraRed region at two view angles to retrieve simultaneously atmospheric column water vapor, aerosols optical depth, vegetation fractional cover, soil and foliage component temperatures. Values of TOC radiance are obtained after correction of atmospheric effects,thenused to invert the simple two - component model to retrieve soil and foliage component temperatures. Agreement with detailed contact and radiometric ground measurements of soil and foliage temperatures was very good. At larger spatial scales the algorithm has been validated in detail with simulated TOA and TOC image data. Direct validation of retrieved soil and foliage temperatures from ATSR-2 observations was less detailed because of the large ATSR footprint, compounded by the large difference between footprint size and shape in the nadir and forward views. At the regional scale sensible heat flux density was modeled using bi-angular ATSR-2 observations of exitance and compared with measurements by Large Aperture Scintillometers at a spatial scale comparable with the ATSR-2 spatial resolution. Agreement was very good and within the accuracy of the Scintillometers.

    Mixed Solid-State Fermentation. Numerical modeling and experimental validation
    Schutyser, M.A.I. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom, co-promotor(en): Arjen Rinzema. - [S.I.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789058088482 - 165
    fermentatie - vermenging - bioreactoren - schimmels - warmteoverdracht - waterverplaatsing - deeltjes - modellen - fermentation - mixing - bioreactors - fungi - heat transfer - water transfer - particles - models - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Uitbreidingspotentieel voor warmte van derden in de Nederlandse glastuinbouw bij verschillende scenario's
    Bakker, R. - \ 2000
    Den Haag : LEI - ISBN 9789052425993 - 69
    kassen - verwarmingssystemen - energiebronnen - warmteoverdracht - overschotten - aanbod - glastuinbouw - greenhouses - heating systems - energy sources - heat transfer - surpluses - supply - greenhouse horticulture
    Transport phenomena through porous screens and openings : from theory to greenhouse practice
    Miguel, A.A.F. - \ 1998
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): G.P.A. Bot; A.M. Silva. - S.l. : Miguel - ISBN 9789054858478 - 129
    thermodynamica - warmte - warmteoverdracht - thermische geleiding - transmissie - massaoverdracht - kassen - thermodynamics - heat - heat transfer - thermal conductivity - transmission - mass transfer - greenhouses

    The study of transport phenomena in multi-zone enclosures with permeable boundaries is fundamental for indoor climate control management. In this study, aspects concerning the air exchange through porous screens and openings, and heat transfer between the enclosure surface and inside air, were analysed. Basic physical laws were the starting point during the construction of the models. To illustrate the practical side of the research performed, the formulation developed was applied to the study of convective heat exchange within screened greenhouses, as well as to the study of airflow through greenhouse screens and window apertures.

    Concerning the airflow through porous screens and window openings, the results obtained thoroughly demonstrate the importance of inertia and viscous effects, as well as window openings' geometry effects, on fluid flow. The airflow characteristics of porous screens and the structure of fluctuation of wind velocity, were quantified.

    Regarding the study of free convection heat transfer within a screened greenhouse, the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the downward and the upward surfaces of the screen were obtained, among other results.

    The results obtained from this study can greatly contribute, in general, to a better climate control management of multi-zone enclosures, and specifically, to an improved application of porous screens and window apertures.

    Vergelijking van grondbuizen en grondwater-unit bij vleesvarkens
    Huijben, J. ; Hoofs, A. - \ 1997
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 11 (1997)5. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 7 - 9.
    thermodynamica - warmte - warmteoverdracht - thermische geleiding - transmissie - varkens - varkensstallen - afmesten - milieubeheersing - gebouwen - regulatie - klimaat - transport - pijpen - goten - pijpleidingen - accessoires - verwarmingssystemen - warmwatersystemen - verwarming - thermodynamics - heat - heat transfer - thermal conductivity - transmission - pigs - pig housing - finishing - environmental control - buildings - regulation - climate - transport - pipes - ducts - pipelines - ancillary equipment - heating systems - hot water systems - heating
    Zowel bij toepassing van grondbuizen als van een grondwater-unit is er afkoeling of opwarming van de binnenkomende lucht, met name bij extreem hoge en lage buitentemperaturen.
    Ventilatie en koeling in de zomerperiode
    Ellen, H.H. - \ 1997
    Praktijkonderzoek voor de Pluimveehouderij 8 (1997)2. - ISSN 0924-9087 - p. 24 - 29.
    milieubeheersing - gebouwen - verwarming - ventilatie - verlichting - vochtigheid - vleeskuikens - pluimveehokken - thermodynamica - warmte - warmteoverdracht - thermische geleiding - transmissie - meteorologie - evaporatie - evapotranspiratie - environmental control - buildings - heating - ventilation - lighting - humidity - broilers - poultry housing - thermodynamics - heat - heat transfer - thermal conductivity - transmission - meteorology - evaporation - evapotranspiration
    Na twee zomers met hoge buitentemperaturen over lange(re) periodes is er veel aandacht voor koelinstallaties in de vleeskuikensector. Deze installaties maken gebruik van het koelende effect van het verdampen van water door het water te vernevelen in de stal. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de mogelijkheden van deze apparatuur, de voor- en nadelen en de aandachtspunten bij gebruik. Voor een goed inzicht in het gebruik is ook informatie opgenomen over theoretische achtergronden van het verdampen van water in lucht.
    Heat and mass exchange within the soil - plant canopy-atmosphere system : a theroretical approach and its validation
    El-Kilani, R.M.M. - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L. Wartena; L. Goudriaan; A.F.G. Jacobs. - S.l. : El-Kilani - ISBN 9789054856443 - 390
    microklimaat - planten - grenzen - luchttemperatuur - thermodynamica - warmte - warmteoverdracht - thermische geleiding - transmissie - microclimate - plants - boundaries - air temperature - thermodynamics - heat - heat transfer - thermal conductivity - transmission

