Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Perspectieven voor de afzet van (fosfaat-verarmd) zuiveringsslib naar de landbouw
    Regelink, Inge ; Ehlert, Phillip ; Römkens, Paul - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2819) - 75
    afvalwater - rioolslib - besmetters - zware metalen - mest - fosfaten - landbouw - afvalhergebruik - waste water - sewage sludge - contaminants - heavy metals - manures - phosphates - agriculture - waste utilization
    Het project heeft als doel om nieuwe afzetroutes te formuleren waarbij zuiveringsslib op een duurzame wijze wordt verwerkt tot meststoffen en bodemverbeteraars zodat waardevolle nutriënten en organische stof worden hergebruikt.
    Anaerobic microbial processes for energy conservation and biotransformation of pollutants
    Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, Lara da - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.J.M. Stams, co-promotor(en): D.Z. Sousa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431125 - 234
    anaerobic microbiology - anaerobes - energy conservation - biotransformation - pollutants - heavy metals - sulfates (inorganic salts) - nickel - cobalt - methanosarcina barkeri - genomics - polymerase chain reaction - anaërobe microbiologie - anaërobe micro-organismen - energiebehoud - biotransformatie - verontreinigende stoffen - zware metalen - sulfaten (anorganische zouten) - nikkel - kobalt - methanosarcina barkeri - genomica - polymerase-kettingreactie

    Anaerobic microbial processes are commonly applied in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater has received a great deal of attention, but many aspects related to the complex interactions between microorganism, and how that is affected by the presence of certain toxic, are not yet fully understood. A particular case of this is the effect of heavy metals or chlorinated compounds. These compounds are known to have a strong impact in methanogens, a phylogenetic diverse group responsible for the last step of the AD process. The negative effect of sulphate towards methanogenesis is mainly related to outcompetition of methanogens by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), or to toxicity caused by the sulphide generated from sulphate reduction. Heavy metals are part of many enzymes and cofactors and, in low concentrations, may beneficiate microbial activity. However, high concentrations of metals may disrupt enzyme function and structure. In cases where metal concentration is high, the presence of sulphate or sulphide might be favourable because sulphide precipitate with metals and detoxify the environment. In Chapter 2 we provide a review on the current knowledge on the effects of heavy metals and sulphate on AD, with special focus on methanogenesis. From this literature study, it came out that the influence of some metals, such as Co, is not extensively studied and that the potential of biologically produced sulphide as metal detoxification method in AD is still quite unexplored. In Chapter 3 we explored different strategies to improve methane production. Low concentrations of Ni and Co were supplemented to anaerobic sludge and the impact on methane production was evaluated. Although in contrast with other studies, no beneficial effect of metal supplementation was observed. Further on, the impact of high concentrations of Ni and Co added to anaerobic sludge was evaluated, as well as the use of sulphide as a detoxification strategy. This was evaluated in terms of impact on methane production and in changes in the microbial communities. The results showed that sulphide can be used as a method for metal detoxification, but in the case of biological produced sulphide, the competition between SRB and methanogens needs to be considered.

    Chlorinated compounds are widely used and commonly found in wastewaters. Several methanogenic metal-containing cofactors are reported to be involved in reductive dechlorination. Therefore, in Chapters 4 and 5 the potential of metal supplementation to enhance the dechlorination process was studied. In Chapter 4, the enrichment of methanogenic cultures able to perform reductive dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) and tetrachlorethene (TCE) using different inoculum sources and substrates is described. Differences in physiological performance and in the microbial communities were evaluated. The results showed that the microbial community can be influenced by inoculum and substrate as well as by the chlorinated compound used. The enriched cultures presenting the best dechlorination performance were selected and used for metal supplementation studies with Ni, Co, and Fe. The results showed a clear positive impact of metal addition, both on methane production and reductive dechlorination. Further research on metal supplementation to enhance dechlorination was performed in pure cultures of Methanosarcina barkeri, a methanogen known to be able to reduce DCE (Chapter 5). In this case, it was observed that metal supplementation could improve methane production and reductive dechlorination, but the effect is dependent on the metal and concentration used. It was found that methanogenesis and reductive dechlorination can be affected in a different way by the same metal.

    Finally, in Chapter 6 the impact of sulphate on a methane-producing bioelectrochemical system (BES), an emerging technology that can be applied to wastewater treatment, was studied. The results showed an unexpected fast sulphate removal in the system and a limited impact caused by sulphate addition on methane production. The sulphate removal could only partially be explained by microbial activity, but the results demonstrated the ability of microbial communities to evolve and adapt to new operational conditions.

    In conclusion, the work presented in this thesis gave insights on the impact of heavy metals and sulphate in methanogenic systems. Furthermore, different approaches to maximise methane production were evaluated. In particular, it was shown that metal supplementation can be a promising strategy to improve anaerobic microbial processes, such as methanogenesis and reductive dechlorination.

