D3.4 + D3.6: Annex 2 Results logistical case studies Aragon
Garcia Galindo, D. ; Espatolero, S. ; Izquierdo, M. ; Staritsky, I.G. ; Vanmeulebrouk, B. ; Annevelink, E. - \ 2016
S2Biom - 77 p.
biobased economy - biomass - sustainability - resource utilization - europe - databases - models - logistics - biobased economy - biomassa - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - hulpbronnengebruik - europa - databanken - modellen - logistiek
In the S2Biom project the logistical case study in Burgundy was the first that was
performed. The data were based on the results of the LogistEC project, which had already performed a thorough assessment of the case. Therefore, the S2Biom case study was especially used to develop the new tool LocaGIStics, and to illustrate the possibilities of such a new logistical tool in combination with an existing tool, the BeWhere model. So the results of the case study were not primarily intended to further assess the real life case or to advise an actual company for taking decisions on their biomass supply chain yet.
The BeWhere model has been applied for the case study of Burgundy in order to
identify the optimal locations of bioenergy production plants. It should be emphasized that the locations of the plants were highly driven by the location and amount of the demand of heat over the transport collection of the feedstock at least for this particular case study. The collection points of the biomass are nevertheless very well concentrated around the production plants. Anyhow to validate those results, LocaGIStics is a valuable tool for the simulation of the feedstock collection from the plants determined from BeWhere. The quality check controls the feedstock collection, capacity and therefore the validity of the chosen location.
The LocaGIStics model has especially been developed using the Burgundy case
study. Several logistical concepts have been tested in the Burgundy case. These are:
i) mixing different biomass types (straw as a biomass residue and Miscanthus as an energy crop),
ii) applying pretreatment technology (pelletizing) to densify the material in order to lower the transportation costs and increase handling properties,
iii) switching between different types of transport means (truck and walking floor vehicle)
and iv) direct delivery to a power plant versus putting an intermediate collection point in the value chain. Due to the nature of this development case less value should be given to the exact results of the five variants that are described in this report. However, these variants are perfect examples of what effects can be achieved if the set-up of a lignocellulosic biomass value chain is changed, even if that change is only slightly. So the case was used successfully to build a first version of the locaGIStics tool. However, many improvements are still possible and could be achieved in future project cases.
How to achieve resource use efficiency in integrated food and biobased value chains : Vision paper
Annevelink, E. ; Gogh, J.B. van; Bartels, Paul ; Broeze, J. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Groot, Jim ; Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Top, J.L. ; Willems, D.J.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 24
biobased economy - resource utilization - value chain analysis - bioenergy - biomass - recycling - sustainable development - economic development - food production - biobased economy - hulpbronnengebruik - waardeketenanalyse - bio-energie - biomassa - recycling - duurzame ontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - voedselproductie
This publication contains a vision, formulated by research experts in food and biobased production, on how to achieve increased efficient and effective use of available resources during the production and (re)processing of biomass for food and biobased products, feed and energy. This paper briefly elaborates on the transition to a sustainable bio-economy (see graph 1), focusing on the needs and requirements from a value chain perspective.
D3.5 Formalized stepwise approach for implementing logistical concepts using BeWhere and LocaGIStics
Annevelink, E. ; Elbersen, Berien ; Leduc, S. ; Staritsky, I.G. - \ 2016
S2Biom - 41
biomassa - modellen - databanken - hulpbronnengebruik - biobased economy - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - europa - logistiek - biomass - models - databases - resource utilization - biobased economy - sustainability - europe - logistics
This deliverable describes a formaliz
logistical concepts in the practical
chains and for assessing thei
BeWhere and LocaGIStics. It describes
these two logistical assessment tools
interlinked so that LocaGIStics can further refine and detail the outcomes of the
BeWhere model and that the BeWhere model can use the outcome of the
LocaGIStics model to modify their calculations if needed.