    Heat, mass and momentum transfer between the canopy air layer and the layer of air above has a very intermittent nature. This intermittent nature is due to the passage at the canopy top of coherent structures which have a length scale at least as large as the canopy height. The periodic passage of these coherent structure at the canopy top leads to the ejection of the air inside the canopy and the replacement of this air by fresh air from above. It is through this process of ejection and sweep that the coherent structures become responsible for most of the large time average flux.

    This study considers the effect of these coherent structures on the modelling and the dynamics of interaction between the plant canopy and the soil with the layer of air above and the effect of these coherent structures on the soil temperature profile. so, three parts are considered: Modelling , mathematical analysis and validation.

    In the Modelling part: a discussion of the limitations of the available approaches and a suggestion of an intermittency approach are given.

    First, there is a qualitative analysis of the effect of these coherent structures and their role in the momentum, heat and mass transfer on the validity of the Eulerian approaches used to describe canopy flow. We outline the limitations of these approaches and later suggest an intermittency approach to describe heat and mass transfer between the canopy layer and the layer of air above. We describe the used averaging procedure, the resulting correlations, the closure parameterization used and their justification.

    Then we give a discussion of the effect of these coherent structure on the Lagrangian model approach qualitatively and then quantitatively and a method to correct for this is suggested.

    From this, a mathematical analysis of the effect of coherent structure on the soil temperature profile is done by first analysing the effect of coherent structures on the mean temperature and vapour pressure deficit of the air. It is shown from the equations governing the system's behaviour that there is a non linearity in the canopy system. The effect of this non linearity depends on the ratio between the period between consequent gust intrusions into plant canopy with respect the air time constants. The effect of this non linearity on the soil temperature profile is shown through its effect on the coefficients of an Eigenfunction expansion of the soil temperature profile. Different scenarios for the effect of different parameters such as the stomatal resistance, the turbulent transport coefficient and the period between gust intrusion are studied and explained.

    In the validation part, a comparison of a simulation for 7 days against a data set shows that the model gives very good agreement between the radiative environment and the temperature and vapour pressure of the air. Anyhow there is a interplay between three degrees of freedom. These are represented by the turbulent transport coefficient , the stomatal resistance and the gust intrusion into plant canopy.

    Milk fouling in heat exchangers
    Jeurnink, T.J.M. - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): P. Walstra; C.G. de Kruif. - S.l. : Jeurnink - ISBN 9789054855088 - 144
    melkbewaring - temperatuur - behandeling - warmtebehandeling - warmtewisselaars - thermodynamica - warmteoverdracht - warmte - transmissie - warmteuitwisseling - vervuiling door afzetting - melkafzettingen - milk preservation - temperature - treatment - heat treatment - heat exchangers - thermodynamics - heat transfer - heat - transmission - heat exchange - fouling - milk deposits

    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the precipitation of calcium phosphate as a result of the decreased solubility of this salt upon heating. Both foulants are formed in the bulk of the solution and are transported to the surface, where they can be deposited.

    If the stability of milk is lowered, e.g. by lowering the pH, coagulation of casein micelles can cause extreme fouling. A further cause of fouling is air bubbles, which arise in the milk on heating and stick to the stainless steel wall; they appear to act as nuclei for the formation of protein deposit.

    Fouling in heat exchangers can be reduced by controlling the formation of activated serum protein molecules and by preventing the precipitation of calcium phosphate. Various ways to achieve this are given.

    Once formed, milk deposits can readily be removed by alkaline cleaning followed by acid cleaning under the right conditions.