    Monitoring vooroeververdediging Oosterschelde 2015 : locaties: Zeelandbrug en Lokkersnol
    Tangelder, Martijn ; Heuvel-Greve, Martine van den; Kluijver, Maria de - \ 2016
    Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C098/16) - 86
    oeverbescherming van rivieren - dijken - steenwerk - aquatische ecosystemen - zware metalen - waterorganismen - oosterschelde - westerschelde - nederland - riverbank protection - dykes - stonework - aquatic ecosystems - heavy metals - aquatic organisms - eastern scheldt - western scheldt - netherlands
    Rijkswaterstaat heeft aan Wageningen Marine Research opdracht gegeven om in 2015 de T6-monitoring uit te voeren voor Cluster 1 locaties Zuidhoek-De Val (“Zeelandbrug”) en Cauwersinlaag (“Lokkersnol”) in de Oosterschelde. Het doel van deze monitoring is het bepalen van de samenstelling en biodiversiteit van de aanwezige levensgemeenschappen op harde en zachte substraten, en de bepaling van de gehalten aan zware metalen in mosselen en oesters. Voor locatie Lokkersnol is de monitoring alleen op levensgemeenschappen van zachte substraten gericht. De monitoring is uitgevoerd in samenwerking met Stichting Zeeschelp en TNO.
    Gehalte aan zware metalen in biota op stort- en referentielocaties in de Oosterschelde
    Glorius, S.T. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den - \ 2016
    IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C081/16) - 32
    heavy metals - mytilus edulis - crassostrea gigas - biota - sampling - eastern scheldt - zware metalen - mytilus edulis - crassostrea gigas - biota - bemonsteren - oosterschelde
    Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de metaalanalyses in mosselen Mytilus edulis en Japanse oesters Crassostrea gigas bemonsterd op verschillende locaties in de Oosterschelde. Hierbij wordt ingegaan op de jaarlijkse variatie in metaalconcentratie in mossel- en oesterweefsel en verschillen tussen type stort en referentielocaties en worden gehalten getoetst aan geldende milieukwaliteitsnormen.
    Effectbeoordeling van het voorstel voor een nieuwe Europese Meststoffenverordening : analyse van de aanvoer van zware metalen de landbouwbodem en gevolgen voor vrije verhandeling van nationale meststoffen
    Römkens, Paul ; Rietra, René ; Ehlert, Philip - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2766) - 99
    kunstmeststoffen - wetgeving - dierlijke meststoffen - zware metalen - effecten - milieuwetgeving - europa - fertilizers - legislation - animal manures - heavy metals - effects - environmental legislation - europe
    De Europese Commissie (COM) heeft een nieuw pakket voor de circulaire economie goedgekeurd om de overgang naar een circulaire economie in Europa te stimuleren. Oogmerk is om een stimulans en een versterking te geven aan het mondiale concurrentievermogen en duurzame economische groei en nieuwe werkgelegenheid te creëren. Het pakket stelt maatregelen voor die uitgewerkt zijn in een actieplan. Deze maatregelen sturen aan op een overgang van een lineaire economie naar een circulaire economie. Tot uitvoering van het pakket heeft COM maatregelen aangewezen. Een van de maatregelen is een herziening van de Europese meststoffenverordening (CEP, 2016) om de erkenning van organische meststoffen en op afval gebaseerde meststoffen in een geharmoniseerde markt te vergemakkelijken Deze studie onderzoekt de effecten van dit voorstel en richt zich daarbij vooral op mogelijke consequenties van de door CEP 2016 voorgestelde criteria voor meststoffen, waaronder organische en anorganische reststoffen op de gewaskwaliteit en op de belasting van de bodem met contaminanten waaronder Cadmium (Cd), Chroom (Cr), Kwik (Hg), Nikkel (Ni), Lood (Pb), en Arseen (As) en micronutriënten Koper (Cu) en Zink (Zn). Daarnaast wordt via een generieke analyse in kaart gebracht of huidige nationale meststoffen kunnen voldoen aan de door de nieuwe Europese meststoffenverordening voorgestelde eisen voor waardegevende bestanddelen en contaminanten. Tevens is onderzocht of mest en producten van mestverwerking kunnen ressorteren onder de voorgestelde CEPbepalingen (2016). Ten slotte is onderzocht of de huidige afval- en reststromen die als co-vergistingsmateriaal toegelaten zijn, aangemerkt kunnen worden als bioafval conform Richtlijn 2008/98/EG.
    Proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed
    Pereboom, D.P.K.H. ; Elbers, I.J.W. ; Jong, J. de; Lee, M.K. van der; Nijs, W.C.M. de - \ 2016
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2016.015) - 33
    heavy metals - compound feeds - tests - zware metalen - mengvoer - tests
    The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part of the accreditation. The primary goal of this proficiency test was to give laboratories the opportunity to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of heavy metals in compound feed. For this proficiency test, two test materials were dispatched. The heavy metal concentration in each material is given in mg/kg with a moisture content of 12%: • Chicken feed with a consensus value of 0.37 mg/kg cadmium and 5.2 mg/kg lead (A); • Chicken feed with a consensus value of 0.62 mg/kg cadmium and 3.0 mg/kg arsenic (B). The fortified materials were prepared by spiking a slurry of commercially obtained chicken compound feed, followed by extensive mixing and freeze-drying. Homogeneity assessment showed that all materials were sufficiently homogeneous for proficiency testing. The stability test demonstrated no statistically significant loss of cadmium, lead or arsenic from the materials during the timescale of the proficiency test. Twenty-one European laboratories participated in this proficiency test and submitted results in time. For test material A, twenty laboratories reported quantitative results and one laboratory reported a screening result for cadmium and for lead, twenty-one laboratories reported quantitative results. For test material B, twenty-one and nineteen laboratories reported quantitative results for respectively cadmium and arsenic. Two laboratories did not report quantitative results for arsenic due to the absence of the compound in their scope. Fifteen laboratories reported details of the applied extraction method. Twelve of the fifteen laboratories applied comparable digestion methods for sample preparation and in general used ICP-MS (six laboratories)
    Risicobeoordeling van contaminanten in afval- en reststoffen bestemd voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal
    Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Wijnen, H.J. van; Struijs, J. ; Dijk, T.A. van; Schöll, L. van; Poorter, L.R.M. de - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 70) - 158
    biogas - co-vergisting - arsenicum - residuen - zware metalen - verontreinigende stoffen - pesticiden - biociden - mestbeleid - landbouwbeleid - organische verontreinigende stoffen - risicoschatting - biogas - co-fermentation - arsenic - residues - heavy metals - pollutants - pesticides - biocides - manure policy - agricultural policy - organic pollutants - risk assessment
    A number of wastes and by-products were reviewed for their suitability as substrates for co-digestion with animalmanure to produce biogas and a digestate for use as a fertiliser. The review included 21 substances proposed byLTO Noord (Dutch Farmers Union – Northern Netherlands) and Biogas Branche Organisatie (BBO, the Dutch BiogasIndustry Association) for inclusion in Annex Aa of the Fertiliser Act. At the request of the Ministry of EconomicAffairs a further 6 substances were added (21+6). In addition, 119 substances were re-reviewed in connection witha change to the reference composition for animal manure. The review focused on the possible adverseenvironmental effects of using the digestate as a fertiliser and followed the protocol for assessing the value andrisks of waste used as a fertiliser, version 2.1. The risk assessment included the inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Cu,Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, As) and organic contaminants (dioxine, PCBs, PAHs, mineral oil, residues of crop protectionproducts) as required by the Fertiliser Act. For all the wastes and by-products, data on composition were collectedfrom the literature and from analyses provided by stakeholders. Expert judgment was used where data were notavailable or were insufficient to conduct a risk assessment as prescribed by the protocol. Criteria for expertjudgment were developed for such situations. Two alternative risk assessment methods were developed for theresidues of pesticides and biocides, based partly on expert judgement. These methods were compared with themethod prescribed by the protocol. These three methods reflect different policy judgements; the protection level setby policymakers will determine which method should be used. The 21+6 substances were evaluated in accordancewith the protocol and using the three methods for evaluating the residues of pesticides and biocides. The resultswere compared with registered co-digestion materials in Flanders, Denmark and Germany. Recommendations aregiven to support policy decisions on the choice of alternative risk assessment method to be used to permit the codigestionof wastes and by-products in biogas production that produce an agronomically and environmentallyacceptable digestate for fertiliser use
    An evolutionary and functional genomics study of Noccaea caerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant species
    Wang, Y. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Maarten Koornneef, co-promotor(en): Mark Aarts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578562 - 190
    brassicaceae - genomics - hyperaccumulator plants - heavy metals - genes - genetic variation - brassicaceae - genomica - hyperaccumulerende planten - zware metalen - genen - genetische variatie

    Noccaea caerulescens is the only known Zn/Cd/Ni hyperaccumulator. The Ganges accession (2n = 14) has an, yet unpublished, genome size of ~319 Mb, with 29,712 predicted genes representing 15,874 gene families. This species is distributed mainly in Europe. Three ecotypes can be distinguished: two metallicolous ecotypes, resident to serpentine soil (Ni enriched) and calamine soil (Zn/Cd enriched), and a non-metallicolous ecotype, growing on regular, non-metalliferous soils. The physiological differences that underlie variation in heavy metal accumulation and tolerance are well-understood, and the molecular basis of hyperaccumulation and tolerance has been explored by transcript profiling in the presence of metals and by comparative transcriptome analysis using N. caerulescens and non-hyperaccumulators such as Arabidopsis thaliana. The genetic variation which emerged during the evolution of metal hyperaccumulation has not yet been investigated. The work described in this thesis considers the identification of genetic variation under selection for Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation and tolerance by next generation resequencing of the wild metallicolous (calamine) and non-metallicolous populations and the generation of a mutant N. caerulescens library for functional analysis. The regulation of flowering time was also investigated, using early flowering mutants selected from the mutant library.

