Een nieuwe economische basis voor de kudde in het Gulpdal? : zoektocht naar draagvlak voor gescheperde begrazing met streekeigen Mergellandschapen
Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Westerink, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR Wetenschapswinkel 326) - 46
schapenhouderij - kuddes (herds) - begrazing - natuurbeheer - vegetatiebeheer - landbouwkundig onderzoek - limburg - financieren - landbouwbeleid - sheep farming - herds - grazing - nature management - vegetation management - agricultural research - limburg - financing - agricultural policy
Het vinden van een nieuwe economische basis voor gescheperde kuddes is van belang voor het landschap, de natuur en het levend cultuurhistorisch erfgoed. Dit onderzoek draagt bij aan het nadenken over nieuwe richtingen en het vinden en opbouwen van een nieuwe ‘klantenkring’. Binnen het kader van het grotere onderzoeksproject ligt de nadruk van het onderzoek door Wageningen op het in kaart brengen van de belangen van alle betrokken partijen en het van hieruit ontwerpen van een nieuw sociaal contract waarmee de schaapskudde in het Gulpdal duurzaam in stand kan worden gehouden.
Kunnen we de schapen scheren? : marktkansen voor ongesubsidieerde gescheperde schaapskuddes in Noord-Brabant
Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2629) - 29
schapen - kuddes (herds) - begrazing - natuurgebieden - vleesvee - bedrijfseconomie - haalbaarheidsstudies - noord-brabant - sheep - herds - grazing - natural areas - beef cattle - business economics - feasibility studies - noord-brabant
Onderzoek naar de haalbaarheid van financieel onafhankelijk opererende gescheperde schaapskuddes. Hieronder verstaan we kuddes die onder andere voor het beheer van natuurterreinen worden ingezet en waarbij een herder gedurende een groot deel van het jaar de begrazing in het terrein stuurt. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat de meeste kuddes in Brabant (en daarbuiten) momenteel een groot financieel tekort hebben, helemaal wanneer de subsidie van de provincie zou wegvallen. Voor een ‘gemiddelde’ kudde met 250 ooien bedraagt het tekort ondanks die subsidie circa € 30.000 per jaar. De kuddes worden vooral ingezet voor het beheer van heideterreinen van de bekende natuurbeschermingsorganisaties Staatsbosbeheer, Natuurmonumenten en het Brabants Landschap. Deze terreinbeheerders betalen daarvoor een vast bedrag per dag dat de kudde in het terrein is. Per hectare omgerekend is dat bedrag veelal hoger dan de hectarevergoeding die de terreinbeheerders van de SNL-regeling ontvangen. Daarom legt ook de terreinbeheerder er zonder flankerende maatregelen (bijvoorbeeld via de PAS) nog flink op toe. De economische positie van de schaapskuddes is onder de huidige omstandigheden wankel.
|Prevalence of claw disorders in young HF-animals with and without grazing: 1. non infectious diseases
Brummelman, B. ; Holzhauer, M. ; Frankena, K. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. - \ 2014
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 139 (2014)7. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 26 - 33.
rundveehouderij - weiden - klauwen - diergezondheid - begrazing - voetziekten - huisvesting van koeien - laesies - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - cattle husbandry - pastures - claws - animal health - grazing - foot diseases - cow housing - lesions - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - dairy-cows - first lactation - foot lesions - risk-factors - lameness - cattle - conformation - herds - hemorrhages - pasture
Ter bestudering van prevalentie van en effect van weidegang op klauwaandoeningen bij jonge runderen werden 10 melkveebedrijven gevolgd (vijf met en vijf zonder weidegang) in een twee jaar lang durend longitudinaal onderzoek. De achterklauwen van veertig dieren, bij aanvang jonger dan twee jaar, werden tussen mei 2008 en februari 2010 iedere drie maanden beoordeeld. In dit artikel worden de niet infectieuze klauwaandoeningen besproken. De prevalentie van zoolzweren (0,1%) en witte lijn-laesies (2,6%) was zeer laag, terwijl de prevalentie van zoolbloedingen (ZB) vanaf een leeftijd van negen maanden al boven de 20 procent lag. Dieren met weidegang hadden aan het einde van het weideseizoen significant minder ZB dan de dieren zonder weidegang. In de stalperiode nam de prevalentie van ZB bij dieren met weidegang toe tot boven het niveau van dieren zonder weidegang. Na afkalven trad een duidelijke toename op van de prevalentie van ZB tot een maximum (59%) op een leeftijd van dertig maanden.
