Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Intrahousehold resource allocation and well-being : the case of rural households in Senegal
Dia, F. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides; Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Johan van Ophem. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856863 - 271
agricultural households - resource allocation - household income - time allocation - decision making - households - rural areas - farmers' income - non-farm income - women - men - household expenditure - senegal - gender - well-being - landbouwhuishoudens - middelentoewijzing - gezinsinkomen - tijdsbesteding - besluitvorming - huishoudens - platteland - inkomen van landbouwers - inkomsten van buiten het landbouwbedrijf - vrouwen - mannen - huishouduitgaven - senegal - geslacht (gender) - welzijn
In this last decade, poverty in developing countries remains the most important topic of debate at the international level. The main proposition was how to build policies and programs on a gender perspective approach taking into account gender differences in behavior between male and female at the level of the household. This study is undertaken in a context of two earner partners living in mixed farming systems in Senegal where earnings come primarily from crops and livestock. This book provides substantial research focused on household decision-making regarding resource allocation and consumption. Moreover, it attempts to show empirical findings on the analysis of welfare and well-being through an innovative combination of subjective and objective methods. The research shows how important socioeconomic and cultural factors are in determining earnings from agricultural activities. Important determinants of productivity are related to women’s land access, non-labor income (transfers from migrants), and the wife’s access to credit and health problems. The research illustrates also that women’s bargaining power may be strongly linked to their access to livestock resources, their mobility in purchasing food and medicine and their participation in the management of household finance. Analysis of decision-making regarding expenditures shows that women, more than men, value household goods (related to food, health and schooling expenditures) more than private goods. The results suggest that policies aimed at improving household livelihoods must understand gender differences, obligations and priorities.

Intrahousehold resource allocation and well-being : the case of rural households in Senegal
Dia, F. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (AWLAE series no. 10) - ISBN 9789086861583 - 257
landbouwhuishoudens - middelentoewijzing - gezinsinkomen - tijdsbesteding - besluitvorming - huishoudens - platteland - inkomen van landbouwers - inkomsten van buiten het landbouwbedrijf - vrouwen - mannen - huishouduitgaven - senegal - geslacht (gender) - welzijn - agricultural households - resource allocation - household income - time allocation - decision making - households - rural areas - farmers' income - non-farm income - women - men - household expenditure - gender - well-being
Food, diversity, vulnerability and social change : research findings from insular Southeast Asia
Niehof, A. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Mansholt publication series vol. 9) - ISBN 9789086861392 - 141
huishoudens - voedselzekerheid - gezinsinkomen - huishouduitgaven - sociale verandering - armoede - zuidoost-azië - indonesië - filippijnen - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - households - food security - household income - household expenditure - social change - poverty - south east asia - indonesia - philippines - livelihood strategies
