Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Trust and new modes of fisheries governance
    Vos, B.I. de - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Jan van Tatenhove. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730183 - 295
    visserij - visserijbeheer - visserijbeleid - governance - menselijke relaties - nederland - fisheries - fishery management - fishery policy - governance - human relations - netherlands

    It is a commonplace today that many of the world’s commercial fisheries are in a state of crisis. As a response to the state of fisheries management, a large array of governance innovations has been deployed over the past two decades in many fisheries industries worldwide. In these new governance arrangements state, market, and/or civil society actors participate while striving for a more sustainable fisheries industry. These new governance arrangements influence social relations, and subsequently trust relationships between the actors involved in fisheries governance. The main objective of this thesis was therefore to analyse and to understand how trust relationships between the main actors in the Dutch fishing industry have changed under conditions of new modes of governance enhancing demands for sustainability.

    In this thesis trust is analysed along four perspectives that represent different trust relationships: 1) trust relationships among fishermen, 2) trust relationships between fishermen and government, 3) trust relationships between fishermen and NGOs, and 4) trust relationships between fishermen and other companies/actor within the value chain. In each perspective trust plays a different role. In each of the four perspectives trust relationships are analysed by studying several case studies of new fisheries governance arrangements that have been introduced in the Dutch fisheries industry during the last decades. The data for each case study were obtained through extensive observations and interviews with the central actors during a period of eight years, of which the main part took place from 2008 to 2010. In order to analyse trust in fisheries governance research, three pairs of trust (dichotomies) are applied, each pair referring to a different dimension of trust. The pairs are: 1) personal/institutional trust, 2) thick/thin trust, and 3) passive/active trust.

    The first arrangement I have analysed is the co-management system, which was installed in 1993 with the aim to restore trust relationships between government and fishermen. In the co-management arrangement, two trust relationships play an important role: trust between government and fishermen, and trust among fishermen themselves. The second arrangement I analysed concerns fourteen Study Groups of fishermen. In this arrangement trust relationships amongst fishermen play a crucial role. Thirdly, I have analysed the relationships between NGOs and fishermen by studying the introduction of the Good Fish Guide (Goede Viswijzer), and several other by the Viswijzer induced governance arrangements. Finally, , I have studied the introduction of thirteen new governance arrangements within the Dutch fresh fish value chain and their impact on trust relationships between companies that operate in the same value chain.

    The analysis of the four different dimensions of trust and their role in new fisheries governance arrangements provided clear insight into how societal changes have led to new governance arrangements as well as a shift in trust relationships. The new governance arrangements are characterised by new modes of steering. Where previously mainly state and fishermen were involved in governance, at present the group of stakeholders is extended to among others NGOs, consumers, retail companies, other users of the marine environment, and state bodies with interests that go beyond the fishing industry. As a consequence this group is getting involved in fisheries governance through participation and market governance, putting pressure on an industry that used to be very homogeneous, and mainly based on thick trust relationships with relatives, close friends, and local peers.

    This implies that ‘old’ trust relationships that were related to ‘old’ centralised or neo-corporatist governance arrangements also need to be adjusted to the new modes of steering that are characterised by participation, negotiation, interaction, and adaptation. Several shifts in trust are therefore taking place. Firstly, thin trust, which is in favour of variety, becomes more essential than the previously important thick trust relationships. This thin trust especially plays a role in situations of change, i.e. the shift from the old arrangement to the new arrangement. When after a while new governance arrangements become more stable, and trust is built among the stakeholders, trust can become thick again, as actors cease to be strangers, and have built up a shared framework. These new thick trust relationships are no longer rooted in family relationships, but in personal, frequent relationships between people that share a similar vision on for example sustainability, market, product, policy etc., and are dependent or committed to the other person. Secondly, trust is increasingly an active process that requires continuous interaction in order to be sustained, especially during times of change (from one governance arrangements to the other). When a new governance arrangement is installed, and a more stable situation arrives, a new form of passive trust can then characterise relationships.

    However, modern societies cannot rely on personal trust alone. Institutional trust has enabled people to have trust in an organisation or arrangement without having met all the people involved. During times of change, from one governance arrangement to another, the rules, and the reputation where trust is derived from temporarily do not function. This means that trust temporarily relies on personal relationships until a new governance arrangement is build that is able to create new institutional trust relationships. Institutions such as producer organisations, product board, and the auction that previously generated institutionalised trust, have lost their legitimacy as they fail to cope with the increasing variety that characterise the industry. Therefore, fishermen increasingly seek direct contact with outsiders themselves instead of waiting for representatives or auction to do that. As a result, personal relationships temporarily increase, for example within the value chain between producers and buyers.

