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Microcredit to women and its contribution to production and household food security
Namayengo, Mayanja Muyonga Faith - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): G. Antonides, co-promotor(en): J.A.C. van Ophem. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431101 - 235
credit - women - agricultural production - food security - crop production - animal production - household income - household budgets - food supply - uganda - krediet - vrouwen - landbouwproductie - voedselzekerheid - gewasproductie - dierlijke productie - gezinsinkomen - huishoudbudgetten - voedselvoorziening - uganda
The contents of this dissertation are based on a quantitative and qualitative survey that was conducted to assess the contribution of microcredit access of women to production and household food security status, and the factors associated with enterprise performance and food security outcomes. In order to do so four main issues were addressed: (a) assessment of the borrowing context and the match or mismatch between lender and borrower goals and objectives; (b) the extent to which taking microcredit affected business input expenditures and performance of non-farm MEs; (c) the extent to which taking microcredit affected production input expenditures and outputs from farming activities; (d) the changes in household food security associated with microcredit.
The study was conducted among female microcredit clients of BRAC, one of the largest micro lenders in Uganda. The overall study design was a panel approach, involving two waves of data collection. In one analytical approach, baseline data for a group of existing borrowers (Old borrowers=OB) and incoming borrowers (New borrowers=NB) before they received their first loan, was used in a quasi-experimental cross-sectional design to assess the effect of borrowing as the difference between the two groups using propensity score matching (PSM).
In an alternative approach, two waves of data for the NB and a control group (CG) of women who never borrowed from BRAC or other MFI, was subjected to difference-in-difference analysis (DID), with Kernel matching, to assess differences between borrowers and non-borrowers.
We found that BRAC reaches poor, less educated subsistence farmers who also run diverse non-farm microenterprises (MEs). The group-lending model BRAC uses is effective in ensuring loan repayment. However, much as BRAC gives out production loans, many women borrow to meet lump-sum monetary needs, in addition to investment in non-farm MEs. High costs of borrowing, limited loan amounts, the stress caused by weekly loan repayment and resolution of lump-sum cash needs were identified as reasons for women to stop borrowing. The diversion of loans to non-production activities, the size and types of businesses, and loan terms and processes were identified and factors that could diminish the contribution of microcredit to ME expansion and income increase.
Assessment of the effect of borrowing on non-farm ME performance revealed that much as borrowers invested reasonable fractions of received loans into non-farm MEs leading to improvement in monetary worth, the borrowing context, loan repayment terms, type and size of microenterprises did favour higher profits.
In regard to farm production, borrowing did not lead to extra recurrent crop and animal production expenditures. The prevailing subsistence nature of crop and animal production did not seem to favour extra investment. As such, borrowing did not improve household food availability, through own production.
Assessment of the effect of borrowing on household food security revealed a decline in food security following the uptake of microcredit. The analysis reveals robustly lower dietary diversity among long-time borrowers than among new borrowers, and larger reductions in dietary diversity scores among new borrowers, after one year, compared to controls. The reduction in dietary diversity was traced to a reduction in animal-source food, fruit and sugar intake. This was partly explained by observation of an apparent shift from own production to reliance on food purchase by households, which is not accompanied by substantial increase in income.
Overall, we found that taking microcredit did not lead to improved farm and non-farm production or food security among the rural women borrowers studied. This was mainly attributed to nature of activities the women engage in, the loan terms and processes, and the local context the women operate under.