The BeWhere model supports the development of EU
develop an optimal network of biomass delivery chains
techno-economic spatial model that enables the optimal design and allocation of
biomass delivery chains (at national level) based on the minimizatio
emissions of the full supply chain taking account economies of scale, in order to meet
LocaGIStics is a regional assessment tool for biomass delivery chains. This tool can
support the user to design optimal biomass deliver
level and analyze in a comparative way (for different biomass delivery chains) the
spatial implications and the environmental and economic performance. It will take
account of the biomass cost
options and novel logistical concepts.
formalized stepwise approach for implementing optimal
design of national and regional
their economic and GHG performance
. the functionality of and the relation between
tools. BeWhere and LocaGIStics are closely
ked EU-wide and national strategies to
chains. The basis of this tool is a
delivery chains and networks at regional
cost-supply, the conversion and pre-treatment technology
D3.4 + D3.6: Cover report Results logistical case studies
Annevelink, E. ; Gabrielle, B. ; Carozzi, M. ; Garcia Galindo, D. ; Espatolero, S. ; Izquierdo, M. ; Väätäinen, K. ; Anttila, P. ; Staritsky, I.G. ; Vanmeulebrouk, B. ; Elbersen, Berien ; Leduc, S. - \ 2016
S2Biom - 23
biobased economy - europa - databanken - modellen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - hulpbronnengebruik - biomassa - logistiek - biobased economy - europe - databases - models - sustainability - resource utilization - biomass - logistics
The S2Biom project - Delivery of sustainable supply of non-food biomass to support a “resource-efficient” Bioeconomy in Europe - supports the sustainable delivery of nonfood biomass feedstock at local, regional and pan European level through developing strategies, and roadmaps that will be informed by a “computerized and easy to use” toolset (and respective databases) with updated harmonized datasets at local, regional, national and pan European level for EU28, Western Balkans, Moldova, Turkey and Ukraine. A case based approach was followed, where optimal logistical concepts (conceptual designs) were matched with the specific regional situation. This was done in three logistical case studies that were performed: 1. Small-scale power production with straw and Miscanthus in the Burgundy region (France); 2. Large-scale power production with straw and with residual woody biomass in the Aragon region (Spain); 3. Advanced wood logistics in the Province of Central Finland.
D3.4 + D3.6: Annex 1 Results logistical case study Burgundy
Annevelink, E. ; Gabrielle, B. ; Carozzi, M. ; Staritsky, I.G. ; Vanmeulebrouk, B. ; Elbersen, Berien ; Leduc, S. - \ 2016
S2Biom - 48
biobased economy - biomass - sustainability - resource utilization - europe - databases - models - logistics - biobased economy - biomassa - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - hulpbronnengebruik - europa - databanken - modellen - logistiek
The S2Biom project - Delivery of sustainable supply of non-food biomass to support a “resource-efficient” Bioeconomy in Europe - supports the sustainable delivery of nonfood biomass feedstock at local, regional and pan European level through developing strategies, and roadmaps that will be informed by a “computerized and easy to use” toolset (and respective databases) with updated harmonized datasets at local, regional, national and pan European level for EU28, Western Balkans, Moldova, Turkey and Ukraine. In the S2Biom project the logistical case study in Burgundy was the first that was performed. In this report the assessment methods for the logistical case study are described in Chapter 2. This is followed by the set-up of the Burgundy case study in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the type of data needed and in Chapter 5 the actual data used are described. Then the results are presented that were obtained by the BeWhere (Chapter 6) and by the LocaGIStics model (Chapter 7). Conclusions and recommendations are given in Chapter 8.
Visser, C.L.M. de; Ree, R. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 62
biorefinery - biobased economy - resource utilization - biomass conversion - techniques - residual streams - economies of scale - case studies - bioraffinage - biobased economy - hulpbronnengebruik - biomassaconversie - technieken - reststromen - schaalvoordelen - gevalsanalyse
One promising way to accelerate the market implementation of integrated biorefineries is to promote small (regional) biorefinery initiatives. Small-scale biorefineries require relatively low initial investments, and therefore are often lacking the financing problems that larger facilities face. They are potentially able to make use of available local resources and involve stakeholders and product markets that create a common foundation for joint development and market deployment. Furthermore, by using modular and transportable units, the refinery process potentially can be operated at several locations, increasing their operation window, and therefore their market competitiveness. Small-scale biorefinery processes seem to be specifically interesting for the efficient and sustainable valorisation for relatively wet agro-crops (grass, beets, maize, etc.), agro-residues (leaves/foliage), food processing residues and aquatic biomass (microalgae, duckweed, etc.).
