Late Holocene Landscape Collapse of a Trans-Himalayan Dryland: Human Impact and Aridification
Menges, Johanna ; Hovius, Niels ; Andermann, Christoff ; Dietze, Michael ; Swoboda, Charlie ; Cook, Kristen L. ; Adhikari, Basanta R. ; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea ; Bonnet, Stephane ; Reimann, Tony ; Koutsodendris, Andreas ; Sachse, Dirk - \ 2019
Geophysical Research Letters 46 (2019)23. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 13814 - 13824.
geomorphology - human activity - late Holocene - paleoclimate - Tibetan plateau
Soil degradation is a severe and growing threat to ecosystem services globally. Soil loss is often nonlinear, involving a rapid deterioration from a stable eco-geomorphic state once a tipping point is reached. Soil loss thresholds have been studied at plot scale, but for landscapes, quantitative constraints on the necessary and sufficient conditions for tipping points are rare. Here, we document a landscape-wide eco-geomorphic tipping point at the edge of the Tibetan Plateau and quantify its drivers and erosional consequences. We show that in the upper Kali Gandaki valley, Nepal, soil formation prevailed under wetter conditions during much of the Holocene. Our data suggest that after a period of human pressure and declining vegetation cover, a 20% reduction of relative humidity and precipitation below 200 mm/year halted soil formation after 1.6 ka and promoted widespread gullying and rapid soil loss, with irreversible consequences for ecosystem services.
Conflicts in the coastal zone : Human impacts on commercially important fish species utilizing coastal habitat
Brown, Elliot J. ; Vasconcelos, Rita P. ; Wennhage, Håkan ; Bergström, Ulf ; Stottrup, Josianne G. ; Wolfshaar, Karen van de; Millisenda, Giacomo ; Colloca, Francesco ; Pape, Olivier Le - \ 2018
ICES Journal of Marine Science 75 (2018)4. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1203 - 1213.
Anthropogenic pressure - coastal - ecosystem-based management - fisheries - habitat degradation - habitat loss - human activity
Coastal ecosystems are ecologically, culturally, and economically important, and hence are under pressure from diverse human activities. We reviewed the literature for existing evidence of effects of human-induced habitat changes on exploited fish utilizing coastal habitats. We focused on fish species of the Northeast Atlantic for which fisheries advice is provided by International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and which utilize coastal habitats for at least one life-history stage (LHS). We found that 92% of these species are impacted by human activity in at least one LHS while utilizing coastal habitat and 38% in multiple stages. Anthropogenic pressures most commonly shown to impact these fish species were toxicants and pollutants (75% of species). Eutrophication and anoxia, invasive species, and physical coastal development affected about half of the species (58, 54, and 42% of species, respectively), while indirect fishing impacts affected a minority (17% of species). Moreover, 71% of the ICES advice species that utilize coastal habitats face impacts from more than one pressure, implying cumulative effects. Given that three-fourths of the commercial landings come from fish species utilizing coastal habitats, there is an obvious need for a better understanding of the impacts that human activities cause in these habitats for the development of ecosystem-based fisheries management.
Toward a harmonized approach for environmental assessment of human activities in the marine environment
Tamis, J.E. ; Vries, P. de; Jongbloed, R.H. ; Lagerveld, S. ; Jak, R.G. ; Karman, C.C. ; Wal, J.T. van der; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Klok, T.C. - \ 2016
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 12 (2016)4. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 632 - 642.
human activity - impact assessment - multiple pressures - Visualization tool
With a foreseen increase in maritime activities, and driven by new policies and conventions aiming at sustainable management of the marine ecosystem, spatial management at sea is of growing importance. Spatial management should ensure that the collective pressures caused by anthropogenic activities on the marine ecosystem are kept within acceptable levels. A multitude of approaches to environmental assessment are available to provide insight for sustainable management, and there is a need for a harmonized and integrated environmental assessment approach that can be used for different purposes and variable levels of detail. This article first provides an overview of the main types of environmental assessments: “environmental impact assessment” (EIA), “strategic environmental assessment” (SEA), “cumulative effect assessment” (CEA), and “environmental (or ecological) risk assessment” (ERA). Addressing the need for a conceptual “umbrella” for the fragmented approaches, a generic framework for environmental assessment is proposed: cumulative effects of offshore activities (CUMULEO). CUMULEO builds on the principle that activities cause pressures that may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Basic elements and variables are defined that can be used consistently throughout sequential decision-making levels and diverse methodological implementations. This enables environmental assessment to start at a high strategic level (i.e., plan and/or program level), resulting in early environmental awareness and subsequently more informed, efficient, and focused project-level assessments, which has clear benefits for both industry and government. Its main strengths are simplicity, transparency, flexibility (allowing the use of both qualitative and quantitative data), and visualization, making it a powerful framework to support discussions with experts, stakeholders, and policymakers.