The contribution of town functions to the development of rural areas: empirical analyses for Ethiopia
Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731883 - 211
relaties tussen stad en platteland - steden - nutfunctie - invloeden - gezinsinkomen - inkomen - werkgelegenheid - huishoudens - landbouwhuishoudens - gewassen - bemesting - agrarische handel - overheidsdiensten - wegtransport - telefoons - elektriciteit - drinkwater - ontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - ethiopië - rural urban relations - towns - utility functions - influences - household income - income - employment - households - agricultural households - crops - fertilizer application - agricultural trade - public services - road transport - telephones - electricity - drinking water - development - economic development - rural development - rural areas - ethiopia
Rural areas in many developing countries often lack infrastructure and institutions. However, rural towns and towns possess some of the major services that rural and town households can use to advance their economic activities. The study of the contribution that towns and their functions make to different economic activities is still in development. The thesis sought to add to the literature by conceptually discussing the role of town functions and empirically examining the influence on income, employment opportunities, rural household crop marketing and fertilizer application. For these purposes, data from households in four major regional states of Ethiopia are used. Results show that shorter distances to roads, transport services and telephone centers, and connection to electricity and tap water are likely to increase income and non-farm wage employment. We find also that proximity to roads and markets and strong network connections are associated with improved input-output exchange among rural households
Intrahousehold resource allocation and well-being : the case of rural households in Senegal
Dia, F. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides; Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Johan van Ophem. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856863 - 271
agricultural households - resource allocation - household income - time allocation - decision making - households - rural areas - farmers' income - non-farm income - women - men - household expenditure - senegal - gender - well-being - landbouwhuishoudens - middelentoewijzing - gezinsinkomen - tijdsbesteding - besluitvorming - huishoudens - platteland - inkomen van landbouwers - inkomsten van buiten het landbouwbedrijf - vrouwen - mannen - huishouduitgaven - senegal - geslacht (gender) - welzijn
In this last decade, poverty in developing countries remains the most important topic of debate at the international level. The main proposition was how to build policies and programs on a gender perspective approach taking into account gender differences in behavior between male and female at the level of the household. This study is undertaken in a context of two earner partners living in mixed farming systems in Senegal where earnings come primarily from crops and livestock. This book provides substantial research focused on household decision-making regarding resource allocation and consumption. Moreover, it attempts to show empirical findings on the analysis of welfare and well-being through an innovative combination of subjective and objective methods. The research shows how important socioeconomic and cultural factors are in determining earnings from agricultural activities. Important determinants of productivity are related to women’s land access, non-labor income (transfers from migrants), and the wife’s access to credit and health problems. The research illustrates also that women’s bargaining power may be strongly linked to their access to livestock resources, their mobility in purchasing food and medicine and their participation in the management of household finance. Analysis of decision-making regarding expenditures shows that women, more than men, value household goods (related to food, health and schooling expenditures) more than private goods. The results suggest that policies aimed at improving household livelihoods must understand gender differences, obligations and priorities.
Intrahousehold resource allocation and well-being : the case of rural households in Senegal
Dia, F. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (AWLAE series no. 10) - ISBN 9789086861583 - 257
landbouwhuishoudens - middelentoewijzing - gezinsinkomen - tijdsbesteding - besluitvorming - huishoudens - platteland - inkomen van landbouwers - inkomsten van buiten het landbouwbedrijf - vrouwen - mannen - huishouduitgaven - senegal - geslacht (gender) - welzijn - agricultural households - resource allocation - household income - time allocation - decision making - households - rural areas - farmers' income - non-farm income - women - men - household expenditure - gender - well-being
Food, diversity, vulnerability and social change : research findings from insular Southeast Asia
Niehof, A. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Mansholt publication series vol. 9) - ISBN 9789086861392 - 141
huishoudens - voedselzekerheid - gezinsinkomen - huishouduitgaven - sociale verandering - armoede - zuidoost-azië - indonesië - filippijnen - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - households - food security - household income - household expenditure - social change - poverty - south east asia - indonesia - philippines - livelihood strategies
Food is a universal basic need. The diverse ways in which people and households try to meet this need, the constraints they are up against in doing so, and the strategies they develop to reduce their vulnerability to food insecurity form the core of this book. A large range of findings on these subjects is reviewed and analysed, based on recent research carried out in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Indonesia and the Philippines. Household food provision and the nutritional status of household members reflect processes and outcomes that reach far beyond agricultural parameters of food production and biological indicators of nutrient intake. They evolve in a dynamic and gendered context shaped by ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political factors. Hence, research in the field provides a meeting ground for researchers with various disciplinary backgrounds, like agronomists, nutrition scientists, anthropologists, sociologists, and economists. The methodological implications of this are discussed in the book as well.
