Biomarker Research in ADHD: the Impact of Nutrition (BRAIN) – MultiplexELISA data
Stobernack, Tim ; Frankena, Klaas ; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob ; Schrama, Rosan P.H. ; Baarlen, Peter van; Kleerebezem, Michiel ; Pelsser, Lidy ; Hontelez, Saartje - \ 2020
Wageningen University & Research
ADHD - few-foods diet - biomarker - immunology - metabolism - hormones
Multiplex ELISA data of immune, metabolism and hormone related molecules for 79 children included in the Biomarker Research in ADHD: the Impact of Nutrition (BRAIN) study, an open-label trial during which children with ADHD followed a few-foods diet (FFD). Sampling was done before the FFD (t1) and after 5 weeks of FFD (t2).
Blood Pressure Regulation
Mensink, M.R. - \ 2019
blood pressure - heart rate - arteries - cardiovascular diseases - kidney diseases - hormones
The body has several mechanisms to regulate blood pressure. A distinction can be made between quick control and long-term regulation. Regulation of your blood pressure is essential, since hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular- and kidney disease. This lesson is part of the WageningenX MOOC called 'Nutrition, Heart Disease and Diabetes'
Divergent regulation of Arabidopsis SAUR genes: a focus on the SAUR10-clade
Mourik, H. van; Dijk, A.D.J. van; Stortenbeker, Niek ; Angenent, G.C. ; Bemer, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen University & Research
SAUR - hormones - growth - cell elongation - regulatory region - auxin - brassinosteroids - ABA - shade response
Background Small Auxin-Upregulated RNA (SAUR) genes encode growth regulators that induce cell elongation. Arabidopsis contains more than 70 SAUR genes, of which the growth-promoting function has been unveiled in seedlings, while their role in other tissues remained largely unknown. Here, we focus on the regulatory regions of Arabidopsis SAUR genes, to predict the processes in which they play a role, and understand the dynamics of plant growth. Results In this study, we characterized in detail the entire SAUR10-clade: SAUR8, SAUR9, SAUR10, SAUR12, SAUR16, SAUR50, SAUR51 and SAUR54. Overexpression analysis revealed that the different proteins fulfil similar functions, while the SAUR expression patterns were highly diverse, showing expression throughout plant development in a variety of tissues. In addition, the response to application of different hormones largely varied between the different genes. These tissue-specific and hormone-specific responses could be linked to transcription factor binding sites using in silico analyses. These analyses also supported the existence of two groups of SAURs in Arabidopsis: Class I genes can be induced by combinatorial action of ARF-BZR-PIF transcription factors, while Class II genes are not regulated by auxin. Conclusions SAUR10-clade genes generally induce cell-elongation, but exhibit diverse expression patterns and responses to hormones. Our experimental and in silico analyses suggest that transcription factors involved in plant development determine the tissue specific expression of the different SAUR genes, whereas the amplitude of this expression can often be controlled by hormone response transcription factors. This allows the plant to fine tune growth in a variety of tissues in response to internal and external signals.
The role of strigolactones and the fungal microbiome in rice during drought adaptation
Andreo Jimenez, Beatriz - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.J. Bouwmeester, co-promotor(en): C. Ruyter-Spira. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437028 - 205
drought resistance - drought - abiotic injuries - rice - oryza sativa - plant-microbe interactions - nutrient uptake - defence mechanisms - hormones - fungi - genes - droogteresistentie - droogte - abiotische beschadigingen - rijst - oryza sativa - plant-microbe interacties - voedingsstoffenopname (planten) - verdedigingsmechanismen - hormonen - schimmels - genen
Rice is the most important food crop in the world, feeding over half the world’s population. However, rice water use efficiency, defined by units of yield produced per unit of water used, is the lowest of all crops. The aim of this thesis was to study the effect of plant hormones and the root microbiome on drought tolerance in rice. The new plant hormone, strigolactone, was shown to be upregulated under drought and to regulate drought tolerance in interaction with the drought-hormone abscisic acid. Using a large collection of rice genotypes grown in the field, we showed that the composition of the root associated fungal microbiome is determined by the rice genotype and can contribute to drought tolerance.