Food is a universal basic need. The diverse ways in which people and households try to meet this need, the constraints they are up against in doing so, and the strategies they develop to reduce their vulnerability to food insecurity form the core of this book. A large range of findings on these subjects is reviewed and analysed, based on recent research carried out in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Indonesia and the Philippines. Household food provision and the nutritional status of household members reflect processes and outcomes that reach far beyond agricultural parameters of food production and biological indicators of nutrient intake. They evolve in a dynamic and gendered context shaped by ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political factors. Hence, research in the field provides a meeting ground for researchers with various disciplinary backgrounds, like agronomists, nutrition scientists, anthropologists, sociologists, and economists. The methodological implications of this are discussed in the book as well.
Is er nog brood op de plank bij akkerbouw- melkvee-en glastuinbouwbedrijven?
Veen, H.B. van der; Meulen, H.A.B. van der - \ 2009
Agri-monitor 2009 (2009)dec. - ISSN 1383-6455 - p. 1 - 3.
agrarische economie - liquiditeit - inkomen van landbouwers - cash flow - ondernemerschap - huishouduitgaven - economische situatie - agricultural economics - liquidity - farmers' income - entrepreneurship - household expenditure - economic situation
In 2009 heeft een groot aantal land- en tuinbouwbedrijven te maken met forse inkomensdalingen. Dit heeft voor die bedrijven vooral consequenties op de korte termijn. Voor zowel bedrijf als gezin moeten noodzakelijke aankopen gedaan worden. Hoeveel bedrijven hebben problemen om op korte termijn het hoofd boven water te houden?
Nederland leeft op de pof
Jongeneel, R. - \ 2008
CVKoers 2008 (2008)1. - ISSN 1566-9084 - p. 19 - 19.
huishoudens - huishouduitgaven - financiën - schuld - budgetteren - gedrag van huishoudens - households - household expenditure - finance - debt - budgeting - household behaviour
Steeds meer mensen in Nederland hebben schulden. De problemen zijn zó serieus dat er in de politiek, het gezin en de kerk actie nodig is
Minder geld, minder gelukkig? Een onderzoek naar inkomstenterugval en de beleving daarvan
Antonides, G. - \ 2004
Utrecht : NIBUD - 26
gezinsinkomen - huishoudbudgetten - huishouduitgaven - huishoudens - household income - household budgets - household expenditure - households
Dit onderzoek gaat in op de gevolgen van een inkomensdaling op economisch en psychologisch vlak. Ook wordt gekeken naar de manier waarop mensen zich voorbereiden op een inkomensdaling en hoe zij hiermee omgaan. Het rapport is een gezamenlijke uitgave van het Nationaal Instituut voor Budgetvoorlichting (NIBUD) en prof. dr. Gerrit Antonides, hoogleraar Economie van consumenten en huishoudens aan de Universiteit van Wageningen
Non-farm employment in rural Kenya : micro-mechanisms influencing food and nutrition of farming households
Mwadime, R.K.N. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.C. Hoorweg; J.G.A.J. Hautvast. - S.l. : Mwadime - ISBN 9789054856177 - 141
arbeidsmarkt - werkgelegenheid - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - uitgaven voor consumptie - budgetten - inkomen - kindervoeding - zuigelingenvoeding - huishoudens - consumptie - papier - bordpapier - karton - financieel beheer - labour market - employment - household consumption - household expenditure - consumer expenditure - budgets - income - child nutrition - infant nutrition - households - consumption - paper - cardboard - paperboard - financial management
The study reported here describes the links between non-farm employment and child nutritional status in rural coastal Kenya using a model adapted from an operational model commonly used in nutrition planning. Four studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 in a community in Kwale district. Three of these studies were nonfarm employment and subsistence food production, household income and food accessibility, and maternal employment and child care and house health environment. The findings of these three studies were used in the design of the fourth study which assessed the whole model.