    However, these personal, active, and reflexive forms of trust are more time consuming, and actors strive for stability, and predictability through institutional trust through more new, legitimate, and trustworthy governance arrangements, for example through certification, a new auction system or a European co-management system. Hence, the fisheries industry combines both pre modern and modern characteristics, and passive, and thick trusts still play an important role in contemporary societies, although in a new, more reflexive form.

    The opening up of the industry to outsiders, made possible through new trust relationships, is an important condition for the sustainability and thus the future of the Dutch fishing industry. The increasing direct interaction with different stakeholders has led to more diversity and knowledge exchange between stakeholders that previously did not interact. The industry is changing from a homogeneous sector to smaller, diverse groups that are organised along product categories instead of along community, and family. Where previously trust was related to the industry as a whole, we now see diverse groups of fishermen that enjoy different degrees of trust. Some groups gain more trust form outsiders than others. Mutual dependency and mutual trust are however vital conditions for successful deliberation, and ultimately a change in operations towards a more sustainable fishing industry. Without these conditions, interaction and information exchange are interpreted negatively leading to an unwillingness to change.

    Palet van Boer-Burger ontmoetingen
    Roep, Dirk - \ 2010
    rural urban relations - farmers' attitudes - consumer attitudes - social interaction - human relations - social participation
    Livelihood and food security in rural Bangladesh- the role of social capital
    Ali, A. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof. - Wageningen : - ISBN 9789085042969 - 264
    voedselzekerheid - levensomstandigheden - relaties - gemeenschappen - samenleving - menselijke relaties - man-vrouwrelaties - huishoudens - inkomen - platteland - levensstandaarden - vrouwen - Bangladesh - positie van de vrouw - sociale relaties - vrouw en samenleving - arbeid in de landbouw - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - food security - living conditions - relationships - communities - society - human relations - gender relations - households - income - rural areas - living standards - women - Bangladesh - woman's status - social relations - woman and society - farm labour - livelihood strategies
    This thesis describes the role of social capital of households and individuals in achieving livelihood and food security. In the research the temporal dimension and gender were cross-cutting perspectives. IFPRI panel data collected during 1996-1997 (pre-flood) and 1999-2000 (post-flood) were analyzed. To complement the IFPRI data an additional survey and the qualitative data was collected during 2001-2003. Panel data analysis shows that gender of the household head does not make a difference in achieving food security at the household level. However, gender of the household member is crucial for attaining individual level food security. Social capital plays an important role in averting vulnerability and sustaining livelihood, and is influenced by the landholding status of the house hold, which seems to function as collateral. The qualitative data revealed that women's social capital, when defined in a broader way, does play a crucial role in achieving household food security and averting vulnerability.
    Discourse of support: Exploring Online Discussions on Depression
    Lamerichs, J.M.W.J. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum, co-promotor(en): Hedwig te Molder. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058087751 - 240
    discussiegroepen - depressie - psychologie - communicatie - menselijke relaties - sociale interactie - groepsinteractie - zelfhulp - zelfzorg - internet - discussie - discussion groups - self help - self care - communication - depression - human relations - social interaction - group interaction - psychology - internet - discussion

    This study aims to explore the everyday talk of people who take part in an online support group on depression. Although the popularity of online support groups has increased over the years, illustrated by a growing number of people -both patients and family members-, who turn to the Internet to join these groups, little is known about their daily practices. This study aims to explore these conversational practices based on a detailed examination of participants' talk within such groups.

    The conversational materials that are collected are analysed with the help of discursive psychology, a perspective developed by the British social psychologists Edwards, Potter and Wetherell. The view on language that is favoured within this approach can best be illustrated by considering its three main concepts: construction, action and non-cognition.

    With the notion of construction, discursive psychology puts forward the view that through language people construct different versions of reality. It is pointed out how these versions are themselves also rhetorically designed. The view that language is oriented towards action draws attention to the fact that people do things with language rather than merely describing the world as it is. This view runs counter to the perspective that language is an abstract system of reference that describes how things essentially are. Discursive psychology considers language an instrument in the hands of participants, which enables them to accomplish different kinds of interactional functions, e.g., blaming, complementing or inviting someone, taking responsibility or presenting a particular state of affairs as factual.

    The view that language is oriented towards social action implies a non-cognitive view on reality. That is to say, cognitively inspired notions like hoping, wanting but also emotion words like anger or jealousy are not taken as expressions of particular states of mind or feelings, nor are they considered as explanatory concepts per se. Rather, discursive psychology considers them a topic of study and examines the ways in which these concepts are employed by participants to fulfil different kinds of interactional goals. To give an example, a study of marriage counselling sessions by Edwards has shown how the husband and wife define jealousy both as an enduring character trait, as well as a warranted reaction to flirtatious behaviour of the other. The study shows how offering these descriptions enables the couple to manage issues of responsibility and blame for their marital problems.

