- T. Bukovinszky (2)
- M. Dicke (1)
- L. Duivenvoorde (1)
- Elena Facchini (1)
- V. Forbes (1)
- N.G. Galic (1)
- K.M. Hoedjes (1)
- H.M. Kruidhof (1)
- J.J.A. Loon van (2)
- Giulio Pagnacco (1)
- Rita Rizzi (1)
- A. Schmolke (1)
- H.M. Smid (5)
- J.L.M. Steidle (2)
- S.V. Tribuhl (1)
- L.E.M. Vet (3)
- G. Wang (2)
- Evert Willem Brascamp (1)
- B. Zee van der (1)
Hygienic behaviour in honeybees: a comparison of two recording methods and estimation of genetic parameters
Facchini, Elena ; Bijma, Piter ; Pagnacco, Giulio ; Rizzi, Rita ; Brascamp, Evert Willem - \ 2019
Apidologie 50 (2019)2. - ISSN 0044-8435 - p. 163 - 172.
freeze-killed brood test - heritability - honeybee - hygienic behaviour - repeatability
Hygienic behaviour (HB) in honeybees reflects social immunity against diseases and parasites. Young bees showing HB detect, uncap, and remove infested brood from a colony. We developed a new variant of freeze-killed brood (FKB*) test to optimise the duration of the HB test, the costs, and safety for the operator. In 2016, we performed a comparison between traditional FKB and FKB* on 25 unselected and unrelated colonies in the apiary of the University of Milano. To estimate repeatability and heritability, in 2017 and 2018, FKB* was used to phenotype, respectively, 56 and 95 colonies twice, in the context of a breeding programme. FKB* took less time and required a smaller amount of liquid nitrogen. The two methods showed a correlation between colony effects of 0.93, indicating that they measure the same trait. For single records, the phenotypic correlation between both methods was 0.64. Estimated heritability and repeatability for single records HB were 0.23 and 0.24, respectively, whilst heritability for the average HB value of two records was 0.37.
Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species
Hoedjes, K.M. ; Smid, H.M. - \ 2014
Behavioural Processes 105 (2014). - ISSN 0376-6357 - p. 40 - 45.
leptopilina-heterotoma - foraging success - learning rate - drosophila - dynamics - consolidation - vitripennis - bumblebees - dissection - honeybee
Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). A single conditioning trial, in which a female wasp associates an odour with the reward of finding a host, results in the formation of transcription-dependent long-term memory in N. vitripennis, whereas N. giraulti requires spaced training to do so. Memory formation does not depend on the type of reward: oviposition, which was hypothesized to be a 'larger' reward results in similar memory retention as host feeding in both Nasonia species. There are several genetic and genomic tools available for Nasonia species to identify genetic mechanisms that underlie the observed variation in the number of trials required to form long-term memory.
The role of ecological models in linking ecological risk assessment to ecosystem services in agroecosystems
Galic, N.G. ; Schmolke, A. ; Forbes, V. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2012
Science of the Total Environment 415 (2012). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 93 - 100.
shallow lakes - population-dynamics - potential application - decision-making - economic value - land-use - honeybee - chemicals - wildlife - biomanipulation
Agricultural practices are essential for sustaining the human population, but at the same time they can directly disrupt ecosystem functioning. Ecological risk assessment (ERA) aims to estimate possible adverse effects of human activities on ecosystems and their parts. Current ERA practices, however, incorporate very little ecology and base the risk estimates on the results of standard tests with several standard species. The main obstacles for a more ecologically relevant ERA are the lack of clear protection goals and the inherent complexity of ecosystems that is hard to approach empirically. In this paper, we argue that the ecosystem services framework offers an opportunity to define clear and ecologically relevant protection goals. At the same time, ecological models provide the tools to address ecological complexity to the degree needed to link measurement endpoints and ecosystem services, and to quantify service provision and possible adverse effects from human activities. We focus on the ecosystem services relevant for agroecosystem functioning, including pollination, biocontrol and eutrophication effects and present modeling studies relevant for quantification of each of the services. The challenges of the ecosystem services approach are discussed as well as the limitations of ecological models in the context of ERA. A broad, multi-stakeholder dialog is necessary to aid the definition of protection goals in terms of services delivered by ecosystems and their parts. The need to capture spatio-temporal dynamics and possible interactions among service providers pose challenges for ecological models as a basis for decision making. However, we argue that both fields are advancing quickly and can prove very valuable in achieving more ecologically relevant ERA.