Households which combined both NFE and agricultural sources of income had higher total incomes than those which depended on only one source. The relation between non-farm employment and nutritional status was weak. There was a positive relation between household income and the level of household food expenditure, which, in turn, was positively associated with long-term nutritional status of children. Higher energy intake was associated with food diversity and increased with income level. The sources of differences in food diversity within income groups were not sought. Household income and time spent in the non-farm activities per woman had no direct linear effects on the components of child care. However, income did affect housing quality, while time affected household sanitation/hygiene. Maternal employment had no effect on the components of child care and household-living conditions when controlling for the age of the youngest child, mother's education and household income. This is attributed to the fact that the mother had a lot of "spare time". Hence, this analysis suggests that non-farm employment can open an opportunity to provide for enhanced child's long-term nutritional status through the effect of total income on nutrient intake and through purchased goods that improve housing quality. Women's time in non-farm employment, although affecting house sanitation/hygiene, does not have to compromise the nutritional status of children. It is concluded that the framework used by households to allocate their resources of time and income is different from the framework used for programming and policy development. The role of non-economic factors in the difference between two frameworks is suggested as a focus for future research.

Comparison of real output, productivity and price levels in agriculture in the EC : a reconnaissance
Terluin, I.J. - \ 1990
Den Haag : L.E.I. (Onderzoekverslag / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 69) - ISBN 9789052420868 - 114
huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - uitgaven voor consumptie - budgetten - inkomen - consumptie - nationale bestedingen - landbouw - productiviteit - landbouwproductie - capaciteit - economische sectoren - valuta - monetaire pariteit - fluctuaties - vergelijkingen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landen van de europese unie - landbouw als bedrijfstak - household consumption - household expenditure - consumer expenditure - budgets - income - consumption - national expenditure - agriculture - productivity - agricultural production - capacity - economic sectors - currencies - monetary parity - fluctuations - comparisons - farm management - european union countries - agriculture as branch of economy
Werkloze hoofdkostwinners in Friesland en hun omgang met geld.
Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 1990
Tijdschrift voor huishoudkunde 11 (1990)3. - ISSN 0169-1295 - p. 65 - 72.
budgetten - samenstelling - uitgaven voor consumptie - consumptie - gezinnen - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - huishoudens - inkomen - armoede - sociale structuur - sociaal welzijn - sociologie - structuur - werkloosheid - financieel beheer - friesland - nationaal vermogen - personen - vermogensverdeling - budgets - composition - consumer expenditure - consumption - families - household consumption - household expenditure - households - income - poverty - social structure - social welfare - sociology - structure - unemployment - financial management - national wealth - persons - wealth distribution
Bespreking van een onderzoek naar de economische omstandigheden en het arbeidsmarktgedrag van langdurig werklozen in Friesland
Huishoudens en inkomensdaling, enkele facetten uit een studie.
Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 1989
Tijdschrift voor huishoudkunde 10 (1989). - ISSN 0169-1295 - p. 79 - 86.
budgetten - samenstelling - uitgaven voor consumptie - consumptie - gezinnen - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - huishoudens - bevolking - inkomen - laag inkomen - nationale bestedingen - structuur - financieel beheer - personen - budgets - composition - consumer expenditure - consumption - families - household consumption - household expenditure - households - human population - income - low income - national expenditure - structure - financial management - persons
Bespreking van : enige resultaten van een onderzoek naar reacties van huishoudens op inkomensachteruitgang in het begin van de jaren tachtig in Nederland; het belang van de huishoudeconomische rationaliteit en de confrontatie met onverwachte gebeurtenissen; de tracering van potentieel kwetsbare huishoudens
Huishoudens en inkomensdaling
Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 1988
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): C. Presvelou. - S.l. : van Ophem - ISBN 9789067541251 - 239
budgetten - uitgaven voor consumptie - consumptie - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - huishoudens - bevolking - inkomen - nationale bestedingen - nederland - financieel beheer - budgets - consumer expenditure - consumption - household consumption - household expenditure - households - human population - income - national expenditure - netherlands - financial management
The subject of this study is the effect, due to external social factors, of a decline in real income on private households in the Netherlands during the period 1981-1983. There are two main topics considered in the study: firstly, how does a household react to these changes and are there any significant differences between the various household categories, and secondly, how the reactions are to be interpreted. These points are discussed and analysed from a economic/household studies standpoint. Within the framework of the study, the following are of importance: the categories of paid/unpaid labour, financial management and income expenditure. Attention is focussed on the time and money resources of the household. In chapter two, consideration is given to several economic and social developments. They form the framework within which the behavioural changes of the households take place. It has been demonstrated that the early nineteen-eighties (1981-1983) did, in fact, form a period of income decline in real terms for households. The development of both static and dynamic purchasing power amongst private households was, during this period, negative, whilst unemployment in the Netherlands reached 10% and above. The latter is, however, more of a structural nature. In the period following 1983 there is evidence of improving real income levels for those employed in the free market sector, whereas for civil servants and those receiving social benefits, purchasing power remained static or rose less sharply, and in some cases even decreased. The change in both attitude and policy, as well as the developments within the social security area, are dealt with at some length in chapter two. This chapter also considers four social and demographic changes which occurred during the period 1975-1985, i.e. household dilution, development of work within the household, and increase in labour supply, and the economic pessimism of the early 1980's. In chapter three hypotheses are formulated (scheme 1).

Scheme 1. An overview of hypotheses

Expenditureofincome Hypotheses 1 to 4

- In households in the lowest income bracket, economies are made predominantly upon the current expenses.
- Especially households in the lowest income bracket purchase fewer consumer durables.
- In households in the lowest income bracket, economies are made predominantly on the purchase of consumer durables. - Especially households in the lowest income bracket are more likely to postpone the purchase of consumer durables due to financial circumstances.

Paid/unpaidlabour Hypotheses 5 to 7

- In a societal situation of an income decrease in real terms, the supply of paid labour will increase.
- In a societal situation of an income decrease in real terms, time spent on household activities will increase.
- Since unemployment is 'rationed', a household is more likely to opt for economising, rather than seek an additional source of income.