Food reward from a behavioural and (neuro)physiological perspective
Bruijn, Suzanne E.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C. de Graaf; R.F. Witkamp, co-promotor(en): G. Jager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436748 - 154
food - physiological functions - feeding behaviour - food preferences - perception - hormones - responses - neurohormonal control - stomach bypass - gastric bypass - satiety - voedsel - fysiologische functies - voedingsgedrag - voedselvoorkeuren - perceptie - hormonen - reacties - neurohormonale controle - maag bypass - buik bypass - verzadigdheid
Food reward is an important driver of food intake and triggers consumption of foods for pleasure, so-called hedonic eating, even in the absence of any energy deficits. Hedonic eating can trigger overeating and may therefore lead to obesity. Given the rise in obesity rates and the health risks associated with being obese, hedonic eating and food reward are important phenomena to study. This thesis aimed to add on to the existing knowledge on food reward. The phenomenon was approached from a behavioural, sensory and (neuro)physiological perspective in healthy, lean and in obese gastric bypass populations.
For the behavioural perspective, the main outcome measure used in this thesis was food preferences. To be able to study food preferences for four macronutrient and two taste categories, a new food preference task was developed. In chapter 2, the development and validation of the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task (MTPRT) were described. The MTPRT uses a ranking method to determine preferences for four macronutrient (high-carbohydrate, high-fat, high-protein, low-energy) and two taste (sweet and savoury) categories.
For the sensory and physiological perspective, focus was put on the endocannabinoid system (ECS): a neuromodulatory system that plays a role in food reward. To gain more insight into this role, the effect of ECS modulation with pharmacological challenges on sensory perception of sweet taste and on food preferences were studied, as well as endocannabinoid responses to food intake. In chapter 3 it was shown that inhaling Cannabis with low doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) does not alter sweet taste intensity perception and liking in humans, nor does it affect food preferences. Vice versa, in chapter 4 it was found that liking of a food taste does not affect endocannabinoid responses to food intake, after controlling for expectations. When palatability of the food is unknown until the first bite, response of endocannabinoids, ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide did not differ between a palatable and a neutral food across anticipatory, consummatory and post-ingestive phases of food intake. Endocannabinoid and ghrelin plasma concentrations decreased after food intake, which suggests an orexigenic function for endocannabinoids.
In chapters 5, 6 and 7, studies with patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were described. These studies were intended to gain more insight into alterations in food reward in relation to (morbid) obesity and in response to surgical treatment by RYGB surgery.
First, in chapter 5 food preferences were assessed before, and at two months and one year after RYGB. It was shown that patients have decreased preference for high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods, and increased preference for low-energy foods after compared with before surgery. In addition, liking ratings for the high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods were decreased after RYGB surgery, whereas liking of low-energy products changed minimally. Potential mechanisms behind these alterations in food preferences include changes in neural processing of food cues and changes in appetite-related gut hormones.
In chapter 6, it was shown that alterations in food preferences after RYGB surgery are indeed related to changes in neural activation in response to food cues. With regards to the appetite-related hormones it was shown that plasma concentrations of the endocannabinoid anandamide were increased after compared with before surgery. Plasma concentrations of other endocannabinoids and ghrelin did not change. Moreover, changes in endocannabinoid or ghrelin concentrations did not correlate with changes in food preferences or neural response to food cues. Together, these results suggest that changes in neural processing of food cues contribute to changes in food preferences towards low-energy foods, and provide a first indication that the endocannabinoid system does not seem to play a role in this process.
To gain more insight into behavioural responses to food cues, a response-inhibition paradigm was used in chapter 7, in which response-inhibition to high-energy and low-energy food cues was assessed during brain imaging. The behavioural data did not show differences in performance when comparing before and two months after RYGB surgery. The brain imaging data showed that activation in reward-related brain areas was decreased in response to both high- and low-energy food pictures after RYGB surgery. Also, prefrontal brain areas were more activated in response to the high-energy pictures, which suggests improved response inhibition.
In conclusion, the findings in this thesis show that modulating the ECS with low doses of THC and CBD does not influence sweet taste perception and liking and food preferences, and vice versa, food taste liking in the absence of expectations does not affect endocannabinoid responses to food intake. With regards to RYGB surgery it was uncovered that changes in food preferences after RYGB surgery are related to altered brain reward processing, but no relation with changes in endocannabinoid tone was found. The success of RYGB surgery and the changes in food choice might in part be caused by an improved inhibitory response to high-energy foods.