    Uitloging en effecten van metalen uit staalslakken beoordeeld in mesocosms
    Foekema, E.M. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den; Sonneveld, C. ; Hoornsman, G. ; Blanco Garcia, A. - \ 2016
    Den Helder : IMARES Wageningen UR (Rapport / IMARES C063/16) - 102
    mesocosmossen - oosterschelde - zware metalen - zuurgraad - erosiebestrijding - waterkwaliteit - mesocosms - eastern scheldt - heavy metals - acidity - erosion control - water quality
    Het doel van dit project was vast te stellen in welke mate zware metalen uit in zee gebrachte staalslakken bij een voor de Oosterschelde realistische en een worst-case waterverversingssnelheid: - uitlogen naar de waterkolom; - opgenomen worden door schelpdieren (mossel), wieren (Zee-eik), zakpijpen en sponzen; - negatieve effecten veroorzaken bij bovengenoemde organismen en op het mesocosm ecosysteem. De resultaten van de staalslakken zijn vergeleken met breuksteen, het materiaal dat traditioneel voor dijkverzwaring gebruikt wordt en maasgrind als referentiemateriaal met naar verwachting weinig of geen uitloging.
    Beehold : the colony of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) as a bio-sampler for pollutants and plant pathogens
    Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Grotenhuis; Willem Jan de Kogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577510 - 206
    apis mellifera - honey bees - honey bee colonies - biological indicators - sampling - instruments - pollution - pollutants - heavy metals - plant pathogenic bacteria - erwinia amylovora - erwinia pyrifoliae - analytical methods - apis mellifera - honingbijen - honingbijkolonies - biologische indicatoren - bemonsteren - instrumenten (meters) - verontreiniging - verontreinigende stoffen - zware metalen - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - erwinia amylovora - erwinia pyrifoliae - analytische methoden

    Bio-sampling is a function of bio-indication. Bio-indication with honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L) is where the research fields of environmental technology and apiculture overlap. The honeybees are samplers of the environment by collecting unintentionally and simultaneously, along with nectar, pollen, water and honeydew from the flowers or on the leaves, other matter (in bio-indication terms: target matter) and accumulating this in the colony. Collected target matter, in this thesis heavy metals, the plant pathogens Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora and the soil pollutant γ-HCH, is collected from the colony by subsampling. Subsampling the honeybee colony is done by taking and killing bees from the hive (sacrificial) or by collecting target matter from the bee’s exterior without killing the bee (non-sacrificial). In environmental technology terms the application of the honeybee colony is a Passive Sampling Method (PSM). In this thesis the possibilities and restrictions of the PSM honeybee colony are explored.

    Bio-indication is a broad research field with one common factor: a living organism (bio) is applied to record an alteration of the environment (indication). The environment may be small such as a laboratory or big such as an ecosystem. Alterations in the organism may vary from detecting substances foreign to the body to mortality of the organism. In environmental technology the concept Source-Path-Receptor (SPR) is applied to map the route of a pollutant. It describes where in the environment the pollution is, how it moves through the environment and where it ends. This environment is the same environment of all living organisms, ergo also honeybees. Honeybees depend on flowers for their food. In the SPR concept, a flower can be a source, path or receptor. Along with collecting pollen, nectar, water and honeydew, target matter is collected by honeybees. Each honeybee functions as a micro-sampler of target matter in the environment, in this case the flower. Each honeybee is part of a honeybee colony and in fact the honeybee colony is the bio-sampler. The honeybee colony is a superorganism. The well-being of the colony prevails over the individual honeybee. Food collection is directed by the colony’s need. Foragers are directed to the most profitable food sources by the bee dance and food exchange (trophallaxis). The result of this feature is that mainly profitable sources are exploited and poor food sources less or not at all. During the active foraging period hundreds to thousands of flowers are visited daily. The nectar, pollen, water and honeydew plus the unintentionally collected target matter is accumulated in the honeybee colony. In order to obtain target matter the colony must be subsampled. This is done by picking bees from the hive-entrance (hive-entering bees) or inside the hive (in-hive bees) and processing them for analysis (sacrificial). This is the most commonly applied method. However, it is possible to subsample the colony without picking and processing the bees by collecting target matter from the hive-entering bee’s exterior (non-sacrificial). For non-sacrificial subsampling of the honeybee colony the Beehold device with the sampling part Beehold tube has been developed. The results of bio-indication with honeybee colonies are qualitative and indicative for follow up study (Chapter 1).

