The Sum of lts Parts-Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation
Spetter, M.S. ; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
body-weight regulation - food-intake - feeding-behavior - eating behavior - human amygdala - appetite - humans - satiety - taste - fat
During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural evidence for the importance of sensory stimulation in the process of satiation.
Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts
Koning, N.B.J. - \ 2013
Human Nature-An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective 24 (2013)2. - ISSN 1045-6767 - p. 158 - 181.
sub-saharan africa - human amygdala - facial expressions - civil-society - voodoo death - politics - dynamics - wealth - fear - cooperation
This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary environment of small foraging bands but became overstimulated by the consequences of the Agricultural Revolution, leading to witch paranoia. State formation, civilization, and economic development abated the fear of witches and replaced it in part with more collectivist forms of social paranoia. However, demographic-economic crises could rekindle fear of witches —resulting, for example, in the witch craze of early modern Europe. The Industrial Revolution broke the Malthusian shackles, but modern economic growth requires agricultural development as a starting point. In sub-Saharan Africa, witch paranoia has resurged because the conditions for agricultural development are lacking, leading to fighting for opportunities and an erosion of intergenerational reciprocity
Anterior Cingulate Taste Activation Predicts Ad Libitum Intake of Sweet and Savory Drinks in Healthy, Normal-Weight Men
Spetter, M.S. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2012
The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2012)4. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 795 - 802.
sensory-specific satiety - human orbitofrontal cortex - food-intake - brain activation - human amygdala - wanting food - humans - liking - reward - pleasure
After food consumption, the motivation to eat (wanting) decreases and associated brain reward responses change. Wanting-related brain responses and how these are affected by consumption of specific foods are ill documented. Moreover, the predictive value of food-induced brain responses for subsequent consumption has not been assessed. We aimed to determine the effects of consumption of sweet and savory foods on taste activation in the brain and to assess how far taste activation can predict subsequent ad libitum intake. Fifteen healthy men (age: 27 +/- 2 y, BMI: 22.0 +/- 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial. After a >3-h fast, participants were scanned with the use of functional MR( before and after consumption of a sweet or savory preload (0.35 L fruit or tomato juice) on two occasions. After the scans, the preload juice was consumed ad libitum. During scanning, participants tasted the juices and rated their pleasantness. Striatal taste activation decreased after juice consumption, independent of pleasantness. Sweet and savory taste activation were not differentially affected by consumption. Anterior cingulate taste activation predicted subsequent ad libitum intake of sweet (r = -0.78; P <0.001(uncorrected)) as well as savory juice (r = -0.70; P <0.001(uncorrected)) In conclusion, we showed how taste activation of brain reward areas changes following food consumption. These changes may be associated with the food's physiological relevance. Further, the results suggest that anterior cingulate taste activation reflects food-specific satiety. This extends our understanding of the representation of food specific-appetite in the brain and shows that neuroimaging may provide objective and more accurate measures of food motivation than self-report measures. J. Nutr. 142: 795-802, 2012.
The first taste is always with the eyes: A meta-analysis on the neural correlates of processing visual food cues
Laan, L.N. van der; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2011
NeuroImage 55 (2011)1. - ISSN 1053-8119 - p. 296 - 303.
high-calorie foods - prader-willi-syndrome - false discovery rate - brain activation - functional mri - orbitofrontal cortex - ale metaanalysis - appetizing foods - human amygdala - reward
Food selection is primarily guided by the visual system. Multiple functional neuro-imaging studies have examined the brain responses to visual food stimuli. However, the results of these studies are heterogeneous and there still is uncertainty about the core brain regions involved in the neural processing of viewing food pictures. The aims of the present study were to determine the concurrence in the brain regions activated in response to viewing pictures of food and to assess the modulating effects of hunger state and the food's energy content. We performed three Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses on data from healthy normal weight subjects in which we examined: 1) the contrast between viewing food and nonfood pictures (17 studies. 189 foci), 2) the modulation by hunger state (five studies, 48 foci) and 3) the modulation by energy content (seven studies, 86 foci). The most concurrent brain regions activated in response to viewing food pictures, both in terms of ALE values and the number of contributing experiments, were the bilateral posterior fusiform gyrus, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the left middle insula. Hunger modulated the response to food pictures in the right amygdala and left lateral OFC, and energy content modulated the response in the hypothalamus/ventral striatum. Overall, the concurrence between studies was moderate: at best 41% of the experiments contributed to the clusters for the contrast between food and nonfood. Therefore, future research should further elucidate the separate effects of methodological and physiological factors on between-study variations.