Fragmented lives: reconstructing rural livelihoods in post-genocide Rwanda
Koster, M. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Georg Frerks; Lisa Price. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049678 - 468
plattelandsontwikkeling - huishoudens - gezinsinkomen - oorlog - conflict - sociologie - sociale economie - platteland - plattelandsbevolking - huishoudelijke consumptie - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - landbouw - armoede - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - etnische groepen - rwanda - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - sociaal kapitaal - geslacht (gender) - rural development - households - household income - war - conflict - sociology - socioeconomics - rural areas - rural population - household consumption - subsistence farming - agriculture - poverty - rural women - woman's status - ethnic groups - rwanda - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - social capital - gender
During the genocide in Rwanda (1994) nearly a million Tutsi and moderate Hutu were killed and millions of people were displaced. Since 2002, social scientist Marian Koster has regularly visited the country for her PhD-research at Wageningen University. Her study centred on the strategies that households in the northeast of Rwanda use to secure their livelihoods. During her visits to Rwanda, Koster was told that the poorest and most vulnerable households consist of those headed by women, and specifically those headed by widows. However, her research clearly indicates that this is not the case and that widowed heads of households perform much better than is generally assumed. This has important consequences for development interventions which, in an attempt to reach the poorest of the poor, continue to target widows. Koster’s research also shows that many new laws and policies, meant to increase land tenure security and agricultural production, are counterproductive and directly undermine poor people’s livelihood strategies.
Village poultry in Ethiopia : socio-technical analysis and learning with farmers
Asgedom, A.H. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards; Akke van der Zijpp, co-promotor(en): Henk Udo; Conny Almekinders. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046790 - 178
pluimvee - boeren - erven - dorpen - gezinsinkomen - sociologische analyse - leren - landbouwontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - ethiopië - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - poultry - farmers - yards - villages - household income - sociological analysis - learning - agricultural development - rural development - ethiopia - livelihood strategies
In developing countries village poultry keeping is regarded an important livelihood opportunity for the poor. To improve poultry systems, it is necessary to keep in mind a large number of local complexities. This study aimed to integrate participatory-, survey- and model-based approaches to socio-technical analysis and mutual farmer-researcher learning about constraints to and opportunities for village poultry development in Ethiopia. The study applied a combined technography and systems approach as an input in analyzing possibilities for poultry development in terms of context-mechanism-outcome. To this end it used as data collection methods individual and open-group interviews, a cross-sectional stratified random survey, farm-recording, a market survey, and village-poultry modelling. Feed-back workshops were organised to share between farmers and researchers the data collected through farm-recording and to learn about outcomes of simulation scenarios for identifying improvement options of village poultry systems. Village poultry significantly contributed to the livelihoods of poor households: economically as starter capital, as a means to recover from disasters, as an accessible protein source and for income and exchange purposes, and socio-culturally for mystical functions, hospitality and exchange of gifts to strengthen social relationships. Poor households used sharing arrangements to have access to poultry. Distance to markets influenced flock sizes and poultry marketing organization. Religious festival days were associated with increased poultry consumption and sales, and fasting periods with decreased consumption. Farm-recording was as a first entry point to learn about how farmers participate in research. It transpired that researchers needed to understand the religious and customary norms of the community and adjust the data collection tools and procedures to fit these norms. As a second entry point, farm recording information was presented back to farmers to validate the data and to discuss with farmers the reasons of variation between households. A third entry point for sharing between researchers and farmers was modelling and simulation. Information from literature was used for development of a village-poultry model. The study documented experiences of how the modelling process was used to engage farmers and researchers in joint learning about village poultry keeping. The present study has indicated that through the combination of multiple approaches and methods researchers can arrive at better understanding of constraints affecting farmers’ reality. This implies more relevant problem definition and therefore a potentially more effective technology development process. The study confirms that village poultry research and development are not only about finding technical solutions but also involve addressing household livelihoods, and institutional and policy issues from a social science perspective.