Intestinal nutrient sensing : a gut feeling for food
Wielen, N. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp, co-promotor(en): Jocelijn Meijerink; Henk F.J. Hendriks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576995 - 200
obesity - hormones - intestines - gastrointestinal hormones - pancreozymin - vasoactive intestinal peptide - sensing - in vivo experimentation - animal models - in vitro - gastric bypass - food - weight reduction - stevia rebaudiana - release - obesitas - hormonen - darmen - maagdarmhormonen - pancreozymine - vasoactief intestinaal peptide - aftasten - in vivo experimenten - diermodellen - in vitro - buik bypass - voedsel - gewichtsvermindering - stevia rebaudiana - vrijgeven
The alarming increase in obesity rates creates an urgent need for effective prevention and treatment strategies. The most effective treatment for obesity today is bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery comprises a number of different procedures having in common that they induce weight loss and alter gut hormone release. Gut hormones are well known for their effects on food intake behavior and their role in weight loss after bariatric surgery is undeniable. In addition, the therapeutic use of GLP-1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1) analogues including liraglutide in type II diabetes and obesity is on the rise. This underlines why gut hormones are considered promising targets for the development of new treatment strategies against obesity and its comorbidities.
The secretion of gut hormones, among which GLP-1, is influenced by nutrient ingestion. The interactions of dietary components or their breakdown products with receptors and transporters located on the enteroendocrine cells of the intestinal tract can induce their release, a process called intestinal nutrient sensing. In this thesis, we aimed to further elucidate intestinal nutrient sensing mechanisms on a cellular level. First, the regional expression of several gut nutrient sensing related genes along the intestinal tract was assessed in three commonly studied species, namely mouse, pig and man. Gene expression of receptors, transporters and peptides involved in nutrient sensing shows a distinctive distribution pattern along the small intestine, which is in the distal small intestine highly similar between the species. Subsequently, we sought to investigate if this expression was changed after a weight loss inducing bariatric procedure. By whole transcriptome analysis, we showed that upper gastrointestinal tissue expression of genes associated with nutrient sensing was hardly changed. In contrast, a considerable reduction in inflammatory pathways was observed.
Next, we sought to investigate the effects of the non-caloric sweetener rebaudioside A. This Stevia rebaudiana-derived compound was approved on the European market in 2011. As there is still some controversy about the effects of sweeteners in general on GLP-1 release, we investigated the effects of this specific sweetener. Because of the short half-life of GLP-1, the effect of nutrient stimulation was mainly studied in ex vivo and in vitro models in which local intestinal hormone release could be determined. A two dimensional gut model using intestinal organoids derived from murine intestinal crypts was developed to study location-specific hormone secretion. Rebaudioside A was found to induce GLP-1 and PYY release ex vivo from porcine intestinal tissue and in two dimensional organoids. This induction of the release was specific for the intestinal location, with the ileum being most potently stimulated by rebaudioside A. Moreover, prolonged exposure to rebaudioside A increased enteroendocrine cell numbers in two dimensional organoids. When studying the underlying mechanism in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells, we concluded that rebaudioside A-induced GLP-1 release was independent of the sweet taste receptor.
The studies presented in this thesis add to our understanding the role of receptors and other molecular structures that are likely to be involved in nutrient sensing and the modulation of gut hormone release. What we know now is that several factors play a role in gut hormone release. This includes not only the nature and dose of the active compound(s), but also the location and timing of its (their) interactions with receptors and other targets along the gastrointestinal tract. We have shown that rebaudioside A may be a potential compound to induce gut hormone release in vivo, especially when applied to the distal small intestine. Therefore, rebaudioside A may be a promising compound to influence food intake, possibly most potent when delivered in the ileum.
Smartphone controleert koeien op doping
Versluis, K. ; Ludwig, S.K.J. ; Sterk, S.S. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 32 - 33.
melkveehouderij - rundveehouderij - hormonen - informatietechnologie - innovatie adoptie - monitoring - dairy farming - cattle husbandry - hormones - information technology - innovation adoption - monitoring
RIKILT Wageningen UR heeft een methode ontwikkeld voor het opsporen van verboden hormonen bij koeien. Een klein meetapparaatje kan samen met een smartphone op de boerderij bepalen of een boer zijn dieren het verboden hormoon rbST geeft.