    The theoretical concepts that typify a discursive psychological approach are closely related to the way the conversational materials are collected and analysed (see Chapter 3). Starting point for the analysis is to consider how participants themselves take up a particular utterance. This point of view, also described as the next-turn proof procedure, argues that participants themselves determine whether a particular utterance counts as an accusation or a description, rather than any informed guesses made by the researcher. Apart from this validation procedure, there are a number of other principles that discursive psychology considers helpful in analysing the data that are collected. First, there is the variation in descriptions that offers a starting point to examine the discursive work that particular utterances accomplish. A second principle is the rhetorical organisation of talk that draws attention to the fact that every description is designed in such a way so as to counter an alternative description. A third analytical lever that can be helpful is the so-called accountability feature which illustrates participants' orientation to the normative accountability of their behaviour, thereby pointing to the discursive business that is locally accomplished.

    To further contribute to the quality and validity of the analysis, discursive psychology attempts to integrate the findings with existing studies and presents the integral materials to the reader, who is thereby in a position to judge the interpretations made by the researcher.

    At the centre of attention in this study is an online support group for people with depression. For quite some time, communication via computers has been studied from the perspective of Reduced Social Cues, as developed by Sproull and Kiesler. The findings that were reached within this tradition have been influential in that they have described this type of communication predominantly as anti-normative and leading to polarised and extreme outcomes. Recent theoretical models like the SIDE model, developed by Spears and Lea, and the SIP perspective, developed by Walther, have countered this largely negative view by propagating that normative influence can very well be transmitted in online environments, depending on whether a social or personal identity is salient. Although both models do not consider medium characteristics to determine the process of communication nor its outcomes, they do provide a rather mechanistic view of the communication process, and of the way in which people construct identities. This is partly caused by the fact that these studies are based on experiments.

    Other studies, predominantly from a sociological or ethnographic point of view, have redirected their focus of attention to the diverging ways in which people actually use the different options this medium offers. However, these types of research have not taken into account the everyday talk of people who interact online, which is an area of attention that is also overlooked in studies which focus on online support groups in particular.

    The current image of computer mediated communication processes is therefore still to a large extent determined by the assumptions put forward by the Reduced Social Cues perspective. Communication via the Internet is in this view taken to be largely unproblematic and straightforward, because it is argued that the interaction is not hindered by so-called status effects, e.g., the alleged influence of factors like age or gender in face-to-face conversations. Online interaction is also typified as transient, because any tangible effects of the communication process are lacking: there are only messages that appear and disappear on a computer screen. Also with regard to interaction in online support groups, an image is put forward of a straightforward and easy exchange of experiences and advice among those who are 'like-minded'.

    Against the backdrop of this research, this study attempts to undertake a detailed exploration of participants' everyday talk in an online support group on depression. The conversational materials that are collected are the contributions written to this support group during a period of two years. A first gloss of the data has resulted in the identification of three broad areas of attention, which are explored in greater detail in chapters 4, 5 and 6 (see for a detailed overview of how these areas have been identified, Chapter 3).

    This study focuses on the way people describe themselves and their illness, and the kinds of interactional functions that are accomplished in doing so. In particular, this study aims to examine how participants:

    introduce themselves in this group by attributing particular identity categories to themselves and other people;interactionally manage to ask for support and provide 'support' to others;interactionally manage to request advice and offer 'advice' to others.

    Chapter 4 shows how participants present themselves when they visit this support group for the first time. Exploring these first fragments demonstrates how people do not start addressing their feelings and problems in relation to depression straightaway. Remarkably, participants begin their messages by providing extensive explanations of how their depression has come about.

    The chapter demonstrates how these explanations, which are most of the time presented as external from the speaker, enable participants to explain for their depression on the basis of objective and factual causes. In this way, participants resist the claim that their depression is an illness that merely resides in peoples' heads, on the basis of which it could be considered an imaginary disease. It also works to show their ability to take into account the reasons behind their depression, which enables them to stress their personal competence.

    Maintaining a sense of personal competence is also an important concern when participants present themselves vis-à-vis other participants in this group. By presenting themselves as being positively different form others (e.g., 'sensitive', or 'intellectually demanding') participants are able to address their depression, without suffering a lack of personal competence. Also when they address their depression while emphasising that they have continuously tried to improve their situation, participants are offered an opportunity to portray themselves as depressed but competent. In this way, participants are able to address their illness, while countering the impression that depression can easily be overcome if the person who is depressed is willing to do something about it.