Balancing options for shrimp farming : a landscape approach to investigate the future of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta
Joffre, O.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth; Arnold Bregt, co-promotor(en): Roel Bosma. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574984 - 196
garnalenteelt - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - kustgebieden - milieueffect - landschap - aquacultuur - mangroves - middelen van bestaan - hulpbronnengebruik - geïntegreerde systemen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - mekong - delta's - shrimp culture - shellfish culture - coastal areas - environmental impact - landscape - aquaculture - mangroves - livelihoods - resource utilization - integrated systems - sustainability - mekong river - deltas
Balancing options for shrimp farming
A landscape approach to investigate the future of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta
While providing an option for development in coastal areas, shrimp farming is usually associated with high environmental cost due to the loss of mangrove forest and high social cost as farmers suffer heavy financial losses due to disease outbreaks. Planning shrimp farming requires to integrate risk as well as social and environmental cost. This thesis, using the Mekong Delta as a case, presents an approach to investigate, with local stakeholders, options to plan a resilient and sustainable shrimp farming sector. First, Olivier Joffre analyzed the different shrimp production systems from economic point of view before analyzing farmer’s strategies and providing insights on drivers that will push or, at the opposite, constraint farmers to choose integrated mangrove shrimp systems. This knowledge was integrated in an Agent Based Model (ABM) that was calibrated using Role Playing Games (RPG).
The effect of future scenarios and different policies on the farmers’ decisions was tested using a combination of RPG and ABM. For one coastal district of the Mekong Delta, the results showed that promotion of intensification of shrimp production has a high social cost and decreases the total production in the study area after 10 years. Policies for supporting the spread of integrated mangrove-shrimp systems, such as Payment for Ecosystem Services, or access to an organic value chain, are not strong enough to influence farmers’ decision toward adopting these systems. Without any adaptation to climate change a sharp decrease of the production is expected. The approach brought local farmers’ knowledge to the attention of decision makers.
Improving resource-use efficiency in rice-based systems of Pakistan
Awan, M.I. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Holger Meinke, co-promotor(en): Lammert Bastiaans; Pepijn van Oort. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737526 - 151
oryza sativa - rijst - bedrijfssystemen - hulpbronnengebruik - gebruiksefficiëntie - watergebruiksrendement - fenologie - voedselzekerheid - pakistan - oryza sativa - rice - farming systems - resource utilization - use efficiency - water use efficiency - phenology - food security - pakistan
Keywords: Aerobic rice, water productivity, pre-flowering phenology, eco-efficiency, perceptions, transformational technology, food security, resource constraints, Punjab, Pakistan.
Just like in many other parts of the world, diminishing resources of water, labour and energy threaten the sustainability of conventional flooded rice systems in Pakistan. Changing the current production system to non-flooded aerobic rice could considerably increase resource-use efficiencies. However, for subtropical conditions, such as those in South Asia, the non-conventional system is still very much in the development phase. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rice system of the Punjab in Pakistan from a biophysical and socio-technological perspective. I employed a combined approach of experimentation and farmer surveys to contribute important information on aerobic rice crop performance, pre-flowering photothermal responses, and farmers’ perspective.
Two seasons of field experiments (2009 and 2010) at the research station of the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad–Pakistan tested local (KSK133, IR6, RSP1) and exotic (Apo, IR74371-54-1-1) genotypes against different combinations of irrigation levels (high, moderate, low) and nitrogen rates (0, 170, 220 kg N ha−1). Under aerobic conditions, the water productivity (WPg; g grain kg–1 total water input) improved significantly, showing a potential water saving of about 20%. However, this improved water productivity was at the cost of declining land productivity, as the actual production per unit area decreased. Grain yield and total aboveground N uptake were mainly limited by irrigation and not by N. The results suggest significant losses of applied N, and indicate that improvements in N use efficiency might be expected if N application is better synchronised with the N-demand of the crop.
Accurate knowledge on rice phenological development is an important feature when the aim is to better match supply and demand for further improvement in resource use efficiencies. A controlled-environment growth chamber study, aimed at estimating pre-flowering photothermal responses, gave a robust set of photoperiod-parameters and demonstrated that all four tested genotypes (KSK133, RSP1, Apo, IR74371-54-1-1) were strongly photoperiod-sensitive. The temperature range in the field experiments was too narrow to achieve convergence to a unique set of optimal temperature response parameters. Yet, sensitivity analysis clearly showed that commonly used standard cardinal temperatures (base, optimum, maximum: 8, 30, 42°C, respectively) overestimated the time to flowering. Data obtained under a wider range of temperatures should result in more accurate estimation of temperature response parameters.