Offspring sex ratio bias and sex related characteristics of eggs in chicken
Aslam, M.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Mari Smits; T.G.G. Groothuis, co-promotor(en): Henri Woelders. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570757 - 192
kippen - eieren - geslachtsverhouding - karakteristieken - nageslacht - toewijzing - polymerase-kettingreactie - hormonen - voedselbeperking - dierveredeling - fowls - eggs - sex ratio - characteristics - progeny - allocation - polymerase chain reaction - hormones - food restriction - animal breeding
Understanding the factors influencing sex of egg and sex ratio in laying chicken may lead to finding potential solutions for the problem of killing of day old male chicks, which is the current practice in breeding of laying hens. In studies described in this thesis, it was investigated if the sex of the chicken egg can be predicted by measurable differences in male and female eggs at unincubated stage and if the female primary sex ratio can be induced in laying chicken using different experimental conditions such as feed restriction and corticosterone feeding. The method of sex determination in unincubated chicken eggs using PCR targeted to CHD1 gene was first developed. This method was subsequently used to study the primary sex ratio bias as well as relationship between egg sex and yolk hormones. No significant relationship of the sex of egg with concentrations of several hormones (testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, progesterone, dihydrotestosterone) and glucose in yolk as well as of egg parameters (mass, width and length) was found. Effect of feed availability on sex ratio was tested in two separate studies. In one study, the rate of change of hen body mass between day of laying and day of laying minus 2 days (encompass time of meiosis completion) was a significant predictor for the sex of that egg, suggesting meiotic drive as mechanism of sex ratio bias. This relationship was not found in the later study. The difference in results could be due to the reason that hens decreased in body mass much less in the later study as compared to earlier study. Blood corticosterone concentrations were associated with sex ratio per hen in the earlier study. Effect of egg mass on egg sex was studied during the later experiment of feed restriction. The egg sex ratio per hen was negatively associated with the average egg mass per hen in the feed restriction group. Two groups of hens were selected from the feed restriction group i.e. male biased hens with low egg mass and female biased hens with high egg mass for microarray analysis of gene expression in the germinal disc of collected F1 follicle. The results did not show differential expression of genes between the groups. However, gene set enrichment analysis showed that a number of processes related to cell cycle progression, mitotic/meiotic apparatus and chromosomal movement were differently enriched between the groups, supporting meiotic drive as potential mechanisms underlying sex ratio determination. In another experiment, blood circulating levels of corticosterone in hens were increased by feeding corticosterone mixed feed under ad libitum. The blood levels of corticosterone were significantly higher in treated hens but these levels were not associated with sex ratio. Treatment did not affect the overall sex ratio, but affected the sex ratio in interaction with hen body mass. In the corticosterone group, sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate per hen were decreased in heavy hens. These results suggest that three parameters (sex ratio, laying rate and fertility rate) are connected at the level of ovarian physiology. Interference with meiosis have been shown to affect these three parameters, suggesting the involvement of meiotic drive as mechanism of sex ratio bias.
Hormonen vaak betrokken bij versterking eigen afweer van planten : veel ontwikkelingen bij plantenhormonen
Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2013
Onder Glas 10 (2013)1. - p. 13 - 15.
glastuinbouw - potplanten - groeifactoren - hormonen - verdedigingsmechanismen - plantengroeiregulatoren - weerstand - landbouwkundig onderzoek - gewasbescherming - greenhouse horticulture - pot plants - growth factors - hormones - defence mechanisms - plant growth regulators - resistance - agricultural research - plant protection
Vroeger was het simpel: er zijn vijf groepen plantenhormonen en dat is het. Maar het ligt veel ingewikkelder. Naarmate het inzicht groeit, wordt de lijst van hormonen langer. Opvallend veel daarvan zijn betrokken bij weerstand tegen stress, ziekten en plagen. Daar kan de tuinbouw in de toekomst wellicht voordeel bij hebben.