Perinatal Flavour Learning and Adaptation to Being Weaned: All the Pig Needs is Smell
Oostindjer, M. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Simon, K. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. - \ 2011
PLoS ONE 6 (2011)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 7 p.
transnatal olfactory continuity - full-term newborns - amniotic-fluid - mothers milk - feeding preferences - domestic ruminants - human amygdala - familiar odor - growing pigs - in-utero
Perinatal flavour learning through the maternal diet is known to enhance flavour preference and acceptance of flavoured food in many species, yet still little is known about the mechanism underlying perinatal flavour learning. Previously we found positive effects of perinatal flavour learning on food intake, growth and behaviour of piglets postweaning, but no increased preference for the flavour. This suggests that flavour learning in pigs works through a reduction of weaning stress by the presence of the familiar flavour instead. The aim of this study was to investigate whether perinatal flavour learning reduces stress at weaning, and whether the effect is stronger when the familiar flavour is present in the food. Sows were offered an anethol-flavoured diet (Flavour treatment) or control diet (Control treatment) during late gestation and lactation. Flavour and Control piglets were provided with anethol either in their food (Food treatment) or in the air (Air treatment) after weaning. Preweaning and postweaning treatments did not affect food intake, preference or growth in the first two weeks postweaning but flavour treatment reduced the latency to eat (24 versus 35 hours, P = 0.02) and within-pen variation in growth (SD within-pen: 0.7 versus 1.2 kg, P
Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. - \ 2011
NeuroImage 54 (2011)2. - ISSN 1053-8119 - p. 1367 - 1374.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - orbitofrontal cortex - dorsal striatum - energy-balance - human amygdala - sweet taste - liquid food - bite size - reward
Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is expected to modulate taste activation in reward areas. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the amount of oro-sensory stimulation and energy content on consumption-induced changes in taste activation. Ten men participated in a 2 × 2 randomized crossover study. Subjects were scanned twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging: after fasting for at least 2 h and after treatment, on four occasions. Treatment consisted of the ingestion of 450 mL of orangeade (sweetened with 10% sucrose or non-caloric sweeteners) at 150 mL/min, with either small (5 mL) or large (20 mL) sips. During scanning, subjects alternately tasted orangeade, milk and tomato juice and rated its pleasantness. Before and after the scans, subjects rated pleasantness, prospective consumption, desire to eat and sweetness for all tastants. Main findings were that, before treatment, the amygdala was activated more by non-caloric than by caloric orangeade. Caloric orangeade activated part of the striatum before, but not after treatment. We observed no main effects of sip size on taste activation and no interaction between sip size and caloric content. In conclusion, the brain responds differentially to caloric and non-caloric versions of a sweet drink and consumption of calories can modulate taste activation in the striatum. Further research is needed to confirm that the observed differences are due to caloric content and not to (subliminal) differences in the sensory profile. In addition, implications for the effectiveness of non-caloric sweeteners in decreasing energy intake need to be established
Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain
Spetter, M.S. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. - \ 2010
Chemical Senses 35 (2010)9. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 831 - 840.
sensory specific satiety - food-intake - neural representations - mammalian taste - aversive taste - human amygdala - bite size - humans - perception - satiation
The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller amounts. The optimal taste intensity of a food is the intensity at which it is perceived as most pleasant. When taste intensity decreases or increases from optimal, the pleasantness of a food decreases. Here, we investigated the brain representation of sweet and salty taste intensity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen subjects visited twice and tasted a range of 4 watery solutions (0–1 M) of either sucrose or NaCl in water. Middle insula activation increased with increasing concentration for both NaCl and sucrose. Despite similar subjective intensity ratings, anterior insula activation by NaCl increased more with concentration than that by sucrose. Amygdala activation increased with increasing NaCl concentration but not sucrose concentration. In conclusion, sweet and salty taste intensity are represented in the middle insula. Amygdala activation is only modulated by saltiness. Further research will need to extrapolate these results from simple solutions to real foods