Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?
Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J. ; Ripken, D. ; Hendriks, H.F. ; Masclee, A.A.M. - \ 2015
International Journal of Obesity 39 (2015). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 235 - 243.
glucagon-like peptide-1 - food-intake - hormone-release - energy-intake - antropyloroduodenal motility - gastrointestinal hormones - intestinal motility - duodenal glucose - plasma-levels - healthy-men
Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ileal infusion of sucrose and casein on food intake, release of GI peptides, gastric emptying rate and small-bowel transit time with safflower oil as positive control.Design:This randomized, single-blind, crossover study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26.4±2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8±0.4¿kg¿m-2) who were intubated with a naso-ileal catheter. Thirty minutes after the intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing control ((C) saline), safflower oil ((HL) 51.7¿kcal), low-dose casein ((LP) 17.2¿kcal) or high-dose casein ((HP) 51.7¿kcal), low-dose sucrose ((LC) 17.2¿kcal) and high-dose sucrose ((HC) 51.7¿kcal), over a period of 90¿min. Food intake was determined during an ad libitum meal. Visual analogue score questionnaires for hunger and satiety and blood samples were collected at regular intervals.Results:Ileal infusion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate resulted in a significant reduction in food intake compared with control (HL: 464.3±90.7¿kcal, P
Steviol glycoside rebaudioside A induces glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY release in a porcine ex vivo intestinal model
Ripken, D. ; Wielen, N. van der; Wortelboer, H.M. ; Meijerink, J. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Hendriks, H.F. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)33. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 8365 - 8370.
enteroendocrine cell-line - nutrient-driven satiety - hormone-release - taste receptor - glp-1 release - fatty-acids - food-intake - secretion - gut - sweeteners
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are hormones important for satiation and are involved in the process called "ileal brake". The aim of this study was to investigate the GLP-1- and PYY-stimulating efficacy of rebaudioside A, casein, and sucrose. This was studied using tissue segments collected from various regions of the pig small intestine. GLP-1 release was strongest from the distal ileum. There, control release was 0.06 ± 0.01 (GLP-1) and 0.07 ± 0.01 (PYY) pmol/cm(2) of tissue. Rebaudioside A (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mM) stimulated GLP-1 release (0.14 ± 0.02, 0.16 ± 0.02, and 0.13 ± 0.02 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.001) and PYY release (0.19 ± 0.02, 0.42 ± 0.06, and 0.27 ± 0.03 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.001). Sucrose stimulated GLP-1 release (0.08 ± 0.01 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.05) only at 10 mM. Casein (0.5%, 1%, and 2.5%, w/v) stimulated GLP-1 release (0.15 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.02, and 0.14 ± 0.01 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.001) and PYY release (0.13 ± 0.02, 0.20 ± 0.03, and 0.27 ± 0.03 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.01). These findings may help in developing dietary approaches for weight management.