Use of NMR metabolomic plasma profiling methodologies to identify illicit growth-promoting administrations
Graham, S.F. ; Ruiz Aracama, A. ; Lommen, A. ; Cannizzo, F.T. ; Biolatti, B. ; Elliott, C.T. ; Mooney, M.H. - \ 2012
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 403 (2012)2. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 573 - 582.
veal calves - cattle - dexamethasone - spectroscopy - urine - h-1 - 17-beta-estradiol - metabolites - hormones - h-1-nmr
Detection of growth-promoter use in animal production systems still proves to be an analytical challenge despite years of activity in the field. This study reports on the capability of NMR metabolomic profiling techniques to discriminate between plasma samples obtained from cattle treated with different groups of growth-promoting hormones (dexamethasone, prednisolone, oestradiol) based on recorded metabolite profiles. Two methods of NMR analysis were investigated-a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG)-pulse sequence technique and a conventional H-1 NMR method using pre-extracted plasma. Using the CPMG method, 17 distinct metabolites could be identified from the spectra. H-1 NMR analysis of extracted plasma facilitated identification of 23 metabolites-six more than the alternative method and all within the aromatic region. Multivariate statistical analysis of acquired data from both forms of NMR analysis separated the plasma metabolite profiles into distinct sample cluster sets representative of the different animal study groups. Samples from both sets of corticosteroid-treated animals-dexamethasone and prednisolone-were found to be clustered relatively closely and had similar alterations to identified metabolite panels. Distinctive metabolite profiles, different from those observed within plasma from corticosteroid-treated animal plasma, were observed in oestradiol-treated animals and samples from these animals formed a cluster spatially isolated from control animal plasma samples. These findings suggest the potential use of NMR methodologies of plasma metabolite analysis as a high-throughput screening technique to aid detection of growth promoter use.
Abscisinezuur speelt rol bij resistentie tegen stress-omstandigheden : je kunt de plant ook te veel 'pamperen'
Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2012
Onder Glas 9 (2012)11. - p. 26 - 27.
glastuinbouw - plantenziekten - abscisinezuur - hormonen - resistentiemechanismen - cultuurmethoden - plaagresistentie - weerstand - greenhouse horticulture - plant diseases - abscisic acid - hormones - resistance mechanisms - cultural methods - pest resistance - resistance
Abscisinezuur zorgt ervoor dat planten ongunstige omstandigheden kunnen overleven. In de kas proberen we zulke situaties juist te vermijden. Maar je kunt de plant ook te veel ‘pamperen’. Dat kan leiden tot een ongevoeligheid voor dit ‘stress-hormoon’ die zich later wreekt.
Saturated fat stimulates obesity and hepatic steatosis and affects gut microbiota composition by an enhanced overflow of dietary fat to the distal intestine
Wit, N.J.W. de; Derrien, M. ; Bosch-Vermeulen, H. ; Oosterink, E. ; Keshtkar, S. ; Duval, C.N.C. ; Vogel-van den Bosch, H.M. de; Kleerebezem, M. ; Muller, M.R. ; Meer, R. van der - \ 2012
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 303 (2012)5. - ISSN 0193-1857 - p. G589 - G599.
insulin-resistance - metabolic syndrome - lipid-metabolism - c57bl/6j mice - acids - hormones - adiposity - capacity - receptor - gpr41
We studied the effect of dietary fat type, varying in polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S), on development of metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed purified high-fat diets (45E% fat) containing palm oil (HF-PO; P/S 0.4), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S 1.1), or safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S 7.8) for 8 wk. A low-fat palm oil diet (LF-PO; 10E% fat) was used as a reference. Additionally, we analyzed diet-induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. The HF-PO diet induced a higher body weight gain and liver triglyceride content compared with the HF-OO, HF-SO, or LF-PO diet. In the intestine, the HF-PO diet reduced microbial diversity and increased the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. Although this fits a typical obesity profile, our data clearly indicate that an overflow of the HF-PO diet to the distal intestine, rather than obesity itself, is the main trigger for these gut microbiota changes. A HF-PO diet-induced elevation of lipid metabolism-related genes in the distal small intestine confirmed the overflow of palm oil to the distal intestine. Some of these lipid metabolism-related genes were previously already associated with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, our data indicate that saturated fat (HF-PO) has a more stimulatory effect on weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation than unsaturated fat (HF-OO and HF-SO). The overflow of fat to the distal intestine on the HF-PO diet induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. We speculate that both are directly or indirectly contributive to the saturated fat-induced development of obesity and hepatic steatosis.