    Chapter 5 describes how participants show a pervasive concern with accounting for their request for help. Contrary to what one might expect, talking about one's feelings and asking for help in a support group for peers is far from straightforward. This chapter demonstrates a number of discursive 'strategies' that participants employ and which illustrate their awareness as to whether their request for support is appropriate.

    It was shown how participants may describe their depression as a result of emotions, which operate autonomously from themselves. Participants may also describe their request for support as an expression of honest feelings, which is as such, hard to refute. Two other discursive resources that participants may draw on is to describe their problems in relation to the troubles other participants are having and attend to the consequences of posting their down feelings for the well-being of the group. This chapter thus shows how calls for help are not automatically considered 'appropriate' in this support group.

    Remarkably, this chapter simultaneously demonstrates that participants present talking about their feelings of depression as a moral obligation. As such, participants find another discursive 'strategy' to account for their call for help.

    Chapter 5 shows that what counts as a 'norm' is not clearly defined, nor can its meaning be determined at the outset. On the contrary, what counts as an 'appropriate' request for support is subject to continuous negotiation. The chapter also illustrates how participants refer to normative expectations that ostensibly contradict each other , and also, how they render different normative expectations applicable in different situations. Thus, we have seen how participants attend to their call for support as something to account for, while at the same time defining talking about your feelings of depression as a moral obligation.

    Chapter 6 draws attention to the ways in which participants interactionally manage to ask for advice and provide advice to others. It was shown how advice was given by defining it as a 'technical matter', which made available the suggestion that offering advice is an uncomplicated matter. At the same time however, we see that participants in this group collectively define 'advice' as a general category, as inappropriate. The fragments that are presented in this chapter show how participants reject advice, since it makes inferentially available that they are depending on others to offer advice to them. In those instances, participants resist this claim by presenting their contribution as merely 'venting' or 'unloading', which can happen relatively autonomously from others.

    This chapter also demonstrates how personal experience in this group does not automatically count as a relevant basis to provide advice. Interestingly, when we consider that we are dealing with a group for peers where we may expect sharing experiences to be an important aspect that constitutes such a group, what we see is that participants continuously emphasise their individually different circumstances as a discursive 'strategy' to reject advice.

    Chapter 7 provides an overview of the findings and formulates recommendations for practice and future research. An important conclusion this study draws is that next to providing and asking for support and advice, this support group offers participants the possibility to construct 'adequate' and 'appropriate' identities, by offering descriptions of who they are and how their depression has come about. The latter may serve as a better illustration of the possible value this group holds for its participants than the mere fact that this group provides an opportunity to exchange advice and support.

    Another important issue this study demonstrates is that presenting oneself as depressed but competent poses an important concern for participants, and it has shown the different ways in which participants orient to this concern. One of the ways in which participants portray themselves as competent is by offering extensive explanations of how their depression has come about. This offers insight in the possible themes of conversation that participants of these groups consider relevant.

    Future research may draw attention to whether the kinds of concerns that are demonstrated to be important for participants in this support group, e.g., constructing 'adequate' and 'appropriate' identities, might also prove to be important for participants who take part in other support groups.

    This chapter also formulates the recommendation that user-centred research offers an important contribution in exploring the possibilities of this new medium. The added value of this type of research can be further illustrated when we compare it with the kinds of studies that consider media characteristics such as anonymity to determine the type of communication and its outcomes, without considering the ways in which the medium is put to use by its users. The chapter thus states that paying attention to participants' actual uses of the medium is an important route for future research.