Householdeconomicrationality Hypotheses 8 to 11

In a household of more than one individual, there will be an increase in the amount of joint discussion on financial matters. An increase in conflict surrounding budget expenditure is to be expected, considering that it is less easy to placate all those involved; discussion of the pros and cons will take place more often. A societal situation of an income decrease in real terms leads to an increase in the household economic rationality. The lower the household income the greater the increase in the amount of household economic rationality.

Financialmanagement (including saving and borrowing) Hypotheses 12 to 18

- Households in the lower income bracket will change their planning horizon such as may lead to a decrease in the opportunities for saving.
- The alternative borrowing of money will appear less than the alternatives economizing and a decrease of savings deposits.
- Households in the lower income categories are less likely to draw on their savings deposits than those of other income categories.
- Households who have a somewhat pessimistic view of their future financial situation, will have drawn less on their savings deposits than households with a more optimistic view.
- Households with a sharp increase in household economic rationality, in comparison with households with only limited increase in household economic rationality, are less likely to draw on their savings deposits.
- Households with a sharp increase in household economic rationality do not borrow money for purposes of consumption.
- Incidental income can have an alleviating effect on the household financial pressures.

In analysing the problem an economic/household studies model has also been developed. The model is based on the following reasoning for the six main alternatives of the household (see appendix to summary): A decline in real income means, in theory, that a household has less money at its disposal. Since a habitual standard of living does not, in the short term, alter along with an income decline, a degree of tension arises between what needs it is actually possible to satisfy, and what it is not. Because the household is accustomed to a certain standard of living, the reaction to income developments will be delayed. From a household economic point of view a reaction will occur. If unanticipated, the event of a real income decline due to external circumstances, has the effect of thwarting a household's financial planning. The household is confronted by increased tension between its desires and the means available to satisfy them. This strain is amplified by individual circumstances. It is assumed that a household attempts to find a happy medium (satisficing behaviour). A limited degree of household economic rationality is assumed. Confronted by the new situation, a household makes decisions. Depending on the situation, a household will either attempt to adapt itself to the new situation or actively seek other sources of assistance, or settle for a combination of both. The areas affected by a real income decline within the household are as follows: income procurement, financial management, income outlay (behaviour as a consumer in the market) and work carried out within the household (household activities). Adaptation may occur in either one or more of these areas. A household can economise, draw on savings, borrow money, take on additional paid employment and spend more time on household activities, or it can alter its household economic rationality strongly. These are the dependent variables in the model. Whether a household alters its behaviour in any of these areas is dependent, on the one hand, on its behaviour in other areas, and on the other hand, on circumstances and other interventional variables. Situational independent variables include, among others, the size of the household, the number of financially dependent children and net wealth. These are variables which can either increase or decrease tensions within the private household. Interventional independent variables are comprised of both a situational and behavioural element. The model is made up of measured variables (see appendix to summary). To test the hypotheses and the model for the main alternatives, and subsequently to adjust the model accordingly, interviews of 275 private households were used. The interviews took place in the spring of 1983, and relate to the period 1981-1983. The sample was formulated by the 'snowball method' and, as far as was possible, should be representative in both household type and degree of urbanisation. In respect of income distribution, the sample should provide sufficient contrast. The sample is not representative with respect to household type, property ownership and household size. The sample is fairly representative with respect to the number of children still living at home. The sample is representative with respect to the degree of urbanisation. When interpreting the data it should be borne in mind that within the category household type, families with children and one parent families are over-represented, and households made up of one individual only, are under-represented. The latter usually have a lower income and a wider distribution than other types of household. Coupled with the fact that there are a relatively large number of home owners in the sample, the impression is formed that middle income groups are under-represented. Considering the contrast aimed at in the study, there is no objection to this. The interviews were conducted with emergent and bilateral target questions on the household, as well as with questions directed at each individual. Because of the unreliability, questions were not asked about specific amounts of money involved in the separate areas (discrete variables). Chapter five tests the hypotheses. The results of the test discussed in chapter five are as follows: households apportion the budget into current and non-current expenses. The analysis in chapter five leads to the confirmation of fifteen out of the eighteen hypotheses and the rejection of the numbers 14, 16 and 18. In addition to the hypotheses, a model for the six main alternatives has been developed and tested. The loglinear procedure of backward elimination has been used in order to reduce the number of variables. Additionally, a comparison of various models has also resulted in reducing the number of variables. The logit technique has been used to estimate the probability ratios (relative effects). Variables are, as much as possible, dichotomised. Within each category of situational, behavioural and intervential independent variables the probability ratios should be interpreted within each category. The most important conclusions from this logit analysis of the model with the six main alternatives are as follows: by the variable economising in the context of situational variables, the dichotomised net household income variable is less significant than the variable economically non-