To supplement the basic biophysical research, I conducted farmer surveys (n=215) in three major cropping systems viz. rice-wheat, mixed-cropping and cotton-wheat to understand farmers’ perspective about the future prospects of aerobic rice system. Most of the farmers were unaware of aerobic rice technology but expressed their keen interest in experimenting. Farmers perceived aerobic rice as a system to improve resource use efficiency particularly for labour and water but they consider it a knowledge intensive system requiring careful and timely management practices especially for weeds. The unavailability of suitable fine grain aerobic basmati varieties was identified as a major constraint for large scale adoption. Understanding farmers’ perspective helped to develop guidelinesfor the emerging aerobic rice system. The aerobic rice system is a rational approach for improving WPg and eco-efficiencies of water, labour and energy. Associated risks of crop failure can be reduced by filling the identified knowledge and technological gaps through additional research and adequate training of farmers.
Groene groei en natuurlijk kapitaal in de Nederlandse economie; Een uitwerking naar de agrifood- en recreatiesector
Brouwer, F.M. ; Smits, M.J.W. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI : Natuurlijke hulpbronnen ) - 38
economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - economische ontwikkeling - ecosysteemdiensten - hulpbronnengebruik - biobased economy - voedselproductie - consumentengedrag - energiegebruik - watergebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - natural resource economics - economic development - ecosystem services - resource utilization - biobased economy - food production - consumer behaviour - energy consumption - water use - sustainability
Dit rapport gaat voor enkele sectoren in de Nederlandse economie na hoe de relaties met natuurlijk kapitaal verlopen en of de beschikbaarheid van natuurlijk kapitaal voor deze sectoren op termijn een beperkende factor kan worden.
Biobased economy: de potentie van eiwitten voor technische toepassingen
Mulder, W.J. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Bruins, M.E. ; Scott, E.L. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1311) - 52
eiwitten - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - eiwitbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - plantaardig eiwit - sojaeiwit - melkeiwit - proteins - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - protein sources - resource utilization - natural resource economics - natural resources - plant protein - soya protein - milk protein
Eiwitten zijn, behalve essentiële bouwstoffen voor mens en dier, tevens bruikbaar voor toepassingen in bijvoorbeeld shampoos, bioplastics, coatings of lijmen. In deze studie is een inventarisatie gemaakt van zowel de huidige beschikbare eiwitbronnen als de bronnen waar in de toekomst veel van verwacht wordt. Mits er voldoende efficiënt met grondstoffen wordt omgesprongen, kunnen voor zowel food als non-food toepassingen wereldwijd voldoende eiwitten worden geproduceerd. Het is wel belangrijk dat de eiwitten die door bioraffinage uit grondstoffen worden gehaald, hun unieke eigenschappen behouden.
Who cares about research?! : a study on the role of research in policy processes in competing claims contexts
Schut, M. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Annemarie van Paassen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731487 - 280
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - nuttig gebruik - hulpbronnengebruik - onderzoek - invloeden - beleidsprocessen - waterbeheer - ruimtelijke ordening - polders - biesbosch - nederland - biobrandstoffen - productie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - mozambique - natural resources - utilization - resource utilization - research - influences - policy processes - water management - physical planning - polders - biesbosch - netherlands - biofuels - production - sustainability - mozambique
A study on the role of research in policy processes in competing claims contexts
Instruments for competing claims on natural resources : preliminary assessment of KB 2011 projects
Silvis, H.J. ; Bodegom, A.J. van - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 44
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - hulpbronnengebruik - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - analytische methoden - biobased economy - natural resources - resource management - resource utilization - natural resource economics - sustainability - sustainable development - analytical methods - biobased economy
This report results from the project ‘Competing Claims on Natural Resources (overkoepelend instrumentarium)’ in the KB programme of 2011. In short the terms of reference of this report are as follows: Give an overview of instruments developed in other KB projects relevant for the analysis of Competing Claims on Natural Resources. Questions include: What are feasible instruments? What are their advantages and disadvantages? What can or should be applied in specific cases? Is there a need to validate instruments and how? Can the instruments help to make trade-offs clearer on a global, national and local level? What are the white areas (not covered)? What should be developed?
Good Governance of land and natural resources : Balancing local and global interests
Klaver, D.C. ; Roo, N. de - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation - 24
hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - landgebruik - economische ontwikkeling - regionale ontwikkeling - gevalsanalyse - biobased economy - resource management - natural resources - resource utilization - land use - economic development - regional development - case studies - biobased economy
This report presents the results of a seminar on ‘good governance of land and natural resources; balancing local and global interests’. Three case studies were presented on large-scale land acquisitions, biofuels – fuelling development in Brazil and governance of the mineral sector in Eastern DRC. Participants identified 6 important challenges for improving land and natural resource governance and concluded that: more research and information sharing is needed; collaborative voluntary and legally binding initiatives are needed at international level to balance local and global interests; accountability arrangements need to be set up that enable stakeholders to hold each other accountable; capacity building of all actors is needed and that each actor has its own contributions to make to good governance.
Groene groei: Investeren in biodiversiteit en natuurlijke hulpbronnen
Alders, J.G.M. ; Boxtel, R.H.J.M. van; Dekker, W. ; Groot, J.E.C. de; Hirsch, D.H. ; Hoes, O. ; Leemans, R. ; Maat, A.J. ; Rabbinge, R. ; Roozen, N. ; Vos, M.B. ; Wams, T.J. ; Zuidam, J. ; Hermans, L.M.L.H.A. ; Karimi, F. ; Monteiro, M.M. ; Eijs, A.W.M. ; Zadelhoff, F.J. van - \ 2011
Den Haag : Taskforce Biodiversiteit en Natuurlijke Hulpbronnen - 49
economische ontwikkeling - biobased economy - ecologie - landgebruik - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - economic development - biobased economy - ecology - land use - natural resources - natural resource economics - resource utilization - sustainability
Dit is het eindrapport van de Taskforce Biodiversiteit en Natuurlijke Hulpbronnen. Onder de titel Groene Groei, investeren in biodiversiteit en natuurlijke hulpbronnen pleit de Taskforce voor een omslag naar een economie die gebaseerd is op de draagkracht van de aarde. Daarvoor moet in 2020 biodiversiteitverlies tot staan gebracht zijn en in 2030 onze ecologische voetafdruk zijn gehalveerd. Uiteindelijk doel voor de Taskforce Biodiversiteit en Natuurlijke hulpbronnen is een wereld met veerkrachtige ecosystemen waarin voldoende voedsel, water, energie en bescherming is voor iedereen.
Goud voor oud : hoogwaardig hergebruik van reststromen
Fortuin, F.T.J.M. ; Lahiri, S. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Food Valley (Food Valley innovation insights dl. 5) - ISBN 9789081609357 - 27
reststromen - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - hulpbronnengebruik - nieuwe producten - biobased economy - voedselverspilling - residual streams - biobased materials - resource utilization - new products - biobased economy - food wastage
Hergebruik van reststromen is niet nieuw. Al decennialang vinden ze hun weg richting veevoer en bioreactor. Tot voor kort was daarbij de belangrijkste doelstelling: hoe kom ik er zo snel en goedkoop mogelijk vanaf? De afgelopen jaren zien echter steeds meer bedrijven in dat reststromen ook kwalitatief hoogwaardige, nieuwe producten op kunnen leveren.
Incentives to reduce groundwater extraction in Yemen
Hellegers, P.J.G.J. ; Perry, J.N. ; Al-Aulaqi, N. ; Al-Eryani, A.R. ; Al-Hebshi, M. - \ 2008
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area 1, International policy ) - ISBN 9789086152704 - 131
stimulansen - grondwater - grondwaterwinning - grondwaterstand - watervoerende lagen - welpijpen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - irrigatie - hulpbronnengebruik - watergebruik - landbouw - waterbescherming - boeren - houding van boeren - sociale economie - waterbeleid - regering - jemen - verdroging (milieu) - economische verandering - incentives - groundwater - groundwater extraction - groundwater level - aquifers - tube wells - sustainability - irrigation - resource utilization - water use - agriculture - water conservation - farmers - farmers' attitudes - socioeconomics - water policy - government - yemen - groundwater depletion - economic change
This report describes the results of the study on options for changing the eco-nomic incentive structure for groundwater extraction in Yemen. The study aims to evaluate the potential role of economic incentives to reduce unsustainable ir-rigation water consumption and to make recommendations for implementing water conservation incentives. It first identifies factors that have triggered groundwater overdraft, then studies farmers' behaviour regarding groundwater extraction on the basis of in-depth interviews with farmers in each of the follow-ing three basins - in the Sana'a Basin, the Taiz Basin and Wadi Hadramout. Fi-nally, a number of changes in the incentive structure are evaluated, among others incentives that decrease the profitability of irrigation water use and sub-sidies on improved irrigation technology. The study shows that although the lit-erature and economic theory suggest that the range of possible interventions is wide (water pricing, metering, water rights, water markets, taxes, subsidies, in-formation, participatory management, et cetera), the range of potentially effec-tive interventions in the Yemeni political context is more limited. The Yemeni case is unique, as there is a close linkage between water and a central socio-economic issue: qat. This adds to the difficulties of implementing or enforcing change.
Utilisation and conservation of farm animal genetic resources
Oldenbroek, J.K. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860326 - 232
vee - pluimvee - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - bedreigde rassen - hulpbronnengebruik - hulpbronnenbehoud - genetische diversiteit - populatiegenetica - kwantitatieve genetica - moleculaire genetica - livestock - poultry - animal genetic resources - endangered breeds - resource utilization - resource conservation - genetic diversity - population genetics - quantitative genetics - molecular genetics
The genetic diversity comprised in farm animal species and breeds is an important resource in livestock systems. For several reasons, within the different species used for food production, only a few breeds are developed towards high-output breeds fitting in high-input systems. In this process many breeds are set aside from the food producing livestock systems. These breeds will be faced with extinction unless new functions for these breeds are found. This is a real threat for the genetic diversity within species. This book is intended to give insight into the issues of the utilisation and conservation of farm animal genetic resources towards a broad group of readers interested in these subjects. The insight is presented as applications of population, molecular and quantitative genetics that can be used to take appropriate decisions in utilisation and conservation programmes. The first two chapters discuss the decisions to be made in utilisation and conservation. Chapter 3 surveys the different ways in which the diversity we observe within a species can be characterised. Chapter 4 illustrates recent results using this theory for utilisation and conservation purposes. Chapters 5, 6 and 7 give theoretical backgrounds necessary to make decisions and chapters 8 and 9 present the operation and practical implications of selection and conservation schemes
Strategic Alignment of Innovation to Business: Balancing the Exploration and Exploitation Function
Fortuin, F.T.J.M. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Innovation and sustainability vol. 2) - ISBN 9789086860562 - 174
levenscyclus - innovaties - onderzoek - industriële toepassingen - exploratie - hulpbronnengebruik - strategisch management - life cycle - innovations - research - industrial applications - exploration - resource utilization - strategic management
This book addresses the crucial question for innovative prospector companies of how to bridge the gap between exploration and exploitation. Whereas exploration deals with the search for new ideas and opportunities, exploitation is about incrementally moving the performance bar a little bit higher. Finding the right balance between exploration and exploitation is essential for the long term survival in today's highly dynamic business environments. In a cross-industry study of ten large, multinational prospector companies, which are world leaders in their respective industries, it was discovered that the 'industry clockspeed', the length between the subsequent product generations, plays an essential role in bridging this gap. The product generation life cycle (PGLC) typically ranged from just several months in short life cycle industries (SLCIs), such as electronics and the mobile phone industry, to (more than) 10 years in long life cycle industries (LLCIs), such as aerospace and pharmaceutics. Our data indicate that companies operating in SLCIs face major problems in maintaining the long term knowledge base of their firms, whereas companies in LLCIs tend to have problems in aligning their innovation strategy to the short term business needs. To investigate the dynamics of strategic alignment, in one of the LLCI companies, a multinational supplier of industrial components, a six-year longitudinal study was conducted. Here our data indicate that finding a funding structure that effectively balances exploration and exploitation, combined with regular structured feedback between the exploration and exploitation function is needed to maintain long term strategic alignment. CTOs and innovation managers can use this book by first establishing the industry clockspeed(s) in their respective industries or product range(s) and then benchmark their innovation processes to those of the first class (SLCI or LLCI) prospector companies included in this book.
Rebuilding common property management : a case study of community-based natural resource management in rural Guizhou, China
Sun, Qiu - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins; N.G. Röling; Cees Leeuwis. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048336 - 263
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - hulpbronnengebruik - overheidseigendom - plattelandsontwikkeling - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - china - guizhou - nationaal vermogen - bewonersparticipatie - natural resources - natural resource economics - resource management - resource utilization - public ownership - rural development - community development - community involvement - china - guizhou - national wealth - community participation
Environmental degradation and rural poverty are inter-related problems of great concern to developing countries. The poor mostly live in environmentally fragile regions and rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihood subsistence. Unfortunately, environmental degradation and rural poverty are often addressed separately or in terms of a zero sum equation: either the choice is protecting the environment through limiting access of rural people to the natural resources, or improving people’s livelihood and promoting economic growth by over exploitation of natural resources. It seems an unresolvable dilemma in developing countries. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform, transforming a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented one. As a result, the so-called Household Contract Responsibility System (HCRS) replaced the commune system in rural China. The rationale behind the HCRS is to promote farmers’ incentives in agricultural production through privatising the use right of the collectively owned lands to individual farm households. Empirical evidence shows that, since the introduction of this new system, the rural economy in general has improved in many places, but forests, grasslands and water resources have rapidly been degraded. The underlying cause of this has been the shift to open resource access. A contemporary debate rooted in the new institutional thinking argues that neither state control nor market instruments are able to solely solve environmental problems. In order to achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to look for alternative approaches or “the third way.” The new institutional scholars assume that common property regimes could be a solution, with a set of carefully designed institutions that can control people’s self-interest and encourage group interests in natural resource use and management for pursuing their livelihoods. Other theoretical perspectives, with a focus on participatory development and social learning share a common interest in collective action. Communication, trust, the anticipation of future interactions, and ability to make binding agreements among group resource users can promote collective action in natural resource management for sustainable livelihood. These theoretical bodies have led to the emergence of an approach known as Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM). CBNRM integrates concerns of sustainable resource management and people’s livelihood improvement, advocates (the revival of) common property regimes, emphasizes community-based institutions for collective actions, promotes participation of local resource users in decision-making, and enhances people’s capacities. Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) was introduced in China by international donors in the 1990s as a promising solution to addressing natural resource degradation and livelihood improvement of rural people. With support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada, a research team from the Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences (GAAS) has carried out CBNRM action research in rural Guizhou, a poor province in South-western China, since 1995. This PhD study takes the GAAS-led CBNRM initiative in Kaizuo township, Changhsun county as its research “object” to analyse whether and how a CBNRM approach contributes to sustainable natural resource management and livelihood improvement of the rural poor. The issues pursued in this thesis are: How does CBNRM work and why? What are the outcomes and why? What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of CBNRM in a country such as China with its rapid economic development and socio-political transformation? What are the policy implications in relation to China’s increasing resource degradation and environmental management problems? Chapter 1 introduces the context of problems related to natural resource management in China and the Chinese government’s efforts to address these problems. The rapid economic transformation and new resource property regime clearly have an impact on sustainable natural resource management. The impact brought about an attempt of rebuilding common property management to address environmental issues. Chapter 2 offers a historic review of China’s land reform over the last 50 years, and reveals how the shifts in resource property regime affect the way local people manage natural resources. It argues that property right arrangements determine people’s behaviour and practice in natural resource use and management. It concludes that the HCRS fails to promote sustainable management of forest, grassland and water resources. Chapter 3 outlines the analytical framework based on the theoretical debates. The analytical framework discusses how community-based institution can contribute to sustainable, equitable and effective management of common-pool resources and livelihood improvement of rural poor people. It then further discusses how the effects of the community-based institutions can be affected by both internal and external factors. This chapter also argues the roles and value of a change agency in facilitation for collective action in natural resource management. Chapter 4 presents the methodology used in this research, including research strategies and the methods used for data generation and analysis. This study applied a methodology made up of a combination of anthropological and sociological methods, and some tools from ecology, applying a long-term perspective, and relying on a long-term, direct and personal involvement. Chapter 5 uses a stakeholder analysis approach to explore the interests of the different stakeholders and analyses the dynamic of their relationships as they pursue their stake-holding in natural resources. It demonstrates that the process of economic transformation and development has increased the severity of struggles for access to and control over natural resources. It argues that uncontrolled competing claims by different stakeholders with diverse interests cause social conflicts and damages to the natural resources, and suggests that concerted actions among stakeholders are needed to address the resource dilemma. Chapter 6 presents an in-depth case study in one village called Dabuyang. The case study explores how CBNRM was understood and practised in a rural community of China, with the focus on the process and outcomes of the GAAS team facilitation efforts in farmer organization, village-based institution development, and capacity building as means to promote collective action in natural resource management. The case study reveals that village-based institutions have played a central role in achieving sustainable, equitable and effective natural resource management. However, the Dabuyang case also shows that the performance of these local institutions is affected by internal factors, such as village leadership and farmers’ capacity to cope with changes, and challenged by external factors, such as market forces and some development initiatives. Chapter 7 examines the impacts of the GAAS team-led CBNRM action research on natural resource management and livelihood improvement of farmers through a set of comparative studies and an ecological survey. This study compares between: (1) villages with successful and less successful CBNRM intervention in Kaizuo township regarding changes in the five capital assets (natural, social, human, financial and physical) from 1995 to 2006; (2) between villages in Kaizuo township and another township called Malu regarding resource management institutions for forest, water systems, and grassland; (3) the year of 1995 and 2006 regarding changes in vegetation status two villages Dabuyang and Xiaozhai, which have been involved in CBNRM research since 1995. The comparative studies made plausible that CBNRM action research has positive impact on livelihood improvement of the rural farmers, development of local resource management institutions and improvement of forests and grasslands. Chapter 8 explores the GAAS team’s horizontal and vertical scaling-up strategies and processes to expand the impact of the CBNRM action research by working with the Kaizuo township government and four line ministries of Changshun county. The case of cooperation with the Forestry Bureau shows that integrating CBNRM principles into government programmes is possible, as long as there is a need or desire to work with farmers. The case of the Animal Bank argues that CBNRM innovation can not be replicated or transplanted in a different local context without adaptation. Local leadership, village politics and the social structure and culture of community all shape CBNRM outcomes. This case also reveals that the township government plays a crucial role in CBNRM scaling up. However, this role is strongly influenced by financial pressure (generating income) and by criteria of government performance evaluation (which stress upward accountability). The examples of cooperation with the Agricultural Office, Bureau of Water Resource Management and Bureau of Animal Husbandry illustrate the difficulties that GAAS team faced in terms of decision-making processes, current bureaucratic and administrative structures, and the lack of downward accountability mechanisms. Chapter 9 presents the major findings and conclusions of the study. Evidence examined in this thesis has shown that the CBNRM approach has effectively contributed to sustainable management of natural resources and livelihood improvement of the rural people in Guizhou. The strengthened or newly developed community institutions play a crucial role in effective and equable management of collectively owned forests, grasslands and water resources. However, the performance of these community institutions is affected by both internal and external factors. Although the design principles developed by New Institution scholars are valuable, they have proven to be too simplistic to apply wholeheartedly in different contexts, due to a narrow focus on the internal factors and ignorance of the external forces. Ignorance of the external factors and the local social-cultural settings and macro institutional, economic and political context in which they are embedded, leads to failure in community institutional development. CBNRM is not a panacea to deal with all environmental issues. The complexity and uncertainty of natural resource management is ever increasing, and this implies a real challenge for community institutions. A CBNRM approach has an eye for this challenge, but has a limited capacity to address (larger) cross-scale environmental issues that involve multiple stakeholders with diverse interests in natural resources. The GAAS team’s facilitation efforts have been critical in the success of CBNRM practice and CBNRM scaling up. However, the empirical materials of this study also reveal that their facilitation does not always produce positive outcomes, and the effects of facilitation are limited by unbalanced power relations among stakeholders.
Management recommendations for the sustainable exploitation of mussel seed in the Irish Sea
Maguire, J.A. ; Knights, T. ; Burnell, G. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2007
Galway : Marine Institute (Marine environment and health series no. 31) - 83
mossels - zaden - vis vangen - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - visserijbeheer - hulpbronnengebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ierse zee - zeevisserij - mussels - seeds - fishing - shellfish fisheries - fishery management - resource utilization - sustainability - irish sea - marine fisheries