Potenties van groen! : de invloed van groen in en om de stad op overgewicht bij kinderen en op het binden van huishoudens met midden- en hoge inkomens aan de stad
Vreke, J. ; Donders, J.L.M. ; Langers, F. ; Salverda, I.E. ; Veeneklaas, F.R. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1356) - 112
stedelijke gebieden - groene zones - kinderen - overgewicht - gezinsinkomen - sociaal-economische positie - nederland - openbaar groen - urban areas - green belts - children - overweight - household income - socioeconomic status - netherlands - public green areas
Generieke effecten van groen in en om de stad zijn in kaart gebracht. Voor twee van deze effecten zijn relevante aspecten beschreven en analyses uitgevoerd. Een statistische analyse, waarbij is gecorrigeerd voor etniciteit en sociaal-economische status, naar prevalentie van overgewicht bij kinderen geeft aan dat de prevalentie van overgewicht in buurten met groen van voldoende omvang, significant lager is dan in vergelijkbare buurten zonder groen. De aanwezigheid van openbaar groen heeft een positief effect op de waardering van de woonomgeving en zo een positieve invloed op het binden van huishoudens met midden- en hoge inkomens aan wijk of stad. Uitspraken over de relatie tussen groen en het binden van midden- en hoge inkomens middels een kwantitatief verhuismodel lijken mogelijk.
Village modeling : a Chinese recipe for blending general equilibrium and household modeling
Kuiper, M.H. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Kuyvenhoven; J.B. Opschoor, co-promotor(en): Nico Heerink. - s.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085041276 - 261
plattelandsontwikkeling - huishoudens - dorpen - economische ontwikkeling - modellen - sociale boekhouding - migratie - productiefuncties - China - huishoudelijke consumptie - gezinsinkomen - rural development - households - villages - economic development - models - social accounting - migration - production functions - China - household consumption - household income
Activity diversification in rural livelihoods : the role of farm supplementary income in Burkina Faso
Brons, J.E. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Kuyvenhoven, co-promotor(en): Ruerd Ruben. - s.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085041825 - 153
economische ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - neveninkomsten - gezinsinkomen - diversificatie - risico - inkomensverdeling - gewasproductie - efficiëntie - marginale gebieden - burkina faso - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - economic development - farm management - rural development - farm income - supplementary income - household income - diversification - risk - income distribution - crop production - efficiency - less favoured areas - burkina faso
Proceedings of the OECD/PACIOLI Workshop on Information Needs for the Analysis of Farm Household Income Issues
Moreddu, C. ; Poppe, K.J. - \ 2004
Den Haag : LEI (Report / LEI : Domain 8, Models and data ) - ISBN 9789052429496 - 108
agrarische economie - oeso - landbouwbeleid - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - gezinsinkomen - european farm accounting network - europese unie - agricultural economics - oecd - agricultural policy - farm income - household income - european farm accounting network - european union
The assessment of agricultural policies depends more and more on micro-economic data sets. This is especially true for policies with an income objective in a situation where farm households have different income sources. Among others the OECD has stressed this point in recent years with analytical reports. The PACIOLI network yearly brings together data managers and researchers interested in the innovation of data collection in this area. In April 2004 a joint workshop was organised at the OECD in Paris to bring experts together to exchange best practices. This report contains the proceedings of that workshop.