active main breadwinner. Other independent variables which have been estimated for the categories situational, behavioural and interventional, and which have a significant probability ratio are: being confronted by unexpectedly high expenses, having financially dependent children, a high level of fixed costs (more than 34% of net houshold income). From a theoretical
point of view, the first variable is most marked. Instead of the all-knowing 'homo economicus', we see households reacting, in terms of expenditure, to events which thwart established customs and habits, whether planned for or otherwise. From amongst the behavioural variables, a sharp increase in the level of household economic rationality provides an increased likelihood of
economising. The relationship is a simultaneous one. Some degree of causality can, however, be induced by purporting that when households wish to economise on expenditure, it may be assumed that: quality/price awareness, more price awareness, information gathering, becoming more economically and appraisal of the pros and cons, are absolutely essential considerations. An internal expenditure shift, by economising in some areas to be able to actualise others, gives rise to a chance of economising.
If the savings deposits have been diminished, there is a good chance that economising has taken place either. This implies that it is not simply a question of a trade-off, but that economising and drawing on savings often go hand in hand. Households, that for financial reasons spend more time on household activities, economise more often. From amongst the interventional variables, an income decline appears to accompany economising. Furthermore, households which stated their minimum required household income to be more than 80% of net household income, appear to economise more often. This depends partly on the level of
fixed costs (as a percentage of net household income). Strong consumption orientation appears not to have any significant influence on the tendency to economise. In the logit analysis, the most noticeable of the variable spending more time on household activities, is the lack of any significant connection with the other dependent variables in the model. No situational
variable whatsoever appears to be of any significant influence. Only one behavioural variable i.e. do it yourself (DIY) remains.
Being confronted by unexpectedly high expenses not only makes economising more likely, but also makes drawing on savings (diminished savings deposits) more probable. Other situational variables appear to have no obvious influence. An internal expenditure shift enabling consumption of particular commodities and services does not lead to a diminished savings deposit. A trade-off between, on the one hand an increase in paid employment for financial reasons, changing assetts into cash in
order to pay daily expenses, borrowing money, opportunity for saving and on the other hand, a decrease in the savings deposit, cannot be established. The complementary relation between economising and diminished savings deposits also applies here. Closely related to the above is the clear connection between a decrease in the savings deposits and a sharp increase in
household economic rationality. The variables being in arrears with payments and opportunity for saving appears, along with a sharp increase in household economic rationality, of no significant influence. Borrowing money or, in other words, making use of consumer credit, is found less amongst households with a high net wealth. The other situational variables have no obvious influence here. Trade-off with economising, drawing on savings and sharp increase in household economic rationality, is not to be found here. The lower employment status level of the main breadwinner makes the variable taking on additional paid employment for financial reasons more likely. The stimulus to do this is stronger amongst the lower employment status levels.
After further analysing mutual relationships, the other situational variables appear to have no obvious influence. Furthermore, the
variable sharp increase in household economic rationality and internal expenditure shift, give a relative probability. This is also valid for households that experienced a worsening of their financial situation in the period, and for households where minimum required household income is more than 80% of net household income. The variable sharp increase in household economic rationality shows a logic of mutual connection with other variables: to have economised, not having borrowed money and drawing on savings (decrease on savings deposits), provide, just as a pessimistic view on the financial situation, a greater
chance of a sharp increase in household economic rationality. Amongst the situational variables relative effects are to be found amongst the low educational levels. The results of the model analysis of the six main alternative choices mean modifying and refining the analysis model of chapter three. A complementary relation exists between the dependent variables economising, sharp increase in household economic rationality and decrease in saving deposits. There is no connection between the variabels spending more time on household activities and economising. There is a complementary relation between economising and spending more time on household activities for financial reasons. Negative change in income (in real terms) or financial situation,
as an independent variable, has an influence on five of the six dependent variables. Borrowing money is the exception. Changes in budget management (spending money in a different way, internal expenditure shift) have as an independent variable, influence on the dependent variables: economising, firm increase in household economic rationality, and an increase in paid employment for financial reasons. The situational variable being confronted by unexpectedly high expenses influences the dependent ariables economising and decrease in savings deposits. The level of net household income or variables connected with household income such as educational level, employment status and economic non-activity of main breadwinner, are connected to four out of the six dependent variables. The exception here is the dependent variable, spending more time on household activities, which is explained the least by the model. Additionally, logit analysis was made of several areas of current expenses (food and other daily necessities, clothing, car running costs, eating out and personal care) and of non-current expenses (furniture, car purchase,