Hormoongehaltes in bloembollen voor teeltsturing en maat voor kwaliteit
Gude, H. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Charnikova, T. ; Verstappen, F.W.A. - \ 2012
BloembollenVisie 2012 (2012)259. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 22 - 23.
bloembollen - hormonen - groeifactoren - groeiregulatoren - cultuurmethoden - landbouwkundig onderzoek - ornamental bulbs - hormones - growth factors - growth regulators - cultural methods - agricultural research
Meer dan altijd zichtbaar en merkbaar is, spelen hormonen een cruciale rol in de teelt van bloembollen. Het Laboratorium voor Plantenfysiologie in Wageningen en PPO Bloembollen in Lisse onderzochten welke hormonen er zoal in bloembollen voorkomen en hoe hun gehaltes door de tijd heen al dan niet veranderen. Inmiddels kunnen er 48 stoffen in één keer worden gemeten.
Oit/Fam3D, a gut secreted protein displaying nutritional status-dependent regulation
Wit, N.J.W. de; IJssenagger, N. ; Oosterink, E. ; Keshtkar, S. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. ; Mensink, R.P. ; Hammer, S. ; Smit, J.W.A. ; Muller, M.R. ; Meer, R. van der - \ 2012
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 23 (2012)11. - ISSN 0955-2863 - p. 1425 - 1433.
small-intestine - gene-expression - hormones
Oncoprotein-induced transcript 1 (Oit1) was previously identified as a dietary fat-induced gene in the small intestine of C57Bl/6J mice. In this study, we further characterized Oit1 and its human ortholog family with sequence similarity 3, member D (Fam3D), on the messenger RNA as well as the protein level. Oit1 and Fam3D were found to be predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of mice and humans, respectively. Dietary fat induced a clear and acute up-regulation of Oit1, especially in the jejunum, whereas fasting led to a reduced gene expression in the small intestine. Regarding protein expression, we found a remarkable pattern of Oit1 along the longitudinal axis of the intestine, a predominant villus-restricted expression in the proximal small intestine and a more pronounced crypt expression in the distal parts of the intestine. Using transfection experiments, we confirmed secretion of the Oit1 protein, as was predicted by a signal peptide sequence. Detection of Oit1 and Fam3D in plasma samples indicated that both proteins are secreted to the basolateral site of enterocytes. Moreover, in human plasma samples, we also found an effect of nutritional status on Fam3D levels, with a postprandial elevation and a reduction after fasting. In conclusion, Oit1 and Fam3D are gut-derived proteins that are expressed and secreted in a nutritional status-dependent manner.
Cytokinine is meer dan hormoon dat celdeling stimuleert : sturen hormoonhuishouding gecompliceerd
Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2012
Onder Glas 9 (2012)8. - p. 28 - 29.
potplanten - sierplanten - cytokinen - plantenontwikkeling - cultuurmethoden - hormonen - groeifactoren - glastuinbouw - pot plants - ornamental plants - cytokines - plant development - cultural methods - hormones - growth factors - greenhouse horticulture
Cytokinine staat bekend als het hormoon dat celdeling stimuleert. Daar ontleent het zelfs zijn naam aan. Maar zoals alle hormonen heeft ook dit meerdere effecten, die ook nog eens worden bepaald door verhouding met andere hormonen. Vooral de balans met auxine is van belang.
Plantenhormoon auxine heeft vele functies in de cel : teeltmaatregelen hebben effect op evenwicht tussen hormonen
Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2012
Onder Glas 9 (2012)4. - p. 26 - 27.
landbouwplantenteelt - glastuinbouw - teelt - cultuurmethoden - hormonen - groeifactoren - groeiregulatoren - plantenontwikkeling - effecten - crop husbandry - greenhouse horticulture - cultivation - cultural methods - hormones - growth factors - growth regulators - plant development - effects
Zonder dat hij er zich van bewust is, stuurt de teler met klimaatregeling en teeltmaatregelen vaak het evenwicht tussen de hormonen in de plant. Het zijn de signaalstoffen die veel processen in werking stellen. De komende maanden behandelen we in de serie plantkunde in Onder glas verschillende hormonen. Deze keer auxine. Dit plantenhormoon is onder andere verantwoordelijk voor de wortelvorming bij stek, celstrekking, apicale dominantie en de zetting en uitgroei van vruchten.