    Social capital and communication
    Kroon, S.M.A. van der - \ 2002
    Den Haag : LEI - ISBN 9789052427645 - 57
    netwerken voor persoonlijke ondersteuning - sociale structuur - menselijke relaties - communicatie - sociale relaties - sociale samenwerking - ketenmanagement - personal support networks - social structure - human relations - communication - social relations - social cooperation - supply chain management
    Friends and Foes in the Occupational Career : The Influence of Sweet and Sour Social Capital on the Labour Market
    Moerbeek, H.H.S. - \ 2001
    S.n. - ISBN 9789090147277 - 242
    carrièreontwikkeling - arbeidsmarkt - netwerken voor persoonlijke ondersteuning - menselijke relaties - sociale interactie - sociale relaties - sociale samenwerking - invloeden - career development - labour market - personal support networks - human relations - social interaction - social relations - social cooperation - influences
    Jongeren in Friesland
    Goede, M.P.M. de; Jansma, L.G. ; Ophem, J.A.C. van; Verhaar, C.H.A. - \ 1994
    Ljouwert : Fryske Akademy - 171
    sociale structuur - generaties - leeftijd - leeftijdsgroepen - menselijke relaties - sociale interactie - sociale systemen - adolescenten - kinderen - zuigelingen - nederland - sociale relaties - friesland - social structure - generations - age - age groups - human relations - social interaction - social systems - adolescents - children - infants - netherlands - social relations - friesland
    Agrarische vrouwen benoemen hun belangen.
    Hilhorst, T.J. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 82) - ISBN 9789067542746 - 60
    landbouw - boeren - menselijke relaties - nederland - sociale klassen - sociale interactie - sociale structuur - sociale systemen - positie van de vrouw - vrouwen - vrouwenemancipatie - gelijke behandeling van de vrouw - feminisme - sociale relaties - vrouw en samenleving - vrouwenbeweging - agriculture - farmers - human relations - netherlands - social classes - social interaction - social structure - social systems - woman's status - women - emancipation of women - female equality - feminism - social relations - woman and society - women's movement
    Starting all over again : making and remaking a living on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua
    Vernooy, R. - \ 1992
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long. - S.l. : Vernooy - 299
    menselijke relaties - sociale structuur - sociale interactie - sociale systemen - sociale ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - technologie - sociaal welzijn - sociaal beleid - sociale voorzieningen - welzijnsvoorzieningen - gemeenschappen - onderzoek - sociologie - regionale verkenningen - milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociaal milieu - natuurrampen - rampen - politiek - nicaragua - sociale relaties - sociale kwesties - sociale problemen - sociaal werk - menselijke invloed - sociografie - sociale situatie - nationale politiek - human relations - social structure - social interaction - social systems - social development - rural development - technology - social welfare - social policy - social services - welfare services - communities - research - sociology - regional surveys - environment - man - environmental impact - social environment - natural disasters - disasters - politics - nicaragua - social relations - social issues - social problems - social work - human impact - sociography - social situation - national politics

    In dit proefschrift heb ik uiteen gezet hoe de bevolking van de Nicaraguaanse Atlantische kust, met name de bewoners van de stad Bluefields en de zone die haar omringt, zich gedurende de afgelopen tien jaar genoodzaakt hebben gezien om steeds weer opnieuw hun werk en leven van de grond af aan op te bouwen. Met andere woorden, om steeds maar weer opnieuw te beginnen. Ik heb daarbij speciale aandacht besteed aan de manieren waarop hun pogingen om dit te bewerkstelligen beinvloed zijn door en tegelijkertijd invloed uitoefenen op specifieke culturele waarden, gender-verhoudingen en vormen van politieke organisatie en strijd. Sinds 1979 hebben de Atlantische kustbewoners een aantal extreem moeilijke problemen van ecologische, politiek-militaire en ekonomische aard moeten overkomen. Vandaag de dag, ondanks de mooie beloften van de in 1990 aangetreden UNO-regering en ondanks de beloofde financiële steun van de regering Bush, is de situatie er niet veel rooskleuriger op geworden. Integendeel, volgens de laatste berichten nemen problemen zoals werkeloosheid, armoede en delinquentie alleen maar toe.

    In deze studie hebben we gezien hoe vrouwen, mannen en kinderen verschillende keren hun land, woning, onderneming, vee en andere schaarse bezittingen hebben moeten achterlaten vanwege de contra-oorlog. Een triest dieptepunt van ellende en verdriet werd vervolgens veroorzaakt door de orkaan "Joan" die in oktober 1988 over Nicaragua raasde. "Joan" liet weinig heel van de stad Bluefields en haar achterland. De oorlog en de orkaan, en de negatieve gevolgen van de ekonomische crisis, maken het opnieuw beginnen voor de meeste mensen een uiterst hachelijke onderneming. Desondanks slagen velen erin om er het beste van te maken. Onze kontakten en vriendschap met de mensen opgebouwd gedurende meer dan drie jaar veldwerk, zo goed mogelijk beschreven in de drie delen van dit proefschrift, vormen daarvoor het beste bewijs.

    Deel 1 bevat een beschrijving en analyse van de gevarieerde wijzen waarop de rurale ondernemingen in de zone rondom Bluefields vorm geven aan het produktie en reproduktie proces, zowel voor als na de orkaan "Joan". In Deel 2 verplaatsen we onze aandacht naar de roerige wereld van de (kleinschalige) handel in Bluefields, de relaties tussen de stad en haar achterland en de bemoeienissen van de regionale regering met het commerciele gebeuren. Op basis van een actorgericht sociologisch perspektief, plaatsen we in beide delen onze bevindingen binnen het kader van aktuele theoretische discussies betreffende de sociale betekenis van beleid enerzijds en commoditiserings-processen anderzijds. Waar relevant refereren we hierbij ook aan studies verricht in Nicaragua. Een kritische bijdrage aan deze debatten is het onderwerp van hoofdstuk 1. In Deel 3 tenslotte,
    plaatsen we de veranderingen van de laatste tien jaar in een langer tijdskader. In dit deel richt onze aandacht zich op de geschiedenis van de Atlantische Kust en de Bluefields zone in het speciaal.

    Beleidsvorming en politieke strijd

    In hoofdstuk 2 hebben we gezien hoe de zeer kritieke situatie veroorzaakt door orkaan "Joan" de verschillende en vaak tegenovergestelde belangen en gezichtspunten onder de boerenbevolking van de Bluefields-zone enerzijds en tussen de boerenbevolking en de vertegenwoordigers van de overheid anderzijds, op een scherpe wijze aan het licht bracht. Tegelijkertijd vestigde het onze aandacht op de sleutelrol die de boerenvakbond UNAG speelt in de uitvoering van landbouw en ontwikkelings-beleid in de regio. De orkaan veroorzaakte niet alleen ekonomische problemen. De specifieke aanwending van schaarse middelen en het nemen van bepaalde besluiten als onderdeel van het rekonstruktie plan werden door de betrokken boerenbevolking aangevochten. Hoewel de emergentie-commissie haar best deed om de politieke inslag van het rekonstruktie-plan vis-a-vis de boerenbevoling van de Bluefields-zone te minimaliseren, maakten de boeren duidelijk dat het proces van "opnieuw beginnen" ook politiek van aard was.

    De karakteristieken van dit proces heb ik beschreven en geanalyseerd middels een serie ontmoetingen tussen de boerenbevolking en vertegenwoordigers van de regionale overheid en de UNAG. De boeren -in bijna alle gevallen merendeels mannen-, zetten tijdens deze ontmoetingen hun belangen en ideeën uiteen referend aan korte termijn benodigdheden, praktische aspekten van landbouwbeoefening en het ontbreken van (voldoende) overheidssteun. De vertegenwoordigers van de twee belangrijkste betrokken ministeries, MIDINRA en IRENA, argumenteerden daarentegen vooral op basis van lange termijn belangen, theoretischwetenschappelijke overwegingen en de noodzaak om te denken aan de belangen van de regio (de regionale regering en bevolking in het algemeen). De twee woordvoerders van de UNAG vielen op door hun meer pragmatische houding en hun pogingen om tot een door alle betrokken partijen gedeelde oplossing te komen. Ze deden daarbij hun best om de belangen en gezichtspunten van de boeren bevolking, de UNAG als vakbond en als bondgenoot van het FSLN, en hun persoonlijke belangen (vooral: politieke carrière), te kombineren.

    Vrouwen werden in deze ontmoetingen niet of nauwelijks gehoord noch serieus genomen wat, gegeven hun fundamentele bijdrage aan de landbouw in de zone, opmerkelijk en betreurenswaardig is. De uitvoering van het rekonstruktie plan droeg derhalve weinig bij aan een verandering van de sexe-rollen in beleidsvorming en uitvoeringsprocessen in de Atlantische Kust. Vrouwen worden in de realisering van deze taken nog altijd als ondergeschikt beschouwd, zowel in overheids-alsniet-overheids- organisaties. De enkele vrouwen die deze verhoudingen openlijk aanvechten en trachten te veranderen, zien zich gedwongen om keer op keer te onderhandelen met mannen (echtgenoot/compagnon en vertegenwoordigers van de overheid/UNAG/andere organisaties) om toegang te verkrijgen tot schaarse middelen en besluitvormings-organen.

    Als een tweede case-studie van beleidsvorming en politieke strijd op lokaal nivo hebben we gekeken naar de door de regionale UNO-regering gevormde en uiteindelijk opgeheven prijscontrole-commissie (hoofdstuk 4). Ook in dit geval hebben we gezien hoe een beleidskwestie, in dit geval de regulering van prijzen van basis-produkten, door de verschillende betrokken "partijen" aangegrepen werd om specifieke ekonomische en politieke belangen en gezichtspunten te verdedigen. De in naam autonome regionale UNO-regering kreëerde de commissie in een poging om haar geschaadde authoriteit te herstellen. Gedurende de zes maanden dat de commissie bestond, kwam van deze poging echter weinig terecht. Konflikten met de gemeente(raad) en met markt-handelaren en winkeliers, interne verdeeldheid, gebrek aan bestuurs-ervaring en organisatorische problemen, bepaalde vormen van vriendjes-politiek en uiterst inconsistente en zelfs tegenstrijdige ideeën omtrent de regulering van de handel en de markt, droegen hiertoe bij. In dit hoofdstuk heb ik beschreven hoe in de opeenvolgende etappes van het uitvoeringsproces de leden van commissie en regionale regering als het ware achter de feiten aanholden zonder ook maar een moment kontrolle op de situatie (en de prijzen) uit te oefenen. Ze zagen zich daarbij steeds opnieuw genoodzaakt om zich aan te passen aan de nieuwe ekonomische en politieke omstandigheden op lokaal en supra-lokaal nivo.

    In beide hoofdstukken (2 en 4) is duidelijk geworden dat in het geval van de Atlantische Kust de sociale betekenis van beleid op zeer specifieke wijze gevormd en her- gevormd wordt. Het is daarom van belang om beleidsprocessen en gevolgen in ruimte en tijd nauwgezet en gedurende een zo lang mogelijke periode te volgen en oog te hebben voor de politieke strijd betreffende belangen, interpretaties en regels van het (politieke) spel die er deel van vormen.

    Oog in oog met onzekerheid; en een nieuwe kijk op de regionale geschiedenis

    In de verschillende hoofdstukken hebben we gezien hoe de bevolking van de Atlantische Kust het hoofd tracht te bieden aan situaties van ekonomische en politieke onzekerheid. Dit fundamentele kenmerk van de Atlantische Kust samenleving komt het meest duidelijk naar voren in de veelzijdige en bewogen arbeids-carrière van Santiago Rivas (hoofdstuk 6). Het komen en gaan van (buitendlandse) groot-schalige kapitalistische (bosbouw) ondernemingen enerzijds en familie-, vriendschaps- en werk-kontakten in kombinatie met persoonlijke beweegredenen van Santiago anderzijds, zijn de belangrijkste faktoren die zijn carrière vorm hebben gegeven. Opvallend en van belang hierbij is dat bijna al deze kontakten een niet-gecommoditiseerd karakter hebben. Zoals in de uiteengezette case- studies van de hoofdstukken 3 en 5, vormen deze niet-gecommoditiseerde relaties één van de centrale manieren waarop de bewoners van de Atlantische Kust de kontinue onzekerheid het hoofd proberen te bieden.

    Tegelijkertijd heb ik Santiago Rivas' arbeids-carrière gepresenteerd als een bijdrage aan een nieuwe kijk op de geschiedenis van de Atlantische regio en de Bluefields zone in het bijzonder. Een dergelijke analyse richt niet alleen de aandacht op de invloed van ekonomische en politieke macro-faktoren, maar ook op de vaak zeer diverse individuele en kollektieve pogingen van mannen en vrouwen om hun leven in te richten en geschiedenis op lokaal nivo haar eigen gezicht te geven. In het geval van de Atlantische kust betekent dit dat we bestaande interpretaties van Nicaraguaanse en niet-Nicaraguaansesociale wetenschappers met een kritisch oog moeten bezien. In hoofdstuk 7 heb ik onder andere betoogd dat een dergelijke benadering een herziening van het enclave-concept inhoudt. Daarnaast heb ik de aandacht gevestigd op de rol van een aantal Atlantische kust familie-ondernemingen die in de periode na de tweede wereld oorlog op de voorgrond traden. Tenslotte heb ik duidelijk gemaakt dat de "moderniserings-fase" zoals in beweging gezet door de Somoza-familie in de jaren na 1950 alleen begrepen kan worden wanneer we kijken naar de wijze waarop "modernisering" op regionaal nivo geinterpreteerd en vorm gegeven werd. Dit zijn slechts enkele van de elementen van de regionale geschiedenis die om uitgebreidere studie vragen en die op het zelfde moment ook vereisen dat we gebruik maken van aangepaste onderzoeks- technieken en op zoek gaan naar nieuwe en tot dusver ongebruikte informatie bronnen. Santiago's Rivas arbeids-carrière is slechts een voorbeeld van het gebruik maken een dergelijke techniek.

    De veelzijdige, kleinschalige ekonomie

    De drie case-studies van kleinschalige, rurale ondernemingen gevestigd in de zone rondom de stad Bluefields (hoofdstuk 3) tonen zowel de diversiteit als de fragiliteit aan van lokale produktie en reproduktie processen. De geografische geisoleerdheid van de regio, het complexe eco-systeem van het door "Joan" zwaar beschadigde tropisch regenbos en de voortdurende ekonomische crisis in het land hebben geleid tot een eindeloze reeks van breek-punten in het leven van de bevolking. Gekonfronteerd met deze breek-punten proberen mannen, vrouwen en kinderen op de eerste plaats hun beschikbare bronnen zo optimaal mogelijk te gebruiken om familie consumptie behoeften te bevredigen en om een (minimaal) geld-inkomen te verzekeren. Zoals we hebben gezien, slagen niet alle bedrijven erin om deze doelstellingen met een redelijke mate van sukses te realiseren. Daarnaast treden er binnen de huishoud-eenheden/ondernemingen veelvuldig konflikten op betreffende belangen en ideeën.

    De "slash and bum" produktie in de zone rondom Bluefields is nauw verbonden met de regionale markt en politiek-ekonomische formatie, hoewel de eerder genoemde faktoren een konstante bedreiging vormen voor de instandhouding van relaties met deze markt en formatie. Voor het grote merendeel van de rurale ondernemingen geldt dat de relaties met de markt bovenal van onregelmatige aard zijn. Zoals de drie case-studies aantonen, verschilt verder de mate van kontrole over deze relaties aanzienlijk tussen de huishoudens/ondernemingen. Deze differentiatie hangt samen met het type onderneming, de eventuele vestiging in Bluefields van een deel van het huishouden, de afstand tussen bedrijf en de stad, en de netwerken van sociaal-ekonomische en politieke relaties die de leden van het huishouden hebben weten op te bouwen. Binnen de huishoudens treedt differentiatievooral op grond van leeftijdsverschillen (ouders versus kinderen) en gender-verhoudingen op. Over het algemeen zijn het de mannen die bepalen wat, wanneer en van/aan wie gekocht of verkocht wordt, hoewel steeds meer vrouwen deze ongelijke verhoudingen en rollen openlijk en aktief bekritiseren.

    In hoofdstuk 5 heb ik uiteengezet hoe ook de kleinschalige markt- en handelsondernemingen in Bluefields door een grote mate van diversiteit gekenmerkt worden. Middels een meer algemene analyse en een aantal cases heb ik kritiek uitgeoefend of de simplistische en dualistische modellen die deze veelkleurige en uiterst dynamische aktiviteiten opdelen in wettelijk/niet-wettelijke praktijken, informele/formele sektoren of kapitalistische/niet-kapitalistische produktiewijzen. Daarbij wordt al te vlug voorbij gegaan aan het heterogene karakter, de cruciale rol van niet-gecommododitiseerde relaties (zelfs binnen kapitaal-intensieve bedrijven gericht op accumulatie), de invloed van kulturele waarden, en van gender rollen die de wereld van de handel op lokaal nivo kleuren. Aandacht voor deze faktoren dient derhalve de basis van een analyse te vormen. We kunnen ze niet, zoals nog te vaak gebeurt, als simpele bijkomstigheden beschouwen.

    Hoe kan het ook anders : een onderzoek naar belangen van agrarische vrouwen
    Litjens, M. ; Klaver, L. - \ 1991
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Landbouwuniversiteit, Wetenschapswinkel 48) - 72
    landbouw - boeren - menselijke relaties - sociale klassen - sociale interactie - sociale structuur - sociale systemen - vrouwen - sociale relaties - agriculture - farmers - human relations - social classes - social interaction - social structure - social systems - women - social relations
    The research aims to contribute to the improvement of the promotion of women farmers interests in the Netherlands. This report indicates what these interests are and how to handle the subject in the future
    Groepsprocessen
    Meer, Q.L.Th. van der - \ 1985
    [Wageningen] : L.H. - 70
    onderwijs - gezinnen - groepen - menselijke relaties - individuen - psychologie - relaties - onderzoek - sociale klassen - sociale structuur - sociale relaties - education - families - groups - human relations - individuals - psychology - relationships - research - social classes - social structure - social relations
    Irrigation and social organization in West-Malaysia
    Hoogstraten, H.J. - \ 1985
    Wageningen : Agricultural University - ISBN 9789067540674 - 148
    irrigatie - natte rijst - menselijke relaties - sociale structuur - sociale interactie - sociale systemen - landbouw - economische sociologie - maleisië - sociale relaties - irrigation - flooded rice - human relations - social structure - social interaction - social systems - agriculture - economic sociology - malaysia - social relations
    Sociologen over communicatie. Het begrip en verschijnsel communicatie in de sociologie
    Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 1979
    Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool (Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool 79-11)
    menselijke relaties - sociale structuur - sociale interactie - sociale systemen - sociologie - cultuur - cultuursociologie - sociale relaties - human relations - social structure - social interaction - social systems - sociology - culture - cultural sociology - social relations
    Wederzijdse kenmerken van huwelijkspartners : een analyse op basis van de volkstelling 1971
    Hoog, C. de - \ 1979
    's-Gravenhage : Staatuitgeverij (Monografieen Volkstelling 1971 4) - 62
    demografie - menselijke relaties - huwelijk - nederland - sociale interactie - sociale structuur - sociale systemen - gebruiken - sociale relaties - demography - human relations - marriage - netherlands - social interaction - social structure - social systems - customs - social relations
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