audio/video, domestic textiles, going on holiday), by means of the dependent variables in the model in chapter three. There is no connection in the variable: being confronted by unexpectedly high expenses at this level of analysis. The results are disappointing in the relative effects of postponing the purchase of consumer durables for financial reasons. This is valid to a lesser extent for the explanation of economising on purchases. However, this conclusion does not hold for the relative effects of purchase of one of the five non-current expenses. By the purchase, depending on the product, the household income or the main breadwinner being economically active, give rise to frequently occurring relative effects. The data suggest that households are neither willing nor find it easy to admit that purchases cannot be made for financial reasons. Probably most households have some vague plan in mind, the carrying out of which depends to a large extent on whether other events take place or not. Other conclusions are: when economising on food and other daily necessities it is striking that the level of net household income is of no consequence. The chance of economising on food and other daily necessities is rather more dependent on a decrease in household income. This is most obvious in those households where one of the members became unemployed during the research period. The larger the household, as well as the presence of financially dependent children or higher fixed costs, the higher the chance that food and other daily necessities are economised on. Amongst those households whose main breadwinner is economically non- active, the chance of economising is high. From amongst the behavioural variables, only that of sharp increase in household economic rationality reinforces the chance of economising on food and other daily necessities. This probably indicates that economising on food and other daily necessities is brought about mostly by an adjustment in the price or the price/quality relationship of the items purchased, rather than economising on quantity. Households where minimum required household income is more than 80% of net household income are also more likely to economise on food and other daily necessities. For these households the free choice of how to budget is likely to be heavily restricted by high fixed costs. An income decline strengthens the effect of economising on food and other daily necessities. The probability of economising on clothing depends on the size of household or the presence of financially dependent children and the household income or main breadwinner being economically non-active. Economising on clothing is also to be found amongst those who are less consumption oriented. One of the household members becoming unemployed is also likely to result in economising on clothing. A household where the minimum required household income is, in fact, more than 80% of net household income, also economises on clothing more readily. The fact that here households also make adjustments in price rather than quantity can be seen from the results of the variable sharp increase in household economic rationality, and the variable spending more time on household activities for financial reasons. A decline in household income leads to economising on eating out of the respondent. Time/money substitution is relevant to this latter category. The picture presented of economising on personal care goes virtually hand in hand with that of clothing. The influence of the variable payment arrears is striking. The purchasing of a car and audio/video installations increases where there is an incidental income. A high consumption orientation is only of importance to the purchasing of audio/video installations. Those households with a low income and where the main breadwinner is economically nonactive, do not go away on holiday. The influence of a sharp increase in household economic rationality can be seen in some probability ratios, but the picture is not particularly uniform; sometimes it leads to not making a purchase at all, for example, of a car; sometimes to postponing the purchase (furniture), and sometimes to economising (audio/video installations). The probability ratios of the variables suggest that economising on making purchases and postponing the purchase of consumer durables for financial reasons come strongly to the fore where there are serious financial problems. Chapter seven presents a final reflection. Main results of the study are summarized. Two particularly interesting results of this study, sharp increase in household economic rationality and being confronted by unexpectedly high expenses, are dealt with at some length. The increase of household economic rationality pays attention to management within the household. Increase in scarcity of financial resources will lead to an increase in this rationality and will also lead to an extended decision making process. In their adaptation households may have become more rational calculating subjects. The scarcity ratio of time/money is, then, of particular interest. Bad calculations, however, are possible. Neither does the household take on the full characteristics of a small firm. Being confronted by unexpectedly high expenses can be placed into a wider perspective. At any moment, a household may be confronted by internal and external events which interfere un the regularity and its existence. Regarding these external events, the following maxime holds: if government policies or the market push households in an unwanted direction, they will push back. The opportunities of the pushing back, however, are unevenly distributed. The results of this study may be used to trace 'vulnerable households'. For these vulnerable households a cumulation of characteristics: low household income or economically non-active breadwinner, high proportion of fixed costs, confrontation with unexpectedly high expenses and lack of financial success, the policy towards reducing the unemployment level and towards the social security system are of particular importance. The permanence of a situation is of particular interest. A permanent stay in the lower income bracket leads to a deterioration of existing stock of (consumer) durables and/or financial means. Problems of daily care may be more acute.