Pacioli 11; New roads for farm accounting and FADN
Poppe, K.J. - \ 2004
Den Haag : LEI (Report / LEI : Domain 8, Models and data ) - ISBN 9789052428789 - 168
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - european farm accounting network - boekhouding van landbouwbedrijf - gezinsinkomen - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - monitoring - europa - datacommunicatie - europese unie - farm management - european farm accounting network - farm accounting - household income - farm income - monitoring - europe - data communication - european union
The Pacioli network explores the needs for and feasibility of innovation in farm accounting and its consequences for data gathering for policy analysis in Farm Accountancy Data Networks (FADNs). PACIOLI-11 was held in Przysick (Poland), in October 2003. This workshop report presents the papers. In the 11th Pacioli workshop special attention was given to a number household income issues, using micro data. Other topics include the CAP-Mid Term Review, farm specialisation, software development, and productivity analysis. In addition results of the workgroup sessions are reported.
Minder geld, minder gelukkig? Een onderzoek naar inkomstenterugval en de beleving daarvan
Antonides, G. - \ 2004
Utrecht : NIBUD - 26
gezinsinkomen - huishoudbudgetten - huishouduitgaven - huishoudens - household income - household budgets - household expenditure - households
Dit onderzoek gaat in op de gevolgen van een inkomensdaling op economisch en psychologisch vlak. Ook wordt gekeken naar de manier waarop mensen zich voorbereiden op een inkomensdaling en hoe zij hiermee omgaan. Het rapport is een gezamenlijke uitgave van het Nationaal Instituut voor Budgetvoorlichting (NIBUD) en prof. dr. Gerrit Antonides, hoogleraar Economie van consumenten en huishoudens aan de Universiteit van Wageningen
Economic analysis and policy implications of farm and off-farm employment : a case study in the Tigray region of Northern Ethiopia
Woldehanna, T. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.J. Oskam; C.P.J. Burger. - S.l. : S.n. - 277
werkgelegenheid buiten het landbouwbedrijf - arbeidsmarkt - lonen - gezinsinkomen - landbouwondernemingen - landbouwproductie - Ethiopië - off-farm employment - labour market - wages - household income - farm enterprises - agricultural production - Ethiopia
The central item of this research is the impact of off-farm employment and income on farm households and agricultural production. The interaction between farm and non-farm activities, the adjustment of labor demand and supply, the performance of the labor market, and wage determination are analysed using a farm household model with liquidity constraints. The analysis provides a new insight into the role of off-farm income in risky and less dynamic agriculture (as opposed to dynamic and less risky agriculture).
The study shows that off-farm income can be complementary to farm income if farm households are constrained in their borrowing. Imposing liquidity constraints into the standard farm household model proves this theoretically. This is tested empirically using farm household survey data collected from Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Farm households with more diversified sources of income have a higher agricultural productivity. Expenditure on farm input is dependent not only on agricultural production, but also on off-farm income because of capital market imperfections (borrowing constraints). Farmers involved in better paying off-farm activities such as masonry, carpentry and trading are in a better position to hire farm labor.
The wage rates for off-farm work vary across agricultural seasons and skill requirements. Hence, wage rates respond to forces of demand and supply. Increased expenditure on variable farm inputs is found to increase the demand for and supply of farm labor. The farm households have an upward sloping off-farm labor supply, but the supply of off-farm labor is wage inelastic. Due to entry barriers, relatively wealthy farm households dominate the most lucrative rural non-farm activities such as masonry, carpentry and petty trade.
Although the study focuses on Northern Ethiopia, most conclusions can have a wider application in the other parts of the country and in many of the Sub-Saharan African countries where agriculture is not dynamic and the capital market is highly imperfect.
|Nuclear Families and the Changing Income Procurement Role of Married Women.
Ophem, J.A.C. van; Hoog, K. de - \ 1997
Associations 1 (1997)2. - p. 279 - 295.