Natural variation in learning and memory dynamics studied by artificial selection on learning rate in parasitic wasps
Berg, M. van den; Duivenvoorde, L. ; Wang, G. ; Tribuhl, S.V. ; Bukovinszky, T. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Dicke, M. ; Smid, H.M. - \ 2011
Animal Behaviour 81 (2011)1. - ISSN 0003-3472 - p. 325 - 333.
long-term-memory - consolidated memory - drosophila-melanogaster - experimental evolution - cotesia-glomerata - apis-mellifera - c-rubecula - honeybee - infochemicals - hymenoptera
Although the neural and genetic pathways underlying learning and memory formation seem strikingly similar among species of distant animal phyla, several more subtle inter- and intraspecific differences become evident from studies on model organisms. The true significance of such variation can only be understood when integrating this with information on the ecological relevance. Here, we argue that parasitoid wasps provide an excellent opportunity for multi-disciplinary studies that integrate ultimate and proximate approaches. These insects display interspecific variation in learning rate and memory dynamics that reflects natural variation in a daunting foraging task that largely determines their fitness: finding the inconspicuous hosts to which they will assign their offspring to develop. We review bioassays used for oviposition learning, the ecological factors that are considered to underlie the observed differences in learning rate and memory dynamics, and the opportunities for convergence of ecology and neuroscience that are offered by using parasitoid wasps as model species. We advocate that variation in learning and memory traits has evolved to suit an insect's lifestyle within its ecological niche
Species-specific acquisition and consolidation of long-term memory in parasitic wasps
Smid, H.M. ; Bukovinszky, T. ; Wang, G. ; Steidle, J.L.M. ; Bleeker, M.A.K. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2007
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 274 (2007)1617. - ISSN 0962-8452 - p. 1539 - 1546.
cotesia-glomerata - infochemical use - messenger-rna - c-rubecula - drosophila - host - honeybee - dissection - evolution - dynamics
Long-term memory (LTM) formation usually requires repeated, spaced learning events and is achieved by the synthesis of specific proteins. Other memory forms require a single learning experience and are independent of protein synthesis. We investigated in two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, whether natural differences in foraging behaviour are correlated with differences in LTM acquisition and formation. These parasitic wasp species lay their eggs in young caterpillars of pierid butterflies and can learn to associate plant odours with a successful egg laying experience on caterpillars on the odour-producing plant. We used a classical conditioning set-up, while interfering with LTM formation through translation or transcription inhibitors. We show here that C. rubecula formed LTM after three spaced learning trials, whereas C. glomerata required only a single trial for LTM formation. After three spaced learning trials, LTM formation was complete within 4h in C. glomerata, whereas in C. rubecula, LTM formation took 3 days. Linking neurobiology with ecology, we argue that this species-specific difference in LTM acquisition and formation is adaptive given the extreme differences in both the number of foraging decisions of the two wasp species and in the spatial distributions of their respective hosts in nature.
Differences in memory dynamics between two closely related parasitoid wasp species
Bleeker, M.A.K. ; Smid, H.M. ; Steidle, J.L.M. ; Kruidhof, H.M. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2006
Animal Behaviour 71 (2006)6. - ISSN 0003-3472 - p. 1343 - 1350.
c-rubecula hymenoptera - cotesia-glomerata - volatile infochemicals - leptopilina-boulardi - pieris-rapae - mini-brain - braconidae - specialist - honeybee - experience
The two closely related parasitoids Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) coexist in The Netherlands where they occupy slightly different niches. When searching for their caterpillar hosts, they use host plant odours that are released upon feeding by the caterpillars. The species differ in their preference for plant odours during host searching after an associative learning experience. Cotesia glomerata changes its preference for the odour of a particular plant species after an oviposition experience on that plant, whereas C. rubecula does not alter its naïve preference. Using no-choice wind tunnel bioassays we tested, for both species, to what extent oviposition induces memory formation and whether this results from associative learning. In experiment 1 we characterized the temporal dynamics of the memory trace. In both species, oviposition experience induced increased response levels compared to those of naïve wasps. Memory dynamics differed between the species. A single associative learning experience induced a stable long-lasting memory trace that persisted for at least 5 days in C. glomerata. In C. rubecula a memory trace for the odour was present during the first day after the oviposition experience but waned over the following days. From a second experiment we concluded that the increased response could be attributed to a combination of nonassociative and associative learning. We furthermore formulate the learning paradigm for the parasitoids and hypothesize that adaptation to different spatial distributions of the preferred host species has led to the observed differences in memory dynamics
Octopamine-like immunoreactivity in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion of two parasitic wasps, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula
Bleeker, M.A.K. ; Zee, B. van der; Smid, H.M. - \ 2006
Animal Biology 56 (2006)2. - ISSN 1570-7555 - p. 247 - 257.
microplitis-croceipes - drosophila-melanogaster - honeybee - behavior - invertebrates - organization - dopamine - memory
Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata L. and C. rubecula Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), differ in their display of associative learning and memory during host searching. As octopamine is involved in learning and memory in insects we investigated octopaminergic pathways in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) of the two wasps. We used an anti-octopamine antibody and subsequent whole mount analysis using a confocal laserscanning microscope and pertinent software. Three groups of octopaminergic cells were located in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion. One group was located near the antennal lobes and consisted of six to eight cell bodies. A second group was located ventrally in the SOG and was most likely formed by ventral unpaired median (VUM) and VCBN (ventral cell body neurite) neurons. A third group was located in the pars intercerebralis and consisted of four to six cells. Octopamine-like immunoreactivity was furthermore present in the central body, protocerebral bridge, the SOG, antennal lobe, near the alpha and beta lobes of the mushroom bodies and in the mushroom body calyces. Due to the used methods and a high variability in staining intensity it was not possible to detect if there were any differences in the number of neurons, in arborisation patterns or in labelling intensity between the two wasp species