A cohort study on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae colonisation in suckling piglets
Tobias, T.J. ; Klinkenberg, D. ; Bouma, A. ; Broek, J. van den; Daemen, A.J.J.M. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Stegeman, J.A. - \ 2014
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 114 (2014)3-4. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 223 - 230.
infection patterns - pigs - antibodies - transmission - efficacy - herds - sows - serotype-2 - hemolysin - vaccine
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes respiratory disease in pigs and despite the use of preventive measures such as vaccination and antimicrobials clinical outbreaks still occur. At weaning often many piglets are not colonised. If differences in prevalence between litters are large and if factors were known that could explain these differences, this may provide an opportunity to raise groups of A. pleuropneumoniae free piglets. To this end, a cohort study was performed on two endemically infected farrow-to-finish farms. Seventy-six of 133 sows were selected using stratified random selection by parity. Farmers complied with a strict hygiene and animal management protocol to prevent transmission between litters. Tonsil brush and serum samples taken three weeks before parturition were tested for antigen with an apxIVA qPCR and antibodies with Apx and Omp ELISAs, respectively. Three days before weaning tonsil brush samples from all piglets (n = 871) were collected and tested for antigen. Whereas all sows tested positive both in serology tests as well as qPCR, 0.41 of the litters tested fully negative and 0.73 of all piglets tested negative. The proportion of positively tested piglets in positive litters ranged from 0.08-1.0 (median= 0.36). A grouped logistic regression model with a beta binomial distribution of the probability for piglets to become infected was fitted to the data and associations with explanatory variables were explored. To test the possibility that alternatively the clustering was caused by onwards transmission among the piglets, a transmission model was fitted to the data incorporating sow-piglet and piglet-piglet transmission, but this model did not fit better. The results of this study showed that the number of colonised suckling piglets was highly clustered and mainly attributable to the variability of infectiousness of the dam, but no dam related risk factor for colonisation status of litter or piglets within litters could be identified. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle
Inchaisri, C. ; Chanpongsang, S. ; Noordhuizen, J. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2014
Animal Science journal 85 (2014)9. - ISSN 1344-3941 - p. 861 - 867.
metabolic-acidosis - milk-yield - herds - sara - insemination - diet
Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determinded by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms.
An ex ante analysis on the use of activity meters for automated estrus detection, to invest or not to invest?
Rutten, C.J. ; Steeneveld, W. ; Inchaisri, C. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6869 - 6887.
timed artificial-insemination - dairy farms - decision-making - information-technology - reproductive programs - stochastic simulation - cows - cattle - herds - model
The technical performance of activity meters for automated detection of estrus in dairy farming has been studied, and such meters are already used in practice. However, information on the economic consequences of using activity meters is lacking. The current study analyzes the economic benefits of a sensor system for detection of estrus and appraises the feasibility of an investment in such a system. A stochastic dynamic simulation model was used to simulate reproductive performance of a dairy herd. The number of cow places in this herd was fixed at 130. The model started with 130 randomly drawn cows (in a Monte Carlo process) and simulated calvings and replacement of these cows in subsequent years. Default herd characteristics were a conception rate of 50%, an 8-wk dry-off period, and an average milk production level of 8,310 kg per cow per 305 d. Model inputs were derived from real farm data and expertise. For the analysis, visual detection by the farmer (“without” situation) was compared with automated detection with activity meters (“with” situation). For visual estrus detection, an estrus detection rate of 50% and a specificity of 100% were assumed. For automated estrus detection, an estrus detection rate of 80% and a specificity of 95% were assumed. The results of the cow simulation model were used to estimate the difference between the annual net cash flows in the “with” and “without” situations (marginal financial effect) and the internal rate of return (IRR) as profitability indicators. The use of activity meters led to improved estrus detection and, therefore, to a decrease in the average calving interval and subsequent increase in annual milk production. For visual estrus detection, the average calving interval was 419 d and average annual milk production was 1,032,278 kg. For activity meters, the average calving interval was 403 d and the average annual milk production was 1,043,398 kg. It was estimated that the initial investment in activity meters would cost €17,728 for a herd of 130 cows, with an additional cost of €90 per year for the replacement of malfunctioning activity meters. Changes in annual net cash flows arising from using an activity meter included extra revenues from increased milk production and number of calves sold, increased costs from more inseminations, calvings, and feed consumption, and reduced costs from fewer culled cows and less labor for estrus detection. These changes in cash flows were caused mainly by changes in the technical results of the simulated dairy herds, which arose from differences in the estrus detection rate and specificity between the “with” and “without” situations. The average marginal financial effect in the “with” and “without” situations was €2,827 for the baseline scenario, with an average IRR of 11%. The IRR is a measure of the return on invested capital. Investment in activity meters was generally profitable. The most influential assumptions on the profitability of this investment were the assumed culling rules and the increase in sensitivity of estrus detection between the “without” and the “with” situation.
Automatic lameness detection based on consecutive 3D-video recordings
Hertem, T. van; Viazzi, S. ; Steensels, M. ; Maltz, E. ; Antler, A. ; Alchanatis, V. ; Schlageter-Tello, A. ; Lokhorst, C. ; Romanini, C.E.B. ; Bahr, C. ; Berckmans, D. ; Halachmi, I. - \ 2014
Biosystems Engineering 119 (2014). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 108 - 116.
dairy-cattle - risk-factors - milk-yield - clinical lameness - gait assessment - scoring system - back posture - cows - locomotion - herds
Manual locomotion scoring for lameness detection is a time-consuming and subjective procedure. Therefore, the objective of this study is to optimise the classification output of a computer vision based algorithm for automated lameness scoring. Cow gait recordings were made during four consecutive night-time milking sessions on an Israeli dairy farm, using a 3D-camera. A live on-the-spot assessed 5-point locomotion score was the reference for the automatic lameness score evaluation. A dataset of 186 cows with four automatic lameness scores and four live locomotion score repetitions was used for testing three different classification methods. The analysis of the automatic scores as independent observations led to a correct classification rate of 53.0% on a 5-point level scale. A multinomial logistic regression model based on four individual consecutive measures obtained a correct classification rate of 60.2%. When allowing a 1 unit error on the 5-point level scale, a correct classification rate of 90.9% was obtained. Strict binary classification to Lame vs. Not-Lame categories reached 81.2% correct classification rate. The use of cow individual consecutive measurements improved the correct classification rate of an automatic lameness detection system.
The association of ruminal pH and some metabolic parameters with conception rate at first artificial insemination in Thai dairy cows
Inchaisri, C. ; Somchai Chantsavang, ; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2013
Tropical Animal Health and Production 45 (2013)5. - ISSN 0049-4747 - p. 1183 - 1190.
body condition score - milk-production - holstein cows - acidosis - fertility - herds - cattle - yield - ovulation - lipopolysaccharide
The objective of this study was to determine the association of metabolic parameters and cow associated factors with the conception rate at first insemination (FCR) in Thai dairy cows. The investigation was performed with 529 lactations from 32 smallholder dairy farms. At 3–6 weeks after parturition, blood samples and ruminal fluid were collected. Body condition scores (BCS) of cows were scored 1 week before expected calving date and at blood sampling date. Ruminal pH was measured at 2–4 h after morning feeding in ruminal fluid collected by ruminocentesis. Serum betahydroxybutyrate and serum urea nitrogen were measured by kinetic enzyme method. Cows with first insemination (AI) between 41 and 114 days postpartum were identified after pregnancy diagnosis for FCR. Breed, parity, interval from calving to first AI, BCS before calving, BCS after calving, loss in BCS after calving, SBHB, SUN, ruminal pH, and postpartum problems were selected as independent variables for a model with FCR as a dependent variable. A multivariable logistic regression model was used with farm as a random effect. Overall FCR was 27.2 %. The FCR depended on interval from calving to first AI, BCS before calving, and ruminal pH. The FCR between 69 and 91 days postpartum was significantly highest (45 %). Before calving, a cow with high BCS (=3.5) had significantly greater FCR than a cow with low BCS (=3.25; P
Applying additive logistic regression to data derived from sensors monitoring behavioral and physiological characteristics of dairy cows to detect lameness
Kamphuis, C. ; Frank, E. ; Burke, J. ; Verkerk, G.A. ; Jago, J. - \ 2013
Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7043 - 7053.
clinical mastitis - cattle - locomotion - systems - herds - time - milk
The hypothesis was that sensors currently available on farm that monitor behavioral and physiological characteristics have potential for the detection of lameness in dairy cows. This was tested by applying additive logistic regression to variables derived from sensor data. Data were collected between November 2010 and June 2012 on 5 commercial pasture-based dairy farms. Sensor data from weigh scales (liveweight), pedometers (activity), and milk meters (milking order, unadjusted and adjusted milk yield in the first 2min of milking, total milk yield, and milking duration) were collected at every milking from 4,904 cows. Lameness events were recorded by farmers who were trained in detecting lameness before the study commenced. A total of 318 lameness events affecting 292 cows were available for statistical analyses. For each lameness event, the lame cow's sensor data for a time period of 14d before observation date were randomly matched by farm and date to 10 healthy cows (i.e., cows that were not lame and had no other health event recorded for the matched time period). Sensor data relating to the 14-d time periods were used for developing univariable (using one source of sensor data) and multivariable (using multiple sources of sensor data) models. Model development involved the use of additive logistic regression by applying the LogitBoost algorithm with a regression tree as base learner. The model's output was a probability estimate for lameness, given the sensor data collected during the 14-d time period. Models were validated using leave-one-farm-out cross-validation and, as a result of this validation, each cow in the data set (318 lame and 3,180 nonlame cows) received a probability estimate for lameness. Based on the area under the curve (AUC), results indicated that univariable models had low predictive potential, with the highest AUC values found for liveweight (AUC=0.66), activity (AUC=0.60), and milking order (AUC=0.65). Combining these 3 sensors improved AUC to 0.74. Detection performance of this combined model varied between farms but it consistently and significantly outperformed univariable models across farms at a fixed specificity of 80%. Still, detection performance was not high enough to be implemented in practice on large, pasture-based dairy farms. Future research may improve performance by developing variables based on sensor data of liveweight, activity, and milking order, but that better describe changes in sensor data patterns when cows go lame.
Consumption of antimicrobials in pigs, veal calves, and broilers in the Netherlands: Quantitative results of nationwide collection of data in 2011
Bos, M.E.H. ; Taverne, F.J. ; Geijlswijk, I.M. van; Mouton, J.W. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Heederik, D.J.J. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - escherichia-coli - animals - farmers - health - costs - herds - usage - meat - food
In 2011, Dutch animal production sectors started recording veterinary antimicrobial consumption. These data are used by the Netherlands Veterinary Medicines Authority to create transparency in and define benchmark indicators for veterinary consumption of antimicrobials. This paper presents the results of sector wide consumption of antimicrobials, in the form of prescriptions or deliveries, for all pig, veal calf, and broiler farms. Data were used to calculate animal defined daily dosages per year (ADDD/Y) per pig or veal calf farm. For broiler farms, number of animal treatment days per year was calculated. Furthermore, data were used to calculate the consumption of specific antimicrobial classes per administration route per pig or veal calf farm. The distribution of antimicrobial consumption per farm varied greatly within and between farm categories. All categories, except for rosé starter farms, showed a highly right skewed distribution with a long tail. Median ADDD/Y values varied from 1.2 ADDD/Y for rosé finisher farms to 83.2 ADDD/Y for rosé starter farms, with 28.6 ADDD/Y for white veal calf farms. Median consumption in pig farms was 9.3 ADDD/Y for production pig farms and 3.0 ADDD/Y for slaughter pig farms. Median consumption in broiler farms was 20.9 ATD/Y. Regarding specific antimicrobial classes, fluoroquinolones were mainly used on veal calf farms, but in low quantities: P75 range was 0 – 0.99 ADDD/Y, and 0 – 0.04 ADDD/Y in pig farms. The P75 range for 3rd/4th-generation cephalosporins was 0 – 0.07 ADDD/Y for veal calf farms, and 0 – 0.1 ADDD/Y for pig farms. The insights obtained from these results, and the full transparency obtained by monitoring antimicrobial consumption per farm, will help reduce antimicrobial consumption and endorse antimicrobial stewardship. The wide and skewed distribution in consumption has important practical and methodological implications for benchmarking, surveillance and future analysis of trends.
Schmallenberg virus epidemic in the Netherlands: Spatiotemporal introduction in 2011 and seroprevalence in ruminants
Veldhuis, A.M.B. ; Schaik, G. van; Vellema, P. ; Elbers, A.R.W. ; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Heijden, H.M.J.F. van der; Mars, M.H. - \ 2013
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 112 (2013)1-2. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 35 - 47.
serotype 8 - cattle - antibodies - europe - herds
This study aimed at estimating the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) seroprevalence in dairy heifers, non-dairy adult cattle, sheep and goats in the Netherlands after cessation of SBV transmission at the end of 2011. Archived serum samples from ruminants submitted to the GD Animal Health Service for monitoring purposes between November 2011 and March 2012 were selected and tested for presence of SBV-specific antibodies using an in-house ELISA. Animal seroprevalences were estimated at 63.4% in dairy heifers, 98.5% in adult non-dairy cattle, 89.0% in sheep and 50.8% in goats. Multivariable analyses were carried out to describe the relationship between potential risk factors and the ELISA outcome S/P%. The overall SBV seroprevalence in ruminants and ruminant herds in the Netherlands at the end of 2011 was high, with considerable differences between species and farm types. No gradient spatial pattern in final seroprevalence could be detected and therefore no suggestions about the site of introduction and spread of SBV in the Netherlands in 2011 could be made. In dairy heifers, it was shown that S/P% increased with age. In sheep, S/P% was lower in animals located in the coastal area. Whether herds were located near the German border did not affect the S/P% in sheep nor in dairy heifers. An attempt was made to gain insight in the spatiotemporal introduction of SBV in the Netherlands in 2011, by testing sheep serum samples from 2011. A seroprevalence of about 2% was found in samples from April, June and July 2011, but the ELISA positive samples could not be confirmed in a virus neutralization test. A clear increase in seroprevalence started at August 2011. From mid-August 2011 onwards, seropositive samples were confirmed positive by virus neutralization testing. This indicated the start of the epidemic, but without a clear spatial pattern.
Influenza A virus infection dynamics in swine farms in Belgium, France, Italy and Spain 2006-2008
Kyriakis, C.S. ; Rose, N. ; Foni, E. ; Maldonado, J. ; Loeffen, W.L.A. ; Madec, F. ; Simon, G. ; Reeth, K. - \ 2013
Veterinary Microbiology 162 (2013)2-4. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 543 - 550.
farrow-to-finish - european countries - pigs - h1n2 - h3n2 - transmission - herds - seroprevalence - hemagglutinins - pathogens
Avian-like H1N1 and reassortant H3N2 and H1N2 influenza A viruses with a human-like haemagglutinin have been co-circulating in swine in Europe for more than a decade. We aimed to examine the infection dynamics of the three swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages at the farm level, and to identify possible regional and seasonal variations in their circulation. Sera were collected from six successive generations of fattening pigs (2006-2008) in a total 80 farrow-to-finish herds in Belgium, Italy, France and Spain and examined for antibodies against the three SIVs in haemagglutination inhibition tests. Overall, in all regions and periods, 9.7% of all farms were negative for SIV, 49% were infected with one subtype, 38% with two subtypes and 3.9% with all three SIVs. We found serological evidence for the circulation of all three subtypes in Belgium, Italy and Spain, while only infections with H1N1 and H1N2 SIVs were detected in France. Despite temporary changes in the circulation of H1N2 in Belgium and in Spain, there was no true seasonal variation. The exact combination of subtypes on the same farm differed in each of the sampling periods. On the other hand, 21 farms were found to be consistently infected with the same SIV subtype throughout the study. This can either be explained by the persistence of the virus in a farm, or by the periodical re-introduction of SIVs of the same subtype.
Prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA on Dutch broiler farms and in people living and/or working on these farms
Geenen, P.L. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Haenen, A. ; Hengeveld, P.D. ; Hoek, A.H.A.M. van; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Kappert, C.C. ; Lammers, G.A.C. ; Duijkeren, E. van; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2013
Epidemiology and Infection 141 (2013)5. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 1099 - 1108.
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - pig farms - netherlands - poultry - admission - software - humans - origin - flocks - herds
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on 50 Dutch broiler farms. Of 145 persons living and/or working on these farms, eight tested positive for MRSA (5.5%). Investigation of 250 pooled throat samples of broilers and 755 dust samples resulted in four farms where MRSA-positive samples were present (8.0%). All isolates belonged to the CC398 complex. Living and/or working on a MRSA-positive farm was a risk for MRSA carriage; 66.7% of people on positive farms were MRSA positive vs. 1.5% on negative farms (P
Heat stress effects on farrowing rate in sows: Genetic parameter estimation using within-line and crossbred models
Bloemhof, S. ; Kause, A. ; Knol, E.F. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Misztal, I. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)7. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2109 - 2119.
dairy-cattle - traits - reproduction - pigs - performance - components - tolerance - herds - farm
The pork supply chain values steady and undisturbed piglet production. Fertilization and maintaining gestation in warm and hot climates is a challenge that can be potentially improved by selection. The objective of this study was to estimate 1) genetic variation for farrowing rate of sows in 2 dam lines and their reciprocal cross; 2) genetic variation for farrowing rate heat tolerance, which can be defined as the random regression slope of farrowing rate against increasing temperature at day of insemination, and the genetic correlation between farrowing rate and heat tolerance; 3) genetic correlation between farrowing rate in purebreds and crossbreds; and 4) genetic correlation between heat tolerance in purebreds and crossbreds. The estimates were based on 93,969 first insemination records per cycle from 24,456 sows inseminated between January 2003 and July 2008. These sows originated from a Dutch purebred Yorkshire dam line (D), an International purebred Large White dam line (ILW), and from their reciprocal crosses (RC) raised in Spain and Portugal. Within-line and crossbred models were used for variance component estimation. Heritability estimates for farrowing rate were 0.06, 0.07, and 0.02 using within-line models for D, ILW, and RC, respectively, and 0.07, 0.07, and 0.10 using the crossbred model, respectively. For farrowing rate, purebred-crossbred genetic correlations were 0.57 between D and RC and 0.50 between ILW and RC. When including heat tolerance in the within-line model, heritability estimates for farrowing rate were 0.05, 0.08, and 0.03 for D, ILW, and RC, respectively. Heritability for heat tolerance at 29.3 degrees C was 0.04, 0.02, and 0.05 for D, ILW, and RC, respectively. Genetic correlations between farrowing rate and heat tolerance tended to be negative in crossbreds and ILW-line sows, implying selection for increased levels of production traits, such as growth and reproductive output, is likely to increase environmental sensitivity. This study shows that genetic selection for farrowing rate and heat tolerance is possible. However, when this selection is based solely on purebred information, the expected genetic progress on farrowing rate and heat tolerance in crossbreds ( commercial animals) would be inconsequential.