Ecologische ontwikkeling binnen een voor menselijke activiteiten gesloten gebied in de Nederlandse Waddenzee : tussenrapportage achtste jaar na sluiting (najaar 2013)
Fey-Hofstede, F.E. ; Dankers, N.M.J.A. ; Meijboom, A. ; Leeuwen, P.W. van; Cuperus, J. ; Weide, B.E. van der; Jong, M.L. de; Dijkman, E.M. ; Cremer, J.S.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (IMARES rapport C041/15) - 38
bodembiologie - fauna - waddenzee - menselijke activiteit - referentiegronden - wadden - soil biology - fauna - wadden sea - human activity - benchmark soils - tidal flats
IMARES Wageningen UR volgt de jaarlijkse ontwikkeling van bodemdieren in de geulen in een voor menselijke activiteiten gesloten gebied (referentiegebied: Schild en Boschwad) en vergelijkt dit met een gebied waar zulke activiteiten wel toegestaan zijn (controlegebied: Zuidoost-Lauwers en Spruit). Om de ontwikkeling van het referentiegebied te volgen, is vóór de instelling van het gebied (2002, 2003 en 2005) de startsituatie wat betreft het voorkomen van bodemdieren vastgesteld. Na de instelling van het referentiegebied (november 2005) worden jaarlijks bemonsteringen uitgevoerd. Prioriteit gaat hierbij uit naar benthische mariene fauna en de bodembedekking in de geul. De basale jaarlijkse bemonstering heeft het karakter van ‘vinger aan de pols’. Om (statistisch) betrouwbare verschillen aan te kunnen tonen tussen gebieden, zijn uitgebreide bemonsteringen een minimale vereiste. Daarom worden de resultaten in de jaarrapportages niet statistisch geanalyseerd en geven zij alleen een basaal beeld van de ontwikkeling in het betreffende jaar. Deze tussenrapportage beslaat de voorlopige resultaten van de basale bemonstering van het jaar 2013. Hierin worden de gegevens van voorgaande jaren aangevuld met de gegevens uit 2013. Trefwoorden: bodemdieren, geulen, Waddenzee, referentiegebied Rottum
Human impacts on tides overwhelm the effect of sea level rise on extreme water levels in the Rhine–Meuse delta
Vellinga, N.E. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. ; Vegt, M. van der; Zhang, W. ; Hoekstra, P. - \ 2014
Coastal Engineering 90 (2014). - ISSN 0378-3839 - p. 40 - 50.
rivieren - waterstand - getijden - zeespiegelschommelingen - delta's - menselijke activiteit - inventarisaties - rivers - water level - tides - sea level fluctuations - deltas - human activity - inventories - river flow - netherlands - variability - subsidence - division - china
With the aim to link tidal and subtidal water level changes to human interventions, 70 years of water level data for the Rhine–Meuse tidal river network is analysed using a variety of statistical methods. Using a novel parameterization of probability density functions, mean high and low water levels are examined, and extreme water levels are investigated by applying the combined Mann–Kendall and Pettitt tests to find trends and trend changes. Tidal water levels are studied based on harmonic analysis. Results show that the mean water levels throughout the system rise with the same pace as the mean sea level. However, high- and low water levels do not show the same increase, and the spatial variability in decadal trends in high- and low water levels is high. High water and low water extremes generally decrease. Both the extreme water level analysis and the harmonic analysis display significant trend breaks in 1970, 1981 and 1997. These breaks can be attributed to the closure of the Haringvliet estuary, the removal of sluices and the removal of a dam, respectively, which radically alter the tidal motion. These results demonstrate that the direct human influence on the tidal motion can overwhelm the effect of mean sea level rise on water level extremes.