Hormoongehaltes van bloembollen als maat voor inwendige kwaliteit
Gude, H. ; Charnikhova, T. ; Verstappen, F.W.A. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. - \ 2012
bloembollen - hormonen - groeifactoren - groeiregulatoren - monitoring - methodologie - landbouwkundig onderzoek - bereikt resultaat - ornamental bulbs - hormones - growth factors - growth regulators - monitoring - methodology - agricultural research - achievement
Bevindingen met nieuwe bepalingsmethode van Wageningen UR naar hormoongehaltes van bloembollen
|Mitofood conference : bioactive food components, energy metabolism and human health, 13-15 April 2011, Wageningen, The Netherlands : celebrating 90 years of human and animal physiology at Wageningen University : final conference of COST Action FA0602: bioactive food components, mitochondrial function and health
Keijer, J. - \ 2011
[Wageningen] : Wageningen UR - 87
voedselsamenstelling - bioactieve verbindingen - voedingsstoffen - energiemetabolisme - gezondheid - polyfenolen - lipiden - vitaminen - hormonen - verouderen - bio-energetica - mitochondria - voeding - food composition - bioactive compounds - nutrients - energy metabolism - health - polyphenols - lipids - vitamins - hormones - aging - bioenergetics - nutrition
Hormoongehaltes in bloembollen als instrument voor teeltsturing en kwaliteit, Thema: Innovatieve tuinbouw BO-12.03-006-004
Gude, H. - \ 2011
bloembollen - hormonen - kwaliteitszorg - gewaskwaliteit - monitoring - monsters - cultuurmethoden - ornamental bulbs - hormones - quality management - crop quality - monitoring - samples - cultural methods
Onderzoek om met de modernste bepalingsmethoden de gehaltes van zoveel mogelijk plantenhormonen in één bollenmonster te bepalen.
Moderate alcohol consumption, adiponectin, inflammation and type 2 diabetes risk : prospective cohort studies and randomized crossover trials
Joosten, M.M. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp, co-promotor(en): H.F.J. Hendriks. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858256 - 192
alcoholinname - diabetes mellitus - risico - genexpressie - vetweefsel - hormonen - alcohol intake - diabetes mellitus - risk - gene expression - adipose tissue - hormones
Background: Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in various populations. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. The aims of this thesis were 1) to substantiate the evidence of the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes in observational research and 2) to examine physiological mechanisms in randomized trials with specific attention to adiponectin, inflammation and insulin sensitivity which may mediate the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Two prospective cohort studies, one among 38,031 U.S. men (age: 45-75 y) of the Health Professionals Follow up Study (HPFS) and one among 35,625 Dutch men and women (age: 20-70 y) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-NL cohort. Four randomized, crossover trials of eight to twelve weeks with consumption of 25-30 g alcohol/day in the form of vodka with orange juice, beer, or white wine (twice) compared to orange juice, alcohol free beer, white grape juice or water among 24 young men, 24 premenopausal and 36 and 22 postmenopausal women, respectively.
Results: A 7.5 g/day increase in alcohol consumption over four years was associated with lower diabetes risk among initial non-drinkers (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 1.00) and drinkers initially consuming <15 g/d (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.96) but not among men initially drinking ≥15 g/d (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.02) (Pinteraction < 0.01) in U.S. men. Among Dutch subjects with ≥3 out of 4 low-risk lifestyle behaviors, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared with abstention (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.32, 1.00).
In the randomized crossover trials, alcohol consumption consistently increased circulating adiponectin levels by about 10% compared to abstention (P < 0.05) regardless of beverage type, gender or age. These increases were evident after a minimum of three weeks of alcohol consumption. Moderate alcohol consumption also increased expression of the gene encoding adiponectin in adipose tissue and lowered serum fasting insulin and triglyceride levels (all P < 0.05). An integrated approach of large-scale profiling of proteins and genes revealed that moderate alcohol consumption for four weeks altered gene expression profiles of white blood cells and circulating markers related to inflammation in men (all P < 0.05). However, we did not observe an attenuated inflammatory response after a low-dose in vivo endotoxin bolus, despite increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein levels after four weeks of alcohol consumption compared to abstention. Six minutes of oral white wine exposure without swallowing substantially (-20%; P < 0.05) and temporarily (~20 min) decreased circulating free fatty acid concentrations compared with oral water exposure.
Conclusions: Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared with abstention. The association persisted among subjects already at low risk based on combined favorable lifestyle behaviors. Also, increases in alcohol consumption among initially rare and light drinking men were associated with higher adiponectin levels and lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Increased adiponectin levels, anti-inflammatory effects and decreased insulin and triglyceride levels, may partially explain the inverse association between moderate alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes.