To like or not to like: Neural substrates of subjective flavor preferences
Bosch, I. van den; Dalenberg, J.R. ; Renken, R. ; Langeveld, A.W.B. van; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Horst, G.J. ter; Graaf, C. de; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2014
Behavioural Brain Research 269 (2014). - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 128 - 137.
human orbitofrontal cortex - human brain - different representations - selective attention - prefrontal cortex - taste stimuli - humans - reward - pleasantness - activation
Flavor preferences vary; what one enjoys may be disgusting to another. Previous research has indicated several brain regions associated with flavor preferences. However, by using different stimuli or different internal states to obtain differences in liking, results of these studies may be confounded. Therefore, we used one target stimulus (grapefruit juice) and fMRI to compare brain activation patterns between participants that either liked (n = 16) or disliked (n = 18) this stimulus. Our first aim was to investigate whether differential neural activation exists that accounts for the difference in subjective flavor preference for the target stimulus. Secondly, multivariate analysis was used to investigate whether differences in subjective liking for the target revealed similar activation patterns as differences in general liking for a sweet and bitter solution. A direct comparison of likers and dislikers of the target stimulus revealed only small differences in activations in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). However, when using multivariate analysis, a broader activation pattern (including OFC, dACC, pregenual anterior cingulate, anterior insula and ventral striatum) was identified that discriminated likers from dislikers with an 88% success rate. Interestingly though, little overlap was found between this pattern and the pattern that discriminates liking for the sweet and bitter solutions and lesser voxels contributed to the former compared with the latter. These differences between patterns discerning innate versus learned preferences may suggest that different mechanisms are at work and highlight the importance of elucidating the neural processes of how subjective preferences are learned and acquired.
Anterior Cingulate Taste Activation Predicts Ad Libitum Intake of Sweet and Savory Drinks in Healthy, Normal-Weight Men
Spetter, M.S. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2012
The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2012)4. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 795 - 802.
sensory-specific satiety - human orbitofrontal cortex - food-intake - brain activation - human amygdala - wanting food - humans - liking - reward - pleasure
After food consumption, the motivation to eat (wanting) decreases and associated brain reward responses change. Wanting-related brain responses and how these are affected by consumption of specific foods are ill documented. Moreover, the predictive value of food-induced brain responses for subsequent consumption has not been assessed. We aimed to determine the effects of consumption of sweet and savory foods on taste activation in the brain and to assess how far taste activation can predict subsequent ad libitum intake. Fifteen healthy men (age: 27 +/- 2 y, BMI: 22.0 +/- 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial. After a >3-h fast, participants were scanned with the use of functional MR( before and after consumption of a sweet or savory preload (0.35 L fruit or tomato juice) on two occasions. After the scans, the preload juice was consumed ad libitum. During scanning, participants tasted the juices and rated their pleasantness. Striatal taste activation decreased after juice consumption, independent of pleasantness. Sweet and savory taste activation were not differentially affected by consumption. Anterior cingulate taste activation predicted subsequent ad libitum intake of sweet (r = -0.78; P <0.001(uncorrected)) as well as savory juice (r = -0.70; P <0.001(uncorrected)) In conclusion, we showed how taste activation of brain reward areas changes following food consumption. These changes may be associated with the food's physiological relevance. Further, the results suggest that anterior cingulate taste activation reflects food-specific satiety. This extends our understanding of the representation of food specific-appetite in the brain and shows that neuroimaging may provide objective and more accurate measures of food motivation than self-report measures. J. Nutr. 142: 795-802, 2012.
Food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Charbonnier, L. ; Meer, F. van der; Laan, L.N. van der; Spetter, M.S. - \ 2012
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 71 (2012)4. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 511 - 520.
body-mass index - human orbitofrontal cortex - sensory-specific satiety - central-nervous-system - neural responses - individual-differences - selective attention - gastric distension - obese adolescents - taste stimuli
The brain governs food intake behaviour by integrating many different internal and external state and trait-related signals. Understanding how the decisions to start and to stop eating are made is crucial to our understanding of (maladaptive patterns of) eating behaviour. Here, we aim to (1) review the current state of the field of 'nutritional neuroscience' with a focus on the interplay between food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour and (2) highlight research needs and techniques that could be used to address these. The brain responses associated with sensory stimulation (sight, olfaction and taste), gastric distension, gut hormone administration and food consumption are the subject of increasing investigation. Nevertheless, only few studies have examined relations between brain responses and eating behaviour. However, the neural circuits underlying eating behaviour are to a large extent generic, including reward, self-control, learning and decision-making circuitry. These limbic and prefrontal circuits interact with the hypothalamus, a key homeostatic area. Target areas for further elucidating the regulation of food intake are: (eating) habit and food preference formation and modification, the neural correlates of self-control, nutrient sensing and dietary learning, and the regulation of body adiposity. Moreover, to foster significant progress, data from multiple studies need to be integrated. This requires standardisation of (neuroimaging) measures, data sharing and the application and development of existing advanced analysis and modelling techniques to nutritional neuroscience data. In the next 20 years, nutritional neuroscience will have to prove its potential for providing insights that can be used to tackle detrimental eating behaviour.
Central Processing of the Chemical Senses: An Overview
Lundström, J.N. ; Boesveldt, S. ; Albrecht, J. - \ 2011
ACS Chemical Neuroscience 2 (2011)1. - ISSN 1948-7193 - p. 5 - 16.
human olfactory cortex - positron-emission-tomography - human orbitofrontal cortex - human brain - neural representations - trigeminal stimulation - central mechanisms - taste perception - macaque monkey - receptor genes
Our knowledge regarding the neural processing of the three chemical senses has been considerably lagging behind that of our other senses. It is only during the last 25 years that significant advances have been made in our understanding of where in the human brain odors, tastants, and trigeminal stimuli are processed. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes chemical stimuli based on findings in neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, we provide new insights from recent meta-analyses, on the basis of all published neuroimaging studies of the chemical senses, of where the chemical senses converge in the brain
Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A. ; Osch, M.J.P. ; Nievelstein, R.A.J. ; Grond, J. van der - \ 2006
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (2006)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1297 - 1305.
human orbitofrontal cortex - sensory-specific satiety - gender-differences - liquid food - eating behavior - sex-differences - stimuli - appetite - humans - fmri
Background:The brain plays a crucial role in the decision to eat, integrating multiple hormonal and neural signals. A key factor controlling food intake is selective satiety, ie, the phenomenon that the motivation to eat more of a food decreases more than does the motivation to eat foods not eaten. Objective:We investigated the effect of satiation with chocolate on the brain activation associated with chocolate taste in men and women. Design:Twelve men and 12 women participated. Subjects fasted overnight and were scanned by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging while tasting chocolate milk, before and after eating chocolate until they were satiated. Results:In men, chocolate satiation was associated with increased taste activation in the ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex and with decreased taste activation in somatosensory areas. Women showed increased taste activation in the precentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and putamen and decreased taste activation in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Sex differences in the effect of chocolate satiation were found in the hypothalamus, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex (all P <0.005). Conclusions:Our results indicate that men and women differ in their response to satiation and suggest that the regulation of food intake by the brain may vary between the sexes. Therefore, sex differences are a covariate of interest in studies of the brain's responses to food.