Comparing methods to approach cumulative effects in the North-East Atlantic: CUMULEO case study
Wal, J.T. van der; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C178/13) - 61
mariene gebieden - ruimtelijke modellen - menselijke activiteit - resteffecten - milieueffect - gevalsanalyse - marine areas - spatial models - human activity - residual effects - environmental impact - case studies
OSPAR Intersessional Correspondence Group – Cumulative Effects (ICG-C), part of OSPAR commission Environmental Impact of Human Activities (EIHA), is seeking for common approaches on (cross-border) cumulative effects. At the OSPAR ICG-C meeting of 12-13 December 2012 (Copenhagen), three cumulative effects assessment (CEA) methods have been discussed: CUMULEO; ODEMM; and HARMONY. It was concluded that a case study could help in finding best available approaches and tools within the three methods for a specific question. This report describes the case study based on the CUMULEO method.
Options for delivering Ecoystem-based Marine Mangament. Identification and management of the main human activities that compromise the operational objectives
Piet, G.J. ; Jongbloed, R.H. ; Paijmans, A.J. - \ 2012
Brussel : European Commission (Report / European Commission )
mariene ecologie - aquatische ecosystemen - strategisch management - beschermingsgebieden - menselijke activiteit - zeevisserij - databanken - regio's - noordoost atlantische oceaan - middellandse zee - zwarte zee - marine ecology - aquatic ecosystems - strategic management - conservation areas - human activity - marine fisheries - databases - regions - northeast atlantic - mediterranean sea - black sea
Two aims of ODEMM WP4 , “Management Strategies” is to: - Develop a range of realistically feasible management strategies or options for these activities, using different types of measures and tools, to achieve regional Operational Objectives; - Apply a formal evaluation of these management strategies using a Management Strategy Evaluation (MSE) tool. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) identified the following marine regions: - the Baltic Sea; - North-east Atlantic Ocean; - Mediterranean Sea; - the Black Sea. This document combines Milestones 6, 7 and 8. Milestone 6 is a summary report showing the human activities revealed to be most likely to compromise the achievement of operational objectives in each region. Milestone 7 is a report detailing the indicators and management measures selected for each of the major issues highlighted in each regional sea. Milestone 8 comprises a list of possible management strategies for each of the selected operational objectives in each region. These milestones are reported together in this document because the work in these milestones is complementary and the combined reporting allows an overall synthesis of the work done so far.
Anthropogenic heat release and Urban Heat Islands effects in Rotterdam
Ronda, R.J. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Hove, L.W.A. van; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2012
klimaatverandering - stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - menselijke activiteit - rotterdam - climatic change - urban areas - temperature - human activity - rotterdam
Recently, it gets broadly acknowledged that the release of heat due to anthropogenic activities (anthropogenic heating) is a major component of the urban energy budget. Anthropogenic heating is therefore one of the major causes of the additional heating of cities as compared to the surrounding rural areas, commonly known as the Urban Heat Island effect. In this study the effect of anthropogenic heating on the climate of the Dutch coastal town Rotterdam. The city of Rotterdam is quite special, as estimates by the Large scale Urban Consumption of energY (LUCY) model have revealed that anthropogenic emissions of the city and particularly the harbor area of Rotterdam are very high as compared to other cities in Europe. Also, the city of Rotterdam is interesting, as its meteorology of is rather complex due a multiple processes such as the interaction between the sea and the land, the availability of open water close to the city centre and other large cities and industrial area in its environment. To study the impact of anthropogenic heat sources on the urban meteorology of Rotterdam, detailed simulations of the urban meteorology of Rotterdam have been performed with both the 3D and the 1D version of the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model/ This model incorporates a detailed description of the exchange processes between the urban surface and the overlying atmosphere, the so-called SLUCM model. From our simulations it becomes apparent that the effect of anthropogenic emissions on the UHI is (locally) significant. From our study it appears that the anthropogenic emissions contributes to UHI effect with values up to 1.5 K for an anthropogenic emission of 100 W m-2, locally emitted in the core of the industrial and residential heart of Rotterdam and the surrounding large cities.
Tipping points in natural systems. An inventory of types, early warnings, and consequences
Voorn, G.A.K. van - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen University (Biometris report 20.11.11) - 71
ecosystemen - ecologische verstoring - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - ecosysteemdiensten - menselijke activiteit - vroegtijdige diagnose - ecosystems - ecological disturbance - natural resources - ecosystem services - human activity - early diagnosis
Hoe creatief om te gaan met de toenemende druk door de menselijke populatie en de mogelijke belangenverstrengelingen van verschillende belangenhouders die dat met zich meebrengt, bv. door systemen meerdere functies tegelijk te laten vervullen. Het KB IV-programma “groenblauwe ruimte” beoogt te onderzoeken hoe, door goed gebruik te maken van de half-natuurlijke terrestrische (‘groene’) en aquatische (‘blauwe’) ruimte, hier oplossingen kunnen worden geboden. Onderzoek heeft uitgewezen dat er in meerdere natuurlijke en menselijke systemen mogelijke ‘kantelpunten’ (Eng. ‘tipping points’) bestaan: Kleine veranderingen in factoren die van belang voor het systeem zijn, kunnen onverwacht leiden tot plotselinge grote veranderingen.
Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2011
Groen : vakblad voor groen in stad en landschap 67 (2011)1. - ISSN 0166-3534 - p. 36 - 40.
deltagronden - natuurbescherming - diversiteit - versnipperen - menselijke activiteit - natuur - landschapselementen - delta soils - nature conservation - diversity - chipping - human activity - nature - landscape elements
Wanneer de betekenis van de natuur van Nederland in internationaal verband ter sprake wordt gebracht, dan is de eerste reactie vaak een smalende, die van een meewarige glimlach. Zo'n klein landje, overbevolkt, zo zeer onder de voet gelopen, daar kan die toch niets voorstellen? We hebben in ons land toch geen wolven, elanden of beren? Denk eens aan het hooggebergte, aan de eindeloze steppen in Rusland en Oekraïne of aan de toendra's in het hoge noorden. 'Een stukje bosje ter grootte van een krant' schreef Bloem in zijn beroemde gedicht De Dapperstraat.
Inventory of current and future presence of non-wind sea use functions second edition
Wal, J.T. van der; Quirijns, F.J. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Glorius, S.T. ; Jongbloed, R.H. - \ 2011
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C036/11) - 78
windmolens - parken - duurzame energie - windenergie - noordzee - offshore - nutfunctie - menselijke activiteit - windmills - parks - sustainable energy - wind power - north sea - offshore - utility functions - human activity
In order to assess the suitability of locations on the Central and Southern North Sea for wind parks present sea use functions should also be taken in account. These sea use functions comprise shipping, oil and gas extraction, fisheries, cables and pipelines, military activities, sand extraction, radar interference and nature conservation. Information on the spatial distribution and the extent of each use function should be quantified if possible. Apart from the current situation, the future trend in these use functions is also of interest.
Background risk of water quality (nutrients and contaminants) for local ecosystems of Singapore
Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Tamis, J.E. ; Klok, T.C. ; Langenberg, V.T. ; Lescinski, J. - \ 2011
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C179/10) - 118
mariene ecologie - kustwateren - waterkwaliteit - menselijke activiteit - waterverontreiniging - ecologische risicoschatting - singapore - marine ecology - coastal water - water quality - human activity - water pollution - ecological risk assessment - singapore
Aim of this study was to assess the present impact of water quality as a consequence of human activities on local coastal ecosystems in Singapore in order to assess its relevance in relation to marine infrastructure developments as reclamation and associated dredging. Water quality aspects in this report are delimited to chemical water quality as human induced contamination and nutrients.