    Kortere wachttijd na voorspoelen vermindert temperatuurverlies tijdens de reiniging
    Soede, H.J. - \ 1995
    Praktijkonderzoek / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (PR), Waiboerhoeve 8 (1995)2. - ISSN 0921-8874 - p. 22 - 25.
    apparatuur - schoonmaken - componenten - koelen - koelsystemen - desinfectie - warmte - warmteoverdracht - smering - melkmachines - bescherming - thermische geleiding - thermodynamica - transmissie - arbeidskunde - machines - apparatus - cleaning - components - cooling - cooling systems - disinfection - heat - heat transfer - lubrication - milking machines - protection - thermal conductivity - thermodynamics - transmission - work study - machines
    De belangrijkste factoren die invloed hebben op de afkoeling zijn; tijd, uitvoering van de reiniging en omgevingstemperatuur.
    Heat and mass transfer in frozen porous media
    Loon, W. van - \ 1991
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. Schenk; I.A. van Haneghem. - S.l. : Van Loon - 204
    vibratie - geluidsleer - reflectie - resonantie - thermodynamica - warmte - warmteoverdracht - thermische geleiding - transmissie - hydrodynamica - vloeistoffen (liquids) - vloeistoffen (fluids) - stroming - poreus medium - vorst - bodem - dampdruk - tensiometers - effecten - temperatuur - kou - meting - elektrische eigenschappen - vibration - acoustics - reflection - resonance - thermodynamics - heat - heat transfer - thermal conductivity - transmission - hydrodynamics - liquids - fluids - flow - porous media - frost - soil - vapour pressure - tensiometers - effects - temperature - cold - measurement - electrical properties

    In this thesis processes and parameters associated with heat and mass transfer in frozen porous media both on a theoretical and empirical basis are studied. To obtain the required measurements some existing measuring methods needed to be improved.

    Firstly, an improved model has been developed for the measurement of thermal conductivity with use of the nonsteady-state probe method. The measurements of thermal conductivity indicate four separate effects caused by the freezing process.

    The second improved measuring method is the measurement of bulk electrical conductivity with use of time-domain reflectometry.

    And the third improvement is the use of the dispersion theory in the description of relations between water content and bulk electrical conductivity or dielectric constant.

    This thesis shows that time-domain reflectometry can be used to measure the unfrozen water content and bulk electrical conductivity simultaneously under frozen conditions and that from the latter parameter solute redistribution can be monitored.

    From the measured heat flows a time delay in the forming of pore ice can be concluded. From the measured moisture transport (resulting in frost heave) a relation with some soil properties could be established. For some of the materials studied a minimum temperature gradient has been observed atwhichheave starts. From this and other results an effort was made to come to a synthesis of the rigid ice concept and the segregation potential concept.

    The thesis finishes with some recommandations in connection with the improvement of soil structure by freezing, frost heave and artificial ground freezing.

    Factors influencing the conductive ductive heat transfer through hyacinth bulbs packed in closed or vented cartons
    Haas, E. ; Nieuwenhuizen, G.H. van; Boerrigter, H.A.M. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : Sprenger Instituut (Rapport / Sprenger Instituut no. 2357) - 13
    warmte - warmteoverdracht - bloembollen - sierplanten - verpakken - opslag - thermische geleiding - thermodynamica - transmissie - hyacinthus - heat - heat transfer - ornamental bulbs - ornamental plants - packing - storage - thermal conductivity - thermodynamics - transmission - hyacinthus
    Conduction heat transfer through closed and vented corrugated cartons
    Haas, E. ; Niewenhuizen, G.H. van; Laar, H.J. van - \ 1988
    Wageningen : Sprenger Instituut (Rapport / Sprenger Instituut no. 2353) - 9
    warmte - warmteoverdracht - verpakken - thermische geleiding - thermodynamica - transmissie - heat - heat transfer - packing - thermal conductivity - thermodynamics - transmission
    Meting warmteoverdrachtscoefficient voor convectie van verwarmingspijpen in kassen
    Nawrocki, K.R. - \ 1985
    Wageningen : IMAG (Rapport / Insituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen no. 73) - 31
    accessoires - goten - warmte - warmteoverdracht - verwarmingsapparatuur - pijpleidingen - pijpen - thermische geleiding - thermodynamica - transmissie - transport - ventilatoren - ancillary equipment - ducts - heat - heat transfer - heaters - pipelines - pipes - thermal conductivity - thermodynamics - transmission - transport - ventilators
    Calculation of the amount of energy released by heating pipes in a greenhouse and its allocation between convection and radiation
    Stanghellini, C. - \ 1983
    Wageningen : I.M.A.G. (Research report / Institute of Agricultural Engineering no. 83-3) - 20
    gebouwen - milieubeheersing - warmte - warmteoverdracht - verwarmingsapparatuur - verwarming - thermische geleiding - thermodynamica - transmissie - ventilatoren - glastuinbouw - buildings - environmental control - heat - heat transfer - heaters - heating - thermal conductivity - thermodynamics - transmission - ventilators - greenhouse horticulture
    Heat transmission of a reference and practical container under subtropical conditions
    Beek, G. van - \ 1982
    Wageningen : Sprenger Instituut (Rapport / Sprenger Instituut no. 2217) - 8
    warmte - warmtewisselaars - warmteoverdracht - warmtebehandeling - verpakken - subtropen - thermische geleiding - thermodynamica - transmissie - tropen - heat - heat exchangers - heat transfer - heat treatment - packing - subtropics - thermal conductivity - thermodynamics - transmission - tropics
    Meting van de koelcapaciteit van een container onder Zuiditaliaanse klimaatsomstandigheden
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