    Six bio-indication studies with honeybee colonies for bio-indication of heavy metals, the plant pathogens Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora and the soil pollutant γ-HCH are presented. Chapter 2 describes how the concentration of eighteen heavy metals in honeybees fluctuate throughout the period of July, August and September (temporal) at the study sites: the city of Maastricht, the urban location with an electricity power plant in Buggenum and along the Nieuwe Waterweg at Hoek van Holland (spatial). A number of the metals have not been previously analysed in honeybees. To study whether honeybees can be used for bio-indication of air pollution, the concentrations of cadmium, vanadium and lead were compared to concentrations found in honeybees. The honeybee colonies were placed next to the air samplers. Only significant differences of metal concentrations in the ambient air also show in honeybees. This was the case with vanadium in ambient air and honeybees. The spatial and temporal differences of cadmium and lead were too futile to demonstrate a correspondence (Chapter 3). In a national surveillance study in 2008 the concentration of eighteen metals in honeybees has been analysed. The results showed a distinct regional pattern. Honeybees in the East of the Netherlands have higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the bees in the West. Besides regional differences local differences were also recorded. An approximate description of the land use around 148 apiaries (> 50% agriculture, > 50% wooded area, > 50% urban area and mixed use) indicated the impact of land use on metal concentrations in honeybees. In areas with > 50% wood significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were detected (Chapter 4). Subsampling of the honeybee colonies in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 was done sacrificially. In the studies presented in Chapter 5, 6, and 7 the honeybee colonies were subsampled non-sacrificially or simultaneously non-sacrificially and sacrificially. The plant pathogen E. pyrifoliae causes a flower infection in the strawberry cultivation in greenhouses. In greenhouse strawberry cultivation honeybees are applied for pollination. In Chapter 5 the combination pollination / bio-indication by honeybee colonies is studied. This proved to be a match. E. pyrifoliae could be detected on in-hive bees prior to any symptom of the infection in the flowers. In the Beehold tube, the bacterium was detected at the same time as the first tiny symptoms of the infection. In Chapter 5 the principles on which the Beehold tube is based are presented and discussed. The plant pathogen E. amylovora causes fireblight in orchards. The combination pollination / bio-indication has also been applied in this study performed in Austria in 2013. It is known that E. amylovora can be detected on honeybees prior to any symptom in the flower or on the fruit tree. A fireblight outbreak depends on flowering period, humidity and temperature. In 2013 no fireblight infection emerged in the orchards where the study was performed. Therefore, the bacterium could not be detected on the honeybees. γ-HCH (Lindane) is one of the soil pollutants in the Bitterfeld region in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany. It is the result of dumping industrial waste around the production locations. Although γ-HCH is bound to soil particles there is a flux to groundwater and surface water. Consequently, the pollution may end up in the sediments of the streambed and flood plains. The study objective was to investigate the hypothetic route of γ-HCH from polluted soil (source), via soil erosion and atmospheric deposition (route) to the receptor (flowering flowers) by detecting γ-HCH in the Beehold tube. Although on average over 17000 honeybees passed through the Beehold tube daily for a maximal period of 28 days, no γ-HCH has been detected. The pollen pattern in the Beehold tube revealed where the bees collected the food (Chapter 7).

    The application of the honeybee colony has pros and cons. Distinctive pros are many micro samplers, the extensive collection of matter (both food and target matter) and the accumulation in the colony. For successful bio-indication with honeybee colonies, determining factors are: the target matter, location of the target matter, distance between target matter and the honeybee colony, individual or pooled subsampling, the minimal sampling frequency and sample size, and sacrificial or non-sacrificial subsampling applied solely or in combination. Taking bees from a colony impacts upon the colony’s performance and consequently the passive sampling method. Based on a long-years’ experience and inter-collegial discussion it is stated that 3% of the forager bees (hive-entering) and 1.5% of the in-hive bees can be sampled safely without impacting upon the colony. This restriction does not apply when carrying out non-sacrificial subsampling of the honeybee colony (Chapter 8).

    Performing bio-indication with honeybee colonies has more applications than have been exploited so far. Further research can make a change. In particular I mention here the combination of pollination and bio-indication and the application of non-sacrificial subsampling solely or in combination with sacrificial subsampling.

    Everywhere Apiculture is practiced (all over the world except the polar areas) bio-indication with honeybee colonies can be applied in a simple, practical and low cost way.