APPENDIX TO SUMMARY: AN OUTLAY OF THE MODEL

The model consists of the following dependent variables: economising, drawing on savings (decrease in savings deposits), borrowing money, taking on additional paid employment, spending more time on household activities and a sharp increase in household economic rationality. The independent variables consist of situational, behavioural and interventional. The standard set of independent variables consists of the following: a.situationalindependentvariables , household size or number of financially dependent children, proportion of fixed costs of net household income, net wealth, being confronted with unexpectedly high expenses, stage of household development, net household income or economically (non)active main breadwinner; b.behaviouralvariables , economising, spending more time on household activities, internal shift of expenses, being in arrears with payment, changing assets into cash to pay daily expenses, taking on additional paid employment, sharp increase in household economic rationality, drawing on savings (decrease in savings deposits), borrowing money, regularly borrowing or drawing on savings more than fl. 500,- for daily living expenses; c.interventionalvariables , change in household composition, opinion on-decrease in real household income, minimum required household income more than 80% of net household income, more than fl. 1000,- incidental income, minimum required amount of savings in relation to household income, loss of job of member(s) of household, strong (or luxury) consumption orientation, loss of income due to combination of reduction in work schedule and fewer opportunities to work overtime, mean that the financial situation is worsened (or will worsen). The dependent variable is not to be explained by the same variable as the independent variable. Beside the standard set some additional variables are analysed for the six dependent variables (see appendix I of the Dutch text). Most of these variables were not significantly connected with the dependent variables. The exceptions are included in the summary.