|Kuddegevoel terug in de stal
Galama, Paul - \ 2012
dairy farming - herds - animal welfare - dairy farming systems
The role of communication in improving udder health
Jansen, J. ; Lam, T.G.J.M. - \ 2012
Veterinary Clinics of North America-Food Animal Practice 28 (2012)2. - ISSN 0749-0720 - p. 363 - 379.
somatic-cell count - dutch dairy farmers - management-practices - planned behavior - clinical mastitis - united-states - belief model - herds - knowledge - attitudes
This article gives insight into farmers' behavior and mindset toward mastitis management and into the way these can be affected by communication strategies. Elements of farmer mindset are important determining factors in executing mastitis control, including perceived severity and perceived efficacy of mastitis management measures. Veterinary practitioners can be important intermediaries in communication about udder health, provided that they are aware of their role as proactive advisor and apply the accompanying communication skills. Prevention of complex diseases such as mastitis requires customized communication strategies as well as an integrated approach between various stakeholders and different scientific disciplines.
Detection and Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs of Different Ages in Portugal
Berto, A. ; Mesquita, J.R. ; Hakze-van der Honing, R.W. van der; Nascimento, R.S. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2012
Zoonoses and Public Health 59 (2012)7. - ISSN 1863-1959 - p. 477 - 481.
united-kingdom - swine - infection - england - transmission - prevalence - antibodies - countries - wales - herds
This study represents the primary hepatitis E virus (HEV) surveillance in domestic pigs in Portugal, five pig farms were investigated in 5 different Portuguese regions, ten faecal samples were collected at four different stages of the production. All faecal samples were tested for hepatitis E virus by real-time RT-PCR. At least one sample from each farms of all age groups tested positive for HEV. The prevalence in the pig herds varied from 10% to 30% and the mean prevalence was 32% in weaners, 20% in growers, 32% in fatteners and 4% in adult dry sows. Phylogenetic analysis of the detected HEV sequences indicated that the circulating virus strains belong under the genotype 3.
Estimating the costs of rearing young dairy cattle in the Netherlands using a simulation model that accounts for uncertainty related to diseases
Mohd Nor, N. ; Steeneveld, W. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Mourits, M.C.M. - \ 2012
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 106 (2012)3-4. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 214 - 224.
bovine respiratory-disease - heifer management decisions - risk-factors - southwest sweden - milk-production - calf mortality - calves - morbidity - herds - age
The costs of rearing young dairy cattle are a part of the cost of the price of milk, as rearing produces the future dairy cows. As most dairy farmers are not aware of the rearing costs, the rearing of dairy replacements often does not get the attention it deserves. Calculating the distribution of the rearing costs throughout the rearing process is difficult as the costs are correlated with biological processes, such as variation in growth rate and disease uncertainty. In this study, a calf level simulation model was built to estimate the rearing costs and their distribution from 2 weeks of age until first calving in the Netherlands. The uncertainties related to calf diseases (calf scours and bovine respiratory disease) were included, in which both the probabilities of disease and the effects of diseases (growth reduction) differ at different ages. In addition, growth was modeled stochastically and in a detailed manner using a two-phase growth function. The total cost of rearing young dairy cattle was estimated as €1567 per successfully reared heifer and varied between €1423 and €1715. Reducing the age of first calving by 1 month reduced the total cost between 2.6% and 5.7%. The difference in the average cost of rearing between heifers that calved at 24 months and those calving at 30 months was €400 per heifer reared. Average rearing costs were especially influenced by labor efficiency and cost of feed. The rearing costs of a heifer that experienced disease at least once (20% of the simulated heifers) were on average €95 higher than those of healthy heifers. Hence, for an individual diseased heifer, disease costs can be rather high, while the relative contribution to the average rearing cost for a standard Dutch dairy farm is low (approx. 3%). Overall, the model developed proved to be a useful tool to investigate the total cost of rearing young dairy cattle, providing insights to dairy farmers with respect to the cost-efficiency of their own rearing management
Marketing's contribution of the sustainability of pastoralism: evidence from Ethiopia
Tessema, W.K. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Paul Ingenbleek. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733146 - 195
marketing - pastoralisme - dierhouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - vee - kuddes (herds) - duurzame veehouderij - ethiopië - afrika - marketing - pastoralism - animal husbandry - sustainability - livestock - herds - sustainable animal husbandry - ethiopia - africa
Pastoralists are people who, for their livelihood, depend on livestock raising using the natural pasture. Sustainability of pastoralist production is important for their livelihood as well as to the supply of animal-based protein. However, concerns with the pastoralist production system have also been voiced, particularly, on the ecological implications of the system. As a consequence, sustainability of the pastoral system and pastoralists that operate therein is a central issue in many debates among development practitioners, academics, and policy makers). Central to this debate is whether pastoralists can be expected to adapt their livestock production strategies to the varying availability of natural resources (i.e., pasture and water). Thus, herd size management in terms of stocking and destocking of livestock by pastoralists has become a central issue in the debate.
The stocking and destocking decision in anticipation of changing external conditions can be conceived of as a marketing challenge to pastoralists, not only contributing to their livelihood and profit, but also to the sustainability of the system. As such, markets (and therefore, marketing) relates not only to economic and social aspects of sustainability, but also to the ecological aspects. This study investigates whether and how marketing can contribute to the sustainability of pastoralists. For this purpose, four lines of research are explored: (1) Is pastoralism in principle a sustainable production system?; If so under which conditions is such system sustainable?, (2) How does marketing relate to the conditions under which pastoralism is sustainable?, (3) Which concepts from the marketing literature can generate insights that potentially contribute to the sustainability of pastoralism?, and (4) How do these concepts empirically relate to the social and economic aspects of sustainability and to the resource dilemma that characterizes the ecological aspect of pastoralists’ sustainability?
The thesis indicates that marketing can help pastoralists to strengthen their livelihood and to adapt to changing natural conditions through strategic selling and buying of livestock. In that respect only strategic marketing with a central view on the creation of customer value can contribute to economic, social and ecological sustainability at the same time. Thus, the thesis shows evidence that if pursued with a strategic intent marketing is a viable tool also for the sustainable development of the pastoralist system. Market orientation (in terms of customer orientation and interfunctional coordination) is in that respect the key concept. The thesis also contributes to the literature on the role of marketing in emerging economies indicating that market orientation theory is not restricted to formal economies with bounded organizations, but generalizable to informal economies such as pastoralists. To help pastoralists to live in a sustainable manner, policy should support their adaptation along the lines of the market by not just strengthening market integration, but by advocating and facilitating a market orientation.
Familiekuddes : Paul Galama over stalontwerpen
Livestock Research, - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research
melkveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, dieren - stallen - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - melkvee - loopstallen - stalinrichting - ontwerp - kuddes (herds) - melkveestapel - diergedrag - duurzame veehouderij - biologische landbouw - dairy farming - animal welfare - animal housing - stalls - animal health - animal production - dairy cattle - loose housing - animal housing design - design - herds - dairy herds - animal behaviour - sustainable animal husbandry - organic farming
Dierenwelzijn vraagt om veel ruimte op een zachte bodem met grip. Een vrijloopstal lijkt bij uitstek geschikt voor een familiekudde, want door het ontbreken van ligboxen is er veel bewegingsruimte. Een dergelijke stal kan rechthoekig of rond zijn. Uitgaande van maximale beweiding is voor de winterperiode minimale beschutting voldoende.