    Monitoring van ecologische risico’s bij actief bodembeheer van slootdempingen in de Krimpenerwaard : afrondende rapportage T1-monitoring Ecologie
    Lange, H.J. de; Hout, A. van der; Faber, J.H. - \ 2016
    Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2703) - 61
    bodemverontreiniging - zware metalen - polychloorbifenylen - bodemsanering - ecologische risicoschatting - risico - aardwormen - talpidae - krimpenerwaard - zuid-holland - soil pollution - heavy metals - polychlorinated biphenyls - soil remediation - ecological risk assessment - risk - earthworms - talpidae - krimpenerwaard - zuid-holland
    In de Krimpenerwaard liggen circa 6500 slootdempingen en vuilstorten. Het dempingsmateriaal bevat
    regelmatig verontreinigingen, zodat voor de hele regio sprake is van een geval van ernstige
    bodemverontreiniging. Het gebiedsgericht bodembeheerplan voorziet in het afdekken van de
    verontreinigde slootdempingen met gebiedseigen schone grond. De effectiviteit van de sanering wordt
    geëvalueerd op basis van monitoring van ecologische risico’s. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van
    de T1-monitoring, waarin in een relatief korte tijd na afdekken (twee tot vier jaar) de effectiviteit van
    de maatregel wordt beoordeeld. De saneringsmaatregel blijkt de meeste nadelige effecten van de
    slootdemping op soortensamenstelling en aantallen regenwormen te hebben weggenomen. De
    gehalten zware metalen in twee onderzochte regenwormsoorten zijn na sanering over het algemeen
    lager dan de gebiedseigen referentie in de T0-monitoring. De saneringsmaatregel is dus op de korte
    termijn effectief om de risico’s voor doorvergiftiging van zware metalen terug te brengen tot
    gebiedseigen niveau. De PCB-gehalten in de twee soorten regenwormen vertonen veel variatie tussen
    de jaren. De tendens is dat de gehalten in dempingmonsters lager zijn dan in referentiemonsters.
    Vanwege de grote variatie en het beperkt aantal onderzochte locaties zijn deze conclusies alleen met
    voorzichtigheid te trekken. Het PCB-gehalte in mollen bleek ook sterk variabel, in ruimte en in tijd.
    Mollen die in de T1-monitoring gevangen zijn op afgedekte Shredder en Huishoudelijk afval
    dempingen hebben significant hogere PCB-gehalten dan de dieren op de referentiepercelen. Het
    afdekken van de demping heeft voor deze dempingcategorieën de ecologische risico’s onvoldoende
    weggenomen. De effectiviteit op langere termijn met betrekking tot het al dan niet optreden van
    herverontreiniging als gevolg van bioturbatie en capillaire opstijging werd niet onderzocht
    Dynamics of adaptation in experimental yeast populations exposed to gradual and abrupt change in heavy metal concentration
    Gorter, Florien ; Aarts, Mark ; Zwaan, B.J. ; Visser, J.A.G.M. de - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    adaptation - ecology - evolutionary - microbial - Environmental variability - evolution - fitness - genetics - population - dynamics - fungi - heavy metals - pleiotropy
    Directional environmental change is a ubiquitous phenomenon that may have profound effects on all living organisms. However, it is unclear how different rates of such change affect the dynamics and outcome of evolution. We studied this question using experimental evolution of heavy metal tolerance in the baker´s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To this end, we grew replicate lines of yeast for 500 generations in the presence of (i) a constant high concentration of cadmium, nickel or zinc, or (ii) a gradually increasing concentration of these metals. We found that gradual environmental change leads to a delay in fitness increase compared to abrupt change, but not necessarily to a different fitness of evolutionary endpoints. For the non-essential metal cadmium this delay is due to reduced fitness differences between genotypes at low metal concentrations, consistent with directional selection to minimize intracellular concentrations of this metal. In contrast, for the essential metals nickel and zinc different genotypes are selected at different concentrations, consistent with stabilizing selection to maintain constant intracellular concentrations of these metals. These findings indicate diverse fitness consequences of evolved tolerance mechanisms for essential and non-essential metals, and imply that the rate of environmental change and the nature of the stressor are crucial determinants of evolutionary dynamics.
    Gehaltes aan zware metalen in biota op stort- en referentielocaties in de Oosterschelde & Westerschelde : data rapport 2014
    Jansen, H.M. ; Glorius, S.T. ; Tangelder, M. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den - \ 2015
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C079/15) - 91
    oeverbescherming van rivieren - zware metalen - sintels - metalen - verontreiniging - oosterschelde - westerschelde - monitoring - aquatische ecologie - ecotoxicologie - riverbank protection - heavy metals - slags - metals - pollution - eastern scheldt - western scheldt - monitoring - aquatic ecology - ecotoxicology
    Om erosie van de oevers en geulwanden tegen te gaan, is er in 2008 (pilot) en 2009 (structureel) begonnen om ‘bestortingen’ uit te voeren om de oevers te beschermen. Deze bestortingen zijn uitgevoerd met staalslakken (SS) en breukstenen (BS). Om met zekerheid vast te kunnen stellen dat als gevolg van deze bestortingen geen negatieve effecten optreden op het mariene milieu is een monitoringsprogramma ingevoerd om inzicht te krijgen in gehalten aan zware metalen in aanwezige biota meerdere jaren na het aanbrengen van vooroeververdediging. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de metaalanalyses in biota bemonsterd op verschillende locaties in de Oosterschelde en Westerschelde.