Financieel beheer van tweeverdieners
Ophem, J.A.C. van; Berg, A. van den - \ 1987
Tijdschrift voor huishoudkunde 8 (1987)3. - ISSN 0169-1295 - p. 68 - 75.
budgetten - samenstelling - uitgaven voor consumptie - consumptie - gezinnen - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - huishoudens - inkomen - salarissen - structuur - lonen - financieel beheer - budgets - composition - consumer expenditure - consumption - families - household consumption - household expenditure - households - income - salaries - structure - wages - financial management
De consumentenvraag naar boomkwekerijprodukten : een studie aan de hand van geaggregeerde panelgegevens over de jaren 1976 t/m 1984
Gaasbeek, A.F. van - \ 1986
Den Haag : L.E.I. (Interne nota / Landbouw - Economische Instituut 326) - 40
budgetten - consumentengedrag - uitgaven voor consumptie - consumenten - vraag - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - inkomen - Nederland - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - onderzoek - budgets - consumer behaviour - consumer expenditure - consumers - demand - household consumption - household expenditure - income - Netherlands - ornamental woody plants - research
De totale markt voor boomkwekerijprodukten, de ontwikkeling rond vaste planten, heide, coniferen, rozen, heesters en bomen
De financiele situatie van verzorgingstehuisbewoners
Ophem, J.A.C. van; Nijland, D. ; Vries, E. de - \ 1986
Tijdschrift voor huishoudkunde 7 (1986)5. - ISSN 0169-1295 - p. 146 - 150.
budgetten - uitgaven voor consumptie - consumptie - ouderen - gezondheidszorg - ziekenhuizen - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - huishoudens - inkomen - levensstandaarden - verpleeghuizen - ouderdom - sociale indicatoren - financieel beheer - budgets - consumer expenditure - consumption - elderly - health care - hospitals - household consumption - household expenditure - households - income - living standards - nursing homes - old age - social indicators - financial management
Met behulp van een vragenlijst is bekeken hoe ouderen die in een verzorgingstehuis wonen de hoogte van hun zak- en kleedgeld waarderen
Vleesaankopen door consumenten : enkele mogelijkheden voor onderzoek met behulp van panelgegevens
Poppe, K.J. ; Spitters, P.J.A. - \ 1984
Den Haag : L.E.I. (Onderzoekverslag / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut no. 15) - 78
consumentengedrag - consumenten - vraag - bestedingen - voedingsmiddelen - huishouduitgaven - vlees - vleeswaren - Nederland - onderzoek - consumer behaviour - consumers - demand - expenditure - foods - household expenditure - meat - meat products - Netherlands - research
Nagegaan is of uit het NIAM-panel, een aankooppanel van consumenten dat marktontwikkelingen in de aankoop van vlees documenteert, gegevens voor additionele marketinginformatie kunnen worden afgeleid. Dit blijkt inderdaad mogelijk te zijn. Met variantie-analyse zijn samenhangen aantoonbaar tussen aankoopkarakteristieken en kenmerken van de aankopende gezinshuishoudingen. Met regressie-analyse worden gekwantificeerde verklaringen gepresenteerd. Uit een duplicatie-analyse blijkt dat 47% van de huisvrouwen een sterke band heeft met een enkel aankoopkanaal
Studentenbudget een boterham met tevredenheid?
Dickhoff, R.Th. ; Ophem, J.A.C. van; Vos, E.L. de - \ 1984
Vakblad voor Huishoudkunde 5 (1984). - p. 44 - 59.
budgetten - uitgaven voor consumptie - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - inkomen - schoolkinderen - studenten - budgets - consumer expenditure - household consumption - household expenditure - income - school children - students
Onderzoek naar de sociaal-economische positie van verschillende kategorien Wageningse studenten in het studiejaar 1982-1983
Economische recessie en huishouding
Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 1984
In: NITHOO : nieuwe inventarisatie toegepaste huishoudwetenschappen, onderzoek en onderwijs / van Leeuwen, H., Ruiter, C., Guenther, H., Den Haag : NITHOO-VUGA - p. A47 - 10.
budgetten - uitgaven voor consumptie - economische crises - economische depressie - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - inkomen - budgets - consumer expenditure - economic crises - economic depression - household consumption - household expenditure - income
Huishoudelijke produktie in 1980: eerste resultaten
Aldershoff, D.E. ; Zuidberg, A.C.L. ; Baak, W. - \ 1983
's-Gravenhage : SWOKA - 146
werk - arbeidsproductiviteit - huishoudens - productiviteit - efficiëntie - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - uitgaven voor consumptie - budgetten - inkomen - economie - tijd - tijdsbesteding - recreatie - onderzoek - recreatieonderzoek - gezinnen - structuur - samenstelling - Nederland - huishoudkunde - work - labour productivity - households - productivity - efficiency - household consumption - household expenditure - consumer expenditure - budgets - income - economics - time - time allocation - recreation - research - leisure research - families - structure - composition - Netherlands - home economics
Consument en welstand
Hardon-Baars, A.J. - \ 1983
Wageningen : Hardon-Baars - 20
overheidsbeleid - huishouduitgaven - huisvesting - woonkosten - nederland - sociale woningbouw - government policy - household expenditure - housing - housing costs - netherlands - public housing
Lezing, gehouden ter gelegenheid van het bezoek van de plaatsvervangend inspecteur-generaal voor de Volkshuisvesting en van de inspecteurs voor de Volkshuisvesting der provincies aan de vakgroep Wonen der Landbouwhogeschool, 24 november 1983. Over deregulering en welstandstoezicht
De invloed van een aantal beleidsmaatregelen op elementen van het verzorgingsniveau van huishoudens
Harn, M.J. van - \ 1982
Wageningen : L.H. - 161
budgetten - samenstelling - uitgaven voor consumptie - consumptie - economische crises - economische depressie - economisch beleid - economie - gezinnen - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - huishoudens - inkomen - nederland - sociale wetgeving - sociaal beleid - structuur - financieel beheer - budgets - composition - consumer expenditure - consumption - economic crises - economic depression - economic policy - economics - families - household consumption - household expenditure - households - income - netherlands - social legislation - social policy - structure - financial management
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