positie van de vrouw - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - gezinsinkomen - kerngezinnen - gezinsleven - werkgelegenheid - sociale verandering - economische situatie - levensstandaarden - culturele verandering - arbeidsmarkt - tijdsbesteding - huishoudkunde - man-vrouwrelaties - nederland - vrouwenemancipatie - vrouw en samenleving - woman's status - female labour - household income - nuclear families - family life - employment - social change - economic situation - living standards - cultural change - labour market - time allocation - home economics - gender relations - netherlands - emancipation of women - woman and society
In this article the authors argue that the increase in labour force participation of married women in the Netherlands is not to be seen as indicating married women's increased emancipation but rather as an outcome of socio-structural, socio-cultural and socio-economic changes within society that severly restrict wives' freedom of choice in their decisions to allocate their time
Household food security and nutritional status of vulnerable groups in Kenya : a seasonal study among low income smallholder rural households
Kigutha, H.N. - \ 1994
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; W.A. van Staveren. - S.l. : Kigutha - ISBN 9789054852940 - 161
voedselhygiëne - voedingstoestand - consumptiepatronen - slechte voeding - vasten - vermageringsdiëten - voedingsfysiologie - huishoudens - gezinsinkomen - hulpbronnen - seizoenen - kenya - food hygiene - nutritional state - consumption patterns - malnutrition - fasting - weight loss diets - nutrition physiology - households - household income - resources - seasons - kenya
Climatic seasonality is now recognized as being a constraint to agricultural production and to household food security in many countries within the tropical regions of the world. This study investigated the extent to which a unimodal climatic pattern affects food production and food availability of smallholder rural households, with special emphasis on households with limited landholdings and low cash incomes. Further investigations involved looking at the effect of fluctuating levels of food availability on dietary intakes and the nutritional status of three vulnerable groups namely: preschool children, lactating women and the elderly. The study was carried out in Nakuru district within the Rift Valley province in Kenya between April 1992 and June 1993. Foods coming into the household from own production, purchases, and gifts were recorded on monthly basis from recalls. Body weight of all the subjects was measured once every month. Height was measured once at baseline for the adults, while length for preschool children was measured three times. Food consumption was determined by 24-hour recall method on monthly basis, and by 3-day weighed records at three points during the lean and the harvest seasons. A unimodal climatic pattern was found to influence food production and hence household food availability during most months within the production cycle. This subsequently influenced food consumption and the nutritional status of the vulnerable groups in the study. Lactating women lost up to 9 percent, elderly men 7 percent, and elderly women 3 percent of their body weight. While no weight losses were observed in the children, weight gains were minimal during the lean season but improved slightly during the postharvest period. It was observed that the energy and nutrient intakes of the children depended more on diet quality rather than on household food availability per se.
Vrouwen, huishouden en krediet in West Java.
Niehof, A. - \ 1994
Huishoudstudies 4 (1994)2. - p. 3 - 12.
samenstelling - krediet - kredietbeleid - economie - werkende vrouwen - werkgelegenheid - gezinnen - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - gezinsinkomen - huishoudens - individuen - Java - hypotheken - hulpbronnen - besparingen - structuur - vrouwen - vrouwelijke werknemers - werk - composition - credit - credit policy - economics - employed women - employment - families - female labour - household income - households - individuals - mortgages - resources - savings - structure - women - women workers - work
Aan de hand van resultaten van een project in West Java dat de ondersteuning van inkomensgenererende activiteiten van vrouwen tot doel had, komt aan de orde wat economische activiteit en inkomen voor vrouwen en hun huishoudens betekenen en welke strategische rol krediet vervult
De miljoenennota en de gevolgen voor huishoudens
Mazeland, M.P. ; Ophem, J.A.C. van; Zuidberg, A.C.L. - \ 1981
Vakblad voor Huishoudkunde 2 (1981). - p. 118 - 123.
samenstelling - economisch beleid - economie - gezinnen - gezinsinkomen - huishoudens - hulpbronnen - sociale wetgeving - sociaal beleid - structuur - Nederland - composition - economic policy - economics - families - household income - households - resources - social legislation - social policy - structure - Netherlands
Ingegaan wordt op een aantal voor huishoudens direkt relevante zaken uit de Miljoenennota 1982 en de begeleidende Macro Economische Verkenningen 1982 (MEV1982) van het Centraal Plan Bureau, en de gevolgen van die zaken voor de huishouding in 1982