    Investigating the suitability of constructed wetlands for the treatment of water for fish farms
    Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Dien, F. van; El-Beshbishi, D.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-079) - 27
    wetlands - artificial wetlands - fish farms - heavy metals - farming - pesticides - waste water - tilapia - development projects - egypt - north africa - africa - wetlands - helofytenfilters - viskwekerijen - zware metalen - landbouw bedrijven - pesticiden - afvalwater - tilapia - ontwikkelingsprojecten - egypte - noord-afrika - afrika
    Many fish farms in Egypt rely on water of drainage canals to fill the fish ponds. There is a risk that this water is contaminated with pesticides and heavy metals. This report describes the results of a collaborative project that took place in 2012-2014 and that aimed to test the suitability of a constructed (engineered) wetland as treatment device for the removal of such pollutants from drainage canal water on a private fish farm in Egypt
    Bepaling zware metalen in kreeften op nieuwe vooroevers in de Oosterschelde
    Tangelder, M. ; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Es, Y. van - \ 2015
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C039/15) - 32
    oeverbescherming van rivieren - zware metalen - dijken - milieueffect - rivierkreeft - ecotoxicologie - aquatische ecologie - oosterschelde - riverbank protection - heavy metals - dykes - environmental impact - crayfish - ecotoxicology - aquatic ecology - eastern scheldt
    Rijkswaterstaat verstevigt de vooroevers van de dijken in de Oosterschelde en Westerschelde en maakt hiervoor gebruik van o.a. staalslakken en breuksteen. Eerder is onderzoek gedaan naar mogelijke effecten van uitloging van zware metalen uit substraat op bodemfauna, maar niet naar het mogelijke effect op kreeften.
    Phosphate and organic fertilizer recovery from black water
    Tervahauta, T.H. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman; Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): L. Hernandez Leal. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570931 - 156
    afvalwater - fosfaten - afvalwaterbehandeling - organische meststoffen - terugwinning - anaërobe behandeling - zware metalen - hergebruik van water - waste water - phosphates - waste water treatment - organic fertilizers - recovery - anaerobic treatment - heavy metals - water reuse
    In this thesis the integration of treatment systems for black and grey water was investigated to improve resource recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Special focus was set on phosphate and organic fertilizer recovery from vacuum collected black water. Currently, the soil application of black water sludge is prohibited in the Netherlands due to elevated heavy metal concentrations.
    Monitoring vooroeververdediging Oosterschelde 2013
    Tangelder, M. ; Schellekens, T. ; Kluijver, M. de; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den - \ 2014
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C102/14) - 62
    oeverbescherming van rivieren - bekledingen - steenwerk - flora - fauna - zware metalen - mossels - oesters - ecotoxicologie - oosterschelde - monitoring - riverbank protection - linings - stonework - flora - fauna - heavy metals - mussels - oysters - ecotoxicology - eastern scheldt - monitoring
    Dit rapport beschrijft de uitkomsten van de eco(toxico)logische monitoring van de vooroeververdediging in de Oosterschelde. Aanleiding hiervoor is dat Rijkswaterstaat sinds 2009 op locaties met voortschrijdende erosie in de Ooster- en Westerschelde bestortingen met staalslakken en breuksteen uitvoert op de vooroever van de dijken om de veiligheid tegen overstromingen te kunnen blijven garanderen. Het doel van deze monitoring is het bepalen van de samenstelling en biodiversiteit van de aanwezige levensgemeenschappen op harde en zachte substraten, en de bepaling van de gehalten aan zware metalen in mosselen en oesters op de nieuwe vooroever en referentie-locaties. Dit is in 2013 gedaan voor de locatie Zeelandbrug (oost/midden/west), waar voor het vierde opeenvolgende jaar is gemonitord na de bestorting in 2009. Daarnaast is de nulsituatie in kaart gebracht voor de locatie Zierikzee die in 2014 bestort zal worden. Ook zijn er verschillende referentie-locaties in de Oosterschelde meegenomen.
    Retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage
    Xiao, H.W. ; Zhang, S.L. ; Zhai, J. ; He, Q. ; Mels, A.R. ; Ning, K.J. ; Liu, J. - \ 2013
    Water Science and Technology 67 (2013)10. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2257 - 2264.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - helofytenfilters - zware metalen - verontreinigde sedimenten - plantenweefsels - waste water treatment - artificial wetlands - heavy metals - contaminated sediments - plant tissues - waste-water treatment - acid-mine drainage - heavy-metals - removal - performance - experience - decades - china
    This study was conducted to investigate the retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) that consists of both vertical baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs) and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSFs) with unique flow regimes and oxygen distribution. The heavy metal concentrations in water, sediments, and plant tissues in the hybrid CW were analysed. The removal of heavy metals from the water stream in the monitoring period was not statistically significant. Metal concentrations in the sediments generally decreased along the wastewater treatment process. The reductive anaerobic condition in the VBFW may promote the sulphate reduction and form highly insoluble Cu, Pb, and Zn sulphides, resulting in the higher concentration of the bivalent cations in the VBFW sediments than the corresponding values in the HSSF; however, the aerobic and anoxic environments in the HSSF enhanced the removal of Cr with the co-precipitation of iron and manganese oxides, and their hydroxides. Metal concentrations in plant tissues were not significantly influenced by the concentrations in sediments, while roots contained statistically higher metal concentrations than stems and leaves. The sediments stored 94.01, 86.31, 95.85, and 89.51% of the total Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn retained in the hybrid CW system, respectively, while only small fractions (
    Risicobeoordeling van contaminanten in afval- en reststoffen bestemd voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal
    Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Wijnen, H.J. van; Struijs, J. ; Dijk, T.A. van; Schöll, L. van; Poorter, L.R.M. de - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 333) - 168
    mestverwerking - co-vergisting - verontreinigende stoffen - digestaat - zware metalen - pesticiden - milieubeleid - monitoring - manure treatment - co-fermentation - pollutants - digestate - heavy metals - pesticides - environmental policy - monitoring
    Een beoordeling is uitgevoerd van 21 stoffen die door LTO-Noord en de Biogas Branche Organisatie (BBO) aangemeld zijn voor opname in bijlage Aa van de Uitvoeringsregeling Meststoffenwet. Op verzoek van het ministerie EZ zijn daar 6 stoffen aan toegevoegd (21+6) en werden 119 eerder aangemelde stoffen herbeoordeeld. De beoordeling betreft met name de milieuhygienische consequenties van het gebruik van covergistingsmaterialen en het resulterende digestaat na vergisting. De beoordeling van de zware metaal- en arseengehalten en de door de Meststoffenwet aangewezen organische microverontreinigingen volgt het Protocol Beoordeling Stoffen eststoffenwet, versie 2.1. Expert judgement is toegepast in geval gegevens niet of niet volledig beschikbaar waren om dit protocol te kunnen toepassen. Criteria voor expert judgement zijn voor deze situatie opgesteld. Voor de beoordeling van de residuen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en biociden zijn drie alternatieve systematieken opgesteld, mede gebaseerd op toepassing van expert judgement. Het na te streven beschermingsniveau bepaalt welke systematiek gebruikt zal gaan worden. De 21+6 stoffen zijn beoordeeld volgens het protocol en opgestelde alternatieven. De toelating van covergistingsmaterialen in Vlaanderen, Denemarken en Duitsland is betrokken bij de beoordeling. Tenslotte worden aanbevelingen gedaan om te komen tot beleidsafwegingen en –keuzes inzake opgestelde alternatieven en tot een effectief protocol voor toelating van afval- en reststoffen als covergistingsmateriaal.
    Variatie gehalte zware metalen op locatie Zeelandbrug en toxiciteit molybdeen - data rapport
    Glorius, S.T. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2013
    Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C105/13) - 24
    laboratoriummethoden - aquatische ecologie - ecotoxicologie - zware metalen - laboratory methods - aquatic ecology - ecotoxicology - heavy metals
    Om met zekerheid vast te kunnen stellen dat er geen negatieve effecten optreden op het mariene milieu n.a.v. de oever-verdediging in Ooster- en Westerschelde is door Rijkswaterstaat in 2009 een monitoringsprogramma opgezet. Vanwege kostenoverwegingen zijn monitoringsactiviteiten in 2012 ingeperkt. Wel zijn op de Zeelandbrug (Oosterschelde) mosselen (Mytilus edulis) en Japanse oesters (Crassostrea gigas) bemonsterd om inzicht te verkrijgen in gehalten aan zware metalen tweeëneenhalf tot drie jaar na het aanbrengen van de vooroeververdediging. Dit rapport beschrijft het resultaat van de verschillende toxiciteitstesten die uitgevoerd zijn in het laboratorium van IMARES Den Helder. Daarnaast worden de resultaten van de metaalanalyses in mosselen en oesters bemonsterd op de Zeelandbrug besproken waarbij ingegaan wordt op de jaarlijkse variatie in metaalconcentratie een mogelijke trend in de tijd.
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