Why elephant roam
Ngene, S.M. - \ 2010
University of Twente. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins; H.A.M.J. van Gils. - Enschede : University of Twente Faculty of Geo-Information and Earth Observation ITC - ISBN 9789061642909 - 195
loxodonta africana - geografische informatiesystemen - remote sensing - zoögeografie - geografische verdeling - beweging - menselijke activiteit - seizoenen - diergedrag - kenya - menselijke invloed - loxodonta africana - geographical information systems - remote sensing - zoogeography - geographical distribution - movement - human activity - seasons - animal behaviour - kenya - human impact
The expansion of human activities due to the increase in human population outside protected areas is reducing the range of elephant. This range reduction occurs when elephant habitats are cleared for more farms and settlements. This causes fragmentation of the elephant range, which changes the elephant’ distribution, movement patterns, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement. The objectives of this study were to use GIS and remote sensing to identify the factors that influence the distribution, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement of Marsabit elephant; to map and describe their wet and dry season range, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement, as well as seasonal altitudinal movement in the fragmented mosaic of forest and savanna; to research the cost of humans sharing the environment with the elephant in areas adjacent to Marsabit Protected Area.
Calculation rules for the DSS (WINDSPEED)
Wal, J.T. van der; Quirijns, F.J. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Jongbloed, R.H. - \ 2010
Den Helder : IMARES (IMARES report no. C058/10) - 42
windmolens - parken - noordzee - mariene parken - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - ruimtelijke modellen - nutfunctie - natuurbescherming - gereedschappen - menselijke activiteit - windenergie - windmills - parks - north sea - marine parks - decision support systems - spatial models - utility functions - nature conservation - tools - human activity - wind power
The WindSpeed project aims to develop a roadmap defining a realistic target and a development pathway up to 2030 for offshore wind energy in the Central and Southern North Sea. To achieve this roadmap spatial data on where these activities occur and if possible with what intensity is needed. This data can then be used as building material to feed into the DSS or Decision Support System that is also part of the project plan. This GIS-based tool will show a spatial representation of offshore wind energy potential in relation to non-wind sea functions and environmental aspects. The tool will also facilitate the quantification of trade-offs between electricity generation costs from offshore wind and constraints due to non-wind sea functions and nature conservation.
Sowing in the autumn season : exploring benefits of green care farms for dementia patients
Bruin, S.R. de - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Akke van der Zijpp, co-promotor(en): J.M.G.A. Schols; Simon Oosting; M.J. Enders-Slegers. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855095 - 196
dementie - oudere patiënten - patiëntenzorg - dagopvang - gezondheid - menselijke activiteit - voedselopname - zorgboerderijen - multifunctionele landbouw - welzijn - dementia - elderly patients - patient care - day care - health - human activity - food intake - social care farms - multifunctional agriculture - well-being
In the Netherlands an increasing number of farms combine agricultural production with care services for people with care needs. It is generally believed that these green care farms (GCFs) have beneficial effects on the health status of a diversity of target groups. At present, empirical studies testing this hypothesis are scarce. The main objective of the studies described in this thesis was to gain insight into the potential benefits of day care at GCFs for community‐dwelling older dementia patients. Day care at GCFs was therefore compared with day care at regular day care facilities (RDCFs). In view of the differences between both day care types regarding the day care setting and day care program it was hypothesized that they would differ in their effects on the health status of dementia patients. In two cross‐sectional studies it was tested to what extent the day program of dementia patients at GCFs differed from those at RDCFs. It appeared that at GCFs, dementia patients were (physically) more active, participated in more diverse activities, were more outdoors, and had more opportunities to perform activities in smaller groups than those at RDCFs. It was tested whether these differences resulted into different effects for five domains of health: dietary intake, cognition, emotional well‐being, behaviour, and functional performance. In a comparative cross‐sectional study dietary intake of dementia patients attending day care at GCFs or RDCFs was recorded both at home and during their time at the day care facility. The study showed that dementia patients attending day care at GCFs had significantly higher intakes of energy, carbohydrate, and fluid than their counterparts attending day care at RDCFs. In a cohort study, rates of change during 1 year in cognitive functioning, emotional well‐being, behavioural symptoms, and functional performance were compared between dementia patients attending day care at GCFs and RDCFs. Functioning in these domains remained rather stable and no differences were observed between subjects from GCFs and RDCFs. In the cohort study, also caregiver burden of family caregivers of these dementia patients was assessed. Caregivers’ quality of life, emotional distress, and feelings of competence remained rather stable in family caregivers of dementia patients from both day care settings. In conclusion, the present work has shown that GCFs exceeded RDCFs in offering older dementia patients a diverse day program and in stimulating their dietary intake. The latter may result into a better preserved nutritional status in dementia patients attending day care at GCFs than in those attending day care at RDCFs. GCFs and RDCFs were equally effective in preventing significant decrease of cognitive functioning, emotional well‐being, and functional performance and in preventing significant increase of the number of behavioural symptoms. Both day care types further prevented significant increase of caregiver burden. Day care at GCFs is a new and valuable addition to the present care modalities for community‐dwelling older dementia patients and their caregivers
Synthesis Report As part of the project Biodiversity of the High Seas
Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Molenaar, E.J. ; Oude Elferink, A.G. ; Heessen, H.J.L. ; Karman, C.C. - \ 2009
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C078/09) - 24
mariene gebieden - biodiversiteit - mariene ecologie - menselijke activiteit - marien milieu - milieueffect - marine areas - biodiversity - marine ecology - human activity - marine environment - environmental impact
Human activities in areas outside national jurisdiction (ABNJ) which comprise the high seas and the ‘Area’ (the seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction) are increasing and may threaten marine biodiversity in these areas. While fisheries are in general considered as the most threatening, other activities such as mining, shipping, tourism, bio-prospecting, marine scientific research, pollution, and military activities also play more or less important roles. Threats to biodiversity concern different components of the marine ecosystem (e.g. fish, seabirds, marine mammals and benthos), the ocean floor as a habitat, the food chain (functioning of the ecosystem) and ecosystem services (resources and processes supplied by natural ecosystems).
Desk study of the possible impact of fisheries and other human activities on the marine environment in Mauritania. An exploration
Wal, J.T. van der; Goudswaard, P.C. - \ 2008
Den Helder/Yerseke : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES C100/08) - 42
visserij - menselijke activiteit - nadelige gevolgen - marien milieu - aquatische ecosystemen - oostelijke centrale grote oceaan - mauritanië - fisheries - human activity - adverse effects - marine environment - aquatic ecosystems - eastern central pacific - mauritania
Wageningen IMARES has been contracted by Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality with funding from the “BO PPP”-programme to make an inventory of existing and expected future human activities in that part of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean that forms the Economic Exclusive zone of Mauritania with respect to their possible impact on the marine ecosystem. The inventory will mainly be focused on the different fisheries in the area, but will not be restricted to these. Based on this inventory of activities this report will consider data needed to properly assess the impacts on the ecosystem arising from these and the studies required to gather that data.
Biodiversity of the high seas. Final Report Lot 1
Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Heessen, H.J.L. - \ 2008
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES C085/08) - 265
menselijke activiteit - biodiversiteit - mariene gebieden - mariene ecologie - marien milieu - milieueffect - human activity - biodiversity - marine areas - marine ecology - marine environment - environmental impact
Human activities in the areas outside national jurisdiction (High Seas and the Area) are increasing and may threaten marine biodiversity. This report presents a review of human activities and their potential impact on biodiversity of the high seas. For each activity, the technical details, the extent and spatial distribution of the activity and their socioCeconomic importance is described and the potential impact on marine biodiversity is analysed.
Report of the Dutch workshop on Cumulative Effects in relation to MSFD/GES and OSPAR/QSR2010 Utrecht, June 11-12, 2008
Karman, C.C. - \ 2008
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES C060/08) - 52
marien milieu - aquatische ecosystemen - noordoost atlantische oceaan - menselijke activiteit - nadelige gevolgen - kennisoverdracht - monitoring - beoordeling - marine environment - aquatic ecosystems - northeast atlantic - human activity - adverse effects - knowledge transfer - monitoring - assessment
The OSPAR QSR2010 is intended to provide an overview of the current state of the marine environment in the OSPAR Area, and is expected to be an important source of information for the initial assessment of the MSFD. The Dutch case study will be based on an inventory of ecosystem components, activities and their consequent iimpacts which may negatively affect the ecosystem components. A matrix comprising all these elements and an indication of the relevance of their interactions has been presented in OSPAR by the United Kingdom.
Architects of nature: environmental infrastructure and the nature-culture dichotomy
Kreike, E.H.P.M. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. Wessel, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044444 - 289
milieu - cultuur - interacties - natuurbescherming - menselijke activiteit - milieubescherming - milieubeheer - theorie - environment - culture - interactions - nature conservation - human activity - environmental